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Encyclopedia > Cinema of India
South Asian cinema
Bengali cinema
  • Cinema of India
Assamese cinema
Bengali cinema
Bollywood
Karnataka cinema
Kollywood
Malayalam cinema
Marathi cinema
Punjwood
Tollywood

The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of ticket sales and number of films produced annually (877 feature films and 1177 short films were released in the year 2003 alone).[1] Movie tickets in India are among the cheapest in the world.[2] India accounts for 73% of movie admissions in the Asia-Pacific region, and earnings are currently estimated at US$8.9 billion.[citation needed] The industry is mainly supported by the vast cinema-going Indian public. The Central Board of Film Certification of India cites on its website that every three months an audience as large as India's billion-strong population visits cinema halls.[3] Indian films are popular in various parts of the world, especially in countries with significant Indian communities. South Asian cinema refers to the cinema of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives. ... This article addresses Persian and Pashto cinemas of Afghanistan. ... The Bangladeshi film industry is based in Dhaka As of 2004, it produced approximately 100 movies a year. ... Bengali cinema, or the Bengali film industry, is one of the earliest film industries in India. ... Assamese cinema was born in 1935 when Jyoti Prasad Agarwala released his movie Joymoti. ... Bengali cinema, or the Bengali film industry, is one of the earliest film industries in India. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal term popularly used for Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... The Cinema of Karnataka encompasses movies made in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Kollywood (Tamil : கோலிவூட் ) is a name often applied to the home of the Tamil-language film industry based in India, and to the industry as a whole. ... Malayalam cinema refers to films made in the Indian state of Kerala in the Malayalam language. ... Marathi cinema (मराठी चित्रपट) is one of the oldest in regional Indian films industry. ... Punjwood is the informal name given to the Punjabi-language film industry in India. ... Telugu Cinema refers to the Telugu film industry. ... The Himalayan country of Nepal does not have a very long film history, but the industry has its own place in the cultural heritage of Nepal. ... Lollywood (Urdu: لالیوڈ) refers to the Pakistani film industry, based in the city of Lahore. ... Sri Lankan cinema in recent years has featured films that tackle gritty subjects, including family relationships, abortion and the years of conflict between the military and Tamil Tiger rebels in the north. ... A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, United States). ...

Contents

The introduction of cinema in India

1896 - 1910

Hiralal Sen

Cinema was introduced to India on July 7, 1896. It began with the Lumiere Brothers' Cinematography, unveiling six silent short films at the Watson's Hotel in Bombay, namely Entry of Cinematographe, The Sea Bath, Arrival of a Train, A Demolition, Ladies & Soldiers on Wheels and Leaving the Factory[1]. The Times of India carried details of the "Living Photographic Pictures in Life-Size Reproductions by Mssrs. Lumiere Brotheres". In the same year, the Madras Photographic Store advertised "animated photographs". Daily screenings of films commenced in Bombay in 1897 by Clifton and Co.'s Meadows Street Photography Studio. Image File history File linksMetadata HiralalSen_FlowerofPersia_DancingScene. ... Image File history File linksMetadata HiralalSen_FlowerofPersia_DancingScene. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... The Lumière Brothers, Louis Jean (October 5, 1864–June 6, 1948) and Auguste Marie Louis Nicholas (October 19, 1862–April 10, 1954), were the creators of the cinematographic projector. ... Watsons Hotel, currently known as the Esplanade Mansions, is Indias oldest surviving cast iron building, located in the Kala Ghoda district of Mumbai (Bombay). ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... The Times of India (TOI) is a leading English-language broadsheet daily newspaper in India. ...


In 1898, Hiralal Sen started filming scenes of theatre productions at the Classic Theatre in Calcutta, inspired by Professor Stevenson (who had brought to India the country's first bioscope)'s, film presentation alongside the stage production of The Flower Of Persia; his debut was a contribution to this presentation. He continued making similar films to complement theatrical productions, which were shown as added attractions during intermission, in private screenings for high society households or taken to distant venues where the stage performers could not reach. Hiralal Sen Hiralal Sen (Bengali:হীরালাল সেন) (1866 – 1917) was a Bengali photographer generally considered one of Indias first filmmakers. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... A Bioscope show was a fairground attaction consisting of a travelling cinema. ...

Lord and Lady Curzon on Elephant, Coronation Durbar, Delhi, 1903
Lord and Lady Curzon on Elephant, Coronation Durbar, Delhi, 1903

Harischandra Sakharam Bhatavdekar (H. S. Bhatavdekar) alias Save Dada, who had attended the show, imported a cine-camera from London at a price of 21 guineas and filmed the first Indian documentary, a wrestling match in Hanging Gardens, Bombay, in 1897. In 1901, he recorded the return from Cambridge of 'Wrangler' Ragunath P. Paranjpe, who had secured a distinction in mathematics from Cambridge University, and M M Bhownuggree, considered the first Indian news film. [2][3]. He also filmed Lord Curzon (the Viceroy of India)'s Delhi Durbar that marked the enthronement of Edward VII in 1903. Image File history File links DelhiDurbar_LordCurzon. ... Image File history File links DelhiDurbar_LordCurzon. ... Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatavdekar (born March 15, 1868), also known as Save dada (IPA: ), was the first Indian to make a film (motion picture) in India. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Guinea coin of 1663 was the first British machine-struck gold coin. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... The Hanging Gardens, Mumbai, in Mumbai, India, also known as Ferozeshah Mehta Gardens, are terraced gardens perched at the top of Malabar Hill, on its western side, just opposite the Kamala Nehru Park. ... This article is about the city in England. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 - March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman and sometime Viceroy of India. ... Delhi Durbar means Court of Delhi which took place in 1911. ... Edward VII King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VII (Albert Edward) (9 November 1841–6 May 1910) was the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ...


The commercial potential of cinema was also tested during the time. F.B. Thanewala's "Grand Kinetoscope Newsreels" is one successful case. J.F. Madan was another highly successful film producer, who released hit films like Bilwamangal; also, he launched Madan Theatres Limited, which became India's largest film production-distribution-exhibition company and the biggest importer of American films after World War I. His films were marked by a high degree of technical sophistication, facilitated by his employment of experienced foreign directors like Eugenio De Liguoro and Camille Legrand. This expertise was complemented by grand sets and popular mythological storylines which ensured good returns. Billwamangal (Pronounced Billomongol) was a 1919 Bengali silent film by Jyotish Banerjee. ... The Madan Theatre Company has its roots in 1902 when Jamshedji Framji Madan, a wine merchant who came to Calcutta from Bombay as a child, started his entertainment business by acquiring two theatre companies in Calcutta and then beginning film exhibitions . ...


Cinema houses were set up in major Indian cities in this period, like one in Madras (in 1900 by Major Warrick), the Novelty Cinema in Bombay (where newsreels from the Boer Wars were shown) and the Elphinstone Picture Palace in Calcutta (set up by J.F. Madan in 1907). Apart from these, a number of film shows were arranged in tents; examples are: shows arranged by two Italians, Colorello and Cornaglia, in tents at the Azad Maidan (Bombay), J.F. Madan's tent cinema at the Calcutta Maidan. Another popular mode of broadcasting films was the touring cinema. In 1904, Manek Sethna started the Touring Cinema Co. in Bombay and a year later, Swamikannu Vincent, a draughtsman for the railways set up a touring cinema going around small towns and villages in the South of India. Pathe, the famous film production company set up an Indian Office in 1907. Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Azad Maidan is a trangular-shaped maidan (sports ground) in South Mumbai, India. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Kolkata — the skyline across the Maidan The Maidan (open field) is the largest urban park in Kolkata (earlier known as Calcutta) in India. ... Pathé or Pathé Frères is the name of various businesses founded and originally run by the Pathé Brothers of France. ...


1910-1920

The first feature film made in India was a narrative named Pundalik, by N.G. Chitre and R.G. Torney. The first full-length Indian feature film was Raja Harishchandra (3700 feet as compared to 1500 for Pundalik), made in 1913 and released commercially in May that year, by Dadasaheb Phalke. Phalke had attended a screening of The Life of Christ at P.B. Mehta's American-Indian Cinema and was inspired to make films himself. He was convinced of the possibility of establishing an indigenous film industry by focusing on Indian themes. In this regard, he said Like the life of Christ, we shall make pictures on Rama and Krishna. The film was about an honest king who for the sake of his principles sacrifices his kingdom and family before the gods, who are impressed with his honesty and restore him to his former glory. The film was a success, and Phalke went on to make more mythological films till the advent of talkies, and commercialization of Indian films lessened his popularity.[4]. Image File history File links Raja_Harishchandra. ... Image File history File links Raja_Harishchandra. ... Raja Harishchandra is a 1913 silent Indian film directed by Dadasaheb Phalke, based on a story from the Mahabharata. ... Shri. ... Raja Harishchandra is a 1913 silent Indian film directed by Dadasaheb Phalke, based on a story from the Mahabharata. ... Dhundiraj Govind Phalke, popularly known as Dadasaheb Phalke (Marathi: दादासाहेब फाळके) (April 30, 1870 - February 16, 1944) is known as the father of Indian cinema. ...


In 1916, Universal Pictures set up Hollywood's first Indian agency (see Hollywood meets India, below). The first South Indian feature was Rangaswamy Nataraja Mudaliar's Keechaka Vadham, released in 1918.[4] The following year, he made the film Draupadi Vastrapaharanam, featuring Anglo-Indian actress Marian Hill who played the role of Draupadi.[5] Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... ... Anglo-Indians are persons who have descended from a mix of British and Indian parentage. ...


1930s & 40s

  • Alam Ara (The Light of the World; 1931), directed by Ardeshir Irani, was the first Indian sound film. [5]
  • Chandidas(1932), directed by Debaki Bose under New Theatres banner, contained background Music for the first time in Indian Cinema. Music Director was Raichand Boral, also known as R.C. Boral.
  • Debaki Bose's Seeta(1934), made under the banner of East India Film Company, was the first Indian talkie shown in any International film festival. It was shown in Venice Film Festival, where it won an Honorary Diploma. [6] He was the 1st Indian director to receive any international award.[7]
  • Nitin Bose's 1935 film Bhagya Chakra, produced by New Theatres, was the first Indian film to use playback singing. The singers were K C Dey, Parul Ghosh and Suprabha Sarkar.[8] The movie was remade in Hindi with the title Dhoop Chhaon, which was the first Hindi film to use playback singing.[9]
  • Neecha Nagar (Lowly City) (1946), directed by Chetan Anand, bagged the Palme d'Or (Best Film) award, (then known as 'Grand Prix'), at the Cannes Film Festival in 1946, and became the first Indian film to get major recognition in international film festivals.[10][11][12].

Alam Ara (The Light of the World; 1931), directed by Ardeshir Irani, was the first Indian sound film. ... Ardeshir Irani was an early director, actor, and producer in Bollywood. ... Category: ... 1902 poster advertising Gaumonts sound films, depicting an optimistically vast auditorium A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. ... Raichand Boral is commonly known as R. C. Boral. ... A sound film (or talkie) is a motion picture with synchronized sound, as opposed to a silent movie. ... The Venice Film Festival ( ) is the oldest film festival in the world. ... A playback singer is a singer whose song is pre-recorded for use in films. ... Chetan Anand was an acclaimed film producer and director from India, and the elder brother of Dev Anand and Vijay Anand. ... Palme dOr The Palme dOr (Golden Palm) is the highest prize given to a film at the Cannes Film Festival. ... The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1939, is one of the worlds oldest, most influential and prestigious film festivals. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Regional film industries

A cinema hall in Delhi
A cinema hall in Delhi

India is a large country where many languages are spoken. According to the 1991 Census of India there are about 10,400 'raw mother tongues' in India. If closely related and mutually comprehensible dialects are grouped, the number can be reduced to 1576 ‘rationalised’ mother tongues, or with even more consolidation, 114 main languages. These 114 languages are the ones surveyed in the Indian census.[6] Indian film producers have made films in thirty of the largest languages. However, only the very largest language groups support major regional industries. These are: Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, Marathi, Kannada, Odiya, Malayalam. Official statistics categorise Indian films according to the languages in which they are distributed. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 293 KB) Summary Delhi. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 293 KB) Summary Delhi. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... -1... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Telugu redirects here. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ...


There is a great deal of mobility between the regional industries. Many workers in other regional industries, once their talent and popularity is established, move on to work in other film industries, nationally as well as internationally. For example, A. R. Rahman, one of the best known film music composers in Indian cinema, started his career in Tamil cinema in Chennai but has since worked in Bollywood, London, and New York. Similarly, films that succeed in one language are often remade or dubbed in others. Films like Padosan and Roja, for example, were re-made or dubbed from their original Bengali and Tamil versions respectively, into Hindi. Allah Rakha Rahman (Tamil: ஏ.ஆர்.ரஹ்மான்), born on January 6, 1966 as A. S. Dileep Kumar in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, is a critically acclaimed award-winning composer, record producer and musician. ... Kollywood is a name often applied to Tamil Cinema, based in Chennai (formerly Madras) in the state of Tamil Nadu in south India. ... Madras redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the state. ... Padosan (Hindi: पड़ोसन, Urdu: پڑوسن) is a 1968 Indian Hindi film. ... Roja (1992) is a Tamil film directed by Mani Ratnam. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... -1...


Bhojpuri (Purvanchal) film industry

Bhojpuri dialects, varieties, and creoles are also spoken in various parts of the world, including Brazil, Fiji, Guyana, Mauritius, South Africa, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, many colonizers had faced labor shortages and were unable to obtain slaves from Africa due to the abolition of slavery; thus, they imported many Indians as indentured servants to labor on plantations. Today, many Indians in the West Indies, Oceania, and South America still speak Bhojpuri as a native or second language.


The Bengali (Bangla) film industry

Main article: Bengali cinema

The history of cinema in Bengal dates back to the 1890s, when the first "bioscopes" were shown in theatres in Calcutta. Within a decade, the first seeds of the industry was sown by Hiralal Sen, considered a stalwart of Victorian era cinema when he set up the Royal Bioscope Company, producing scenes from the stage productions of a number of popular shows at the Star Theatre, Minerva Theatre, Classic Theatre. Following a long gap after Sen's works, Dhirendra Nath Ganguly (Known as D.G) established Indo British Film Co, the first Bengali owned production company, in 1918. However, the first Bengali Feature film, Billwamangal, was produced in 1919, under the banner of Madan Theatre. Bilat Ferat was the IBFC's first production in 1921. The Madan Theatres production of Jamai Shashthi was the first Bengali talkie.[13] A long history has been traversed since then, with stalwarts such as Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen and Ritwik Ghatak and others having earned international acclaim and securing their place in the movie history. Today, there are two Bengali film industries, one in Tollygunge area of Kolkata (Calcutta), India and the lesser known one in Dhaka, Bangladesh (called Dhallywood). Bengali cinema, or the Bengali film industry, is one of the earliest film industries in India. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 461 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1040 pixel, file size: 930 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Potrait of Satyajit Ray, painted by me in 1997. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 461 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1040 pixel, file size: 930 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Potrait of Satyajit Ray, painted by me in 1997. ... Satyajit Ray (Bengali:  ) (May 2, 1921–April 23, 1992) was a Bengali Indian filmmaker and polymath. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... {{Infobox_Film | name = Chokher Bali GUD ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... A Bioscope show was a fairground attaction consisting of a travelling cinema. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Hiralal Sen Hiralal Sen (Bengali:হীরালাল সেন) (1866 – 1917) was a Bengali photographer generally considered one of Indias first filmmakers. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... The Royal Bioscope Company was the first film production company in Bengal, and possibly the first in India, set up by Hiralal Sen, along with Matilal Sen, Deboki Lal Sen and Bholanath Gupta, in 1898. ... Star Theatre (also known as Demolishing and Building Up the Star Theatre) is a 1901 short documentary film in which time-lapse photography is used to show the dismantling and demolition of New York Citys Star Theatre over a period of about a month. ... Theatres named Minerva Theatre include: Minerva Theatre, Chichester Minerva Theatre, Kolkata Category: ... Dhirendra Nath Ganguly, better known as D.G, was a Bengali Film enterpreuner who set up the Indo British Film company in 1918. ... The Indo British Film Co was a film production company set up by Dhirendra Nath Ganguly in 1918. ... Billwamangal (Pronounced Billomongol) was a 1919 Bengali silent film by Jyotish Banerjee. ... The Madan Theatre Company has its roots in 1902 when Jamshedji Framji Madan, a wine merchant who came to Calcutta from Bombay as a child, started his entertainment business by acquiring two theatre companies in Calcutta and then beginning film exhibitions . ... Bilat Ferat is a 1921 Bengali silent film directed by N.C. Lahiri and produced by D.G. Ganguly. ... The Madan Theatre Company has its roots in 1902 when Jamshedji Framji Madan, a wine merchant who came to Calcutta from Bombay as a child, started his entertainment business by acquiring two theatre companies in Calcutta and then beginning film exhibitions . ... Satyajit Ray (Bengali:  ) (May 2, 1921–April 23, 1992) was a Bengali Indian filmmaker and polymath. ... Mrinal Sen (Bangla: মৄণাল সেন) is a Bengali Indian filmmaker. ... Ritwik Ghatak (Bengali: , Rittik Ghotok) (November 4, 1925 – February 6, 1976) was a Bengali Indian writer and filmmaker. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Tollygunge is a suburban locality of South Kolkata. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... The Bangladeshi film industry is based in Dhaka As of 2004, it produced approximately 100 movies a year. ...


Most famous film director of Bengali film industry is Satyajit Ray, who won an Oscar for lifetime achievement in cinema. This industry has always remained the hot favourites among the National Film Awards jury almost every year since its inception. Some of the better known personalities from this industry include Uttam Kumar, Soumitra Chatterjee, Proshenjit among actors, Suchitra Sen, Supriya Devi, Madhabi Mukherjee among actresses, Bimal Roy, Mrinal Sen, Ritwik Ghatak, Goutam Ghose, Buddhadeb Dasgupta, Aparna Sen and Rituparno Ghosh among directors, and Hemanta Mukherjee, Manna Dey and Sandhya Mukhopadhyay among playback singers. Satyajit Ray (Bengali:  ) (May 2, 1921–April 23, 1992) was a Bengali Indian filmmaker and polymath. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... The National Film Awards, commonly known as the National Awards, are arguably the most prestigious and prominent film awards in India. ... Uttam Kumar (Bangla: উত্তম কুমার ) (3 September 1926 - 24 July 1980) was a legendary Bengali actor. ... Soumitra Chatterjee (born 1935) is a Bengali actor from India, most famous for his frequent collaborations with the great Indian director Satyajit Ray. ... Prasenjit Chatterjee (Bengali: প্রসেনজিৎ চট্টপাধ্যায়), professionally known as Proshenjit, is a Bengali film actor. ... Suchitra Sen (April 6, 1929) or April 6, 1931[1] (Bangla: সুচিত্রা সেন) is a Bengali actress who has attained legendary status because of her performances in Bengali cinema. ... Supriya Devi (born 1933) is a Indian Bengali female actor, acting in Bengali cinemas for more than 50 years. ... Madhabi Mukherjee is a famous Bengali film actress who starred in two of Satyajit Rays films Charulata and Mahanagar. ... Bimal Roy (July 12, 1909—January 7, 1966), nicknamed Bimalda, was one of the most successful Hindi film directors of all time. ... Mrinal Sen (Bangla: মৄণাল সেন) is a Bengali Indian filmmaker. ... Ritwik Ghatak (Bengali: , Rittik Ghotok) (November 4, 1925 – February 6, 1976) was a Bengali Indian writer and filmmaker. ... Gautam Ghose (Credited as Goutam Ghose in International Media) is one of the acclaimed film directors of modern India, Gautam is a professional photojournalist. ... Aparna Sen (née Dasgupta) (Bengali: অপর্ণা সেন Ôporna Shen) (October 25, 1945 - ) is a Bengali Indian actress and film director and mother of actress Konkona Sen Sharma. ... Rituparno Ghosh (Bangla: ঋতুপর্ণ ঘোষ Ritupôrno Ghosh) is a young Bengali film director whose work has met with considerable critical acclaim in recent years, both in his native India and abroad. ... Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay (Bangla: হেমন্ত কুমার মুখোপাধ্যায় Hemonto Kumar Mukhopaddhae) also known as Hemanta Mukherjee (June 16, 1920 - September 26, 1989) was an Indian singer, composer and producer. ... Prabodh Chandra Dey (born May 1, 1919), better known by his nickname Manna Dey (Bengali: মান্না দে Manna De), is one of the greatest playback singer in Hindi films and other vernacular Indian films, especially Bengali. ... Sandhya Mukhopadhyay (Bengali: সন্ধ্যা মুখোপাধ্যায়) (1931-)is a famous Indian singer and musician, specialising in Bengali music. ...


List of Bengali films This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...


The Hindi film industry (Bollywood)

Main article: Bollywood

The Hindi film industry, based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), is the largest branch of Indian cinema. Hindi film Industry is often called 'Bollywood' (a blending of Hollywood and Bombay). The word "Bollywood" is sometimes applied to Indian cinema as a whole, especially outside South Asia and the South Asian diaspora, but this usage is incorrect. Bollywood has been recently greatly criticized for what critics see as a violation of Indian cultural values and its discussion of controversial topics. It is considered the most liberal out of the Indian language film industries. Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal term popularly used for Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal term popularly used for Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal term popularly used for Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ...


Regional movies are distinctively different from Bollywood (Hindi) movies, as the stories and themes of these movies portray the culture of the region from which they originate, while most Bollywood movies nowadays are greatly influenced by Western culture.


Although Bollywood does not distribute a lot of films, it can be considered to be largest in terms of viewers. It is believed that Bollywood movies are watched by majority of the Indian movie goers. It also has international recognition, especially in Western countries such as the UK, USA, Canada, and Australia where there is a large South Asian community. Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal term popularly used for Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


The Kannada film industry

Main article: Cinema of Karnataka

The Kannada film industry, based in Karnataka, is sometimes called 'Sandalwood', as Karnataka is known for its abundant sandalwood forests; however, this term does not seem to be in widespread use. The Gubbi Veeranna Company, or Veeranna's Sri Chennabasaveshwara Krupa Poshita Nataka Sangha[7] and other groups established themselves first as theatre troupes, and later went on to dominate kannada cinema into the 1960s. "They provided all its key directors like H.L.N . Simha, B. R. Panthulu and G. V. Iyer, its stars led by Rajkumar and Leelavathi and most of its early commercial hits: Bedara Kannappa (1953), for instance. The first big success in Kannada cinema adapted a Gubbi Company stage play written by G. V. Iyer to introduce the mythological adventure movie into that language."[14]. Kannada films has become very popular after the recent hits like Jogi (2005) & Mungaru Male (2007). The Cinema of Karnataka encompasses movies made in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... The Cinema of Karnataka encompasses movies made in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... Natakaratna Gubbi Veeranna was a doyen of early Kannada theatre and the founder of the famous Gubbi Veeranna theatre company. ... Dr. Rajkumar (Kannada:ಡಾ.ರಾಜಕುಮಾರ್, Real Name: Singanalluru Puttaswamayya Muthuraju Kannada:ಸಿಂಗನಲ್ಲೂರು ಪುಟ್ಟಸ್ವಾಮಯ್ಯ ಮುತ್ತುರಾಜು, April 24, 1929—April 12, 2006) was the most popular actor in Kannada film industry. ... Leelavathi refers to any of the following. ... The Cinema of Karnataka encompasses movies made in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Jogi (Kannada: ) is a Kannada-language movie, directed by Prem and released on August 22, 2005. ... Mungaru Male (Kannada: ಮುಂಗಾರು ಮಳೆ) (literal translation - Monsoon Rain, Southwest Monsoon in terms of Meteorology) is a Kannada language movie directed by Yograj Bhat featuring Ganesh, Sanjana Gandhi, and Anant Nag in leading roles. ...


The Kashmiri film industry

The Kashmiri film industry, which had been lying dormant since the release of Habba Khatoon in 1967, was revived after a 39-year hiatus with the release of Akh Daleel Loolech in 2006. However critics dispute this claim because this film was a small budget digital film which did not play in any film theatres except in a few private and film festival screening. Besides Akh Daleel Lolach uses a film style which is common on Kashmiri television and by those standards Kashmiri video makers were making films since early 1980s. Cinema halls had been shut down for a long time in Kashmir, by militants protesting against the New Delhi based Government. There are few cinema halls and a handful of directors have been returning to shoot in the region. Though the region was favoured by many producers as a scenic locale in pre-militancy era Bollywood movies as a romantic backdrop [8], the regional industry was not very strong, due to lack of finances and infrastructure.[9] Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


The Malayalam film industry

Main article: Malayalam cinema
Mohanlal, Suresh Gopi and Mammootty, the mainstays of the Malayalam film industry since early 1980s.
Mohanlal, Suresh Gopi and Mammootty, the mainstays of the Malayalam film industry since early 1980s.

The Malayalam film industry is based in Kerala. Malayalam movies are known for their artistic nature and they frequently figure in the national film awards. It is also currently known for being the most conservative out of the different film industries in India, despite the fact that it went through a liberal phase in the 80's. Notable personalities include the filmmakers Padmavibhushan Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Bharathan, G. Aravindan, Padmarajan and John Abraham, the scriptwriters M. T. Vasudevan Nair and Sreenivasan, the cinematographers Azhagappan, Santhosh Sivan and Shaji; the actors Padmashri Bharath Gopi, Tilakan, Nedumudi Venu, Padmabhushan Prem Nazeer, Satyan, Padmashri Mohanlal, Padmashri Mammootty, Padmashri Balachandra Menon, Padmashri Sukumari, Sheela, Urvasi; the playback singers, Padmabhushan K. J. Yesudas, Padmashri K. S. Chitra, P. Jayachandran, M.G. Sreekumar and Sujatha. Malayalam cinema refers to films made in the Indian state of Kerala in the Malayalam language. ... Mohanlal Viswanathan Nair (born May 21, 1960), is a two time (1992 and 2000) National award winning Indian actor, producer, who works in Malayalam films, a part of Indian Cinema. ... Suresh Gopi is an National Film Award-winning actor in Malayalam cinema who is famous for his roles in police dramas. ... Muhammad Kutty (born Pannaparambil Muhammad Kutty on September 7, 1953[1]) better known by his screen name Mammootty, is an award winning, popular, Malayalee Indian film actor. ... Malayalam cinema refers to films made in the Indian state of Kerala in the Malayalam language. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Adoor Gopalakrishnan standing next to his portrait Adoor Gopalakrishnan (b. ... Born in Kottayam, Kerala, G Aravindan was well known to the readers of Kerala through his cartoon serial Cheriya Manushyarum Valya Lokavum (Small Men and the Big World), which appeared in the Mathrubhoomi journal during the early 1960s, even before he started with films. ... P. Padmarajan (b. ... MT Vasudevan Nair M. T. Vasudevan Nair, popularly known as MT, is a Malayalam author, screenplay writer and film director. ... Sreenivasan Sreenivasan is an acclaimed actor, screenwriter and director in Malayalam cinema, known for his satirical black comedies. ... Padma Shri (variously spelled Padma Shree, Padma Sree and Padma Sri) is an award given by the Government of India (generally to Indian citizens). ... Bharath Gopi (also spelled Bharat Gopy) is a Malayalam language film actor and winner of Indias National Film Award for Best Actor (known as Bharath award at that time) for Kodiyettam. ... The Padma Bhushan is an Indian civilian decoration established on January 2, 1954 by the President of India. ... Padma Shri (variously spelled Padma Shree, Padma Sree and Padma Sri) is an award given by the Government of India (generally to Indian citizens). ... Mohanlal Viswanathan Nair (born May 21, 1960), is a two time (1992 and 2000) National award winning Indian actor, producer, who works in Malayalam films, a part of Indian Cinema. ... Padma Shri (variously spelled Padma Shree, Padma Sree and Padma Sri) is an award given by the Government of India (generally to Indian citizens). ... Muhammad Kutty (born Pannaparambil Muhammad Kutty on September 7, 1953[1]) better known by his screen name Mammootty, is an award winning, popular, Malayalee Indian film actor. ... Padma Shri (variously spelled Padma Shree, Padma Sree and Padma Sri) is an award given by the Government of India (generally to Indian citizens). ... Padma Shri (variously spelled Padma Shree, Padma Sree and Padma Sri) is an award given by the Government of India (generally to Indian citizens). ... The Padma Bhushan is an Indian civilian decoration established on January 2, 1954 by the President of India. ... Kattassery Joseph Yesudas (usually referred to as Dr. K. J. Yesudas or Jesudas, Malayalam: കാട്ടശ്ശേരി ജോസഫ് യേശുദാസ് , also nicknamed Gana Gandharvan) (born January 10, 1940) is one of the most eminent Indian classical musician and leading playback singer of film songs in many Indian languages. ... Padma Shri (variously spelled Padma Shree, Padma Sree and Padma Sri) is an award given by the Government of India (generally to Indian citizens). ... K. S. Chithra is a singer who has made her mark in the Indian playback industry. ...


The first 3D film which produced in India was in Malayalam. Its name was My Dear Kuttichatthan produced by Navodaya Productions. Padayottam, the first fully indigenous 70 mm film with all its work done in India was in Malayalam which was also produced by Navodaya. The first Cinemascope film in the world was produced in Malayalam. Chemmeen was the first film which earned a gold medal from the President from South India. Mohanlal's "Guru", directed by Rajiv Anchal, is the only Malayalam film proposed as the Indian entry by the Indian Film Industry council for Oscar Award so far. The art of motion-picture making within the Indian state of Kerala, in the Malayalam language, is collectively known as Malayalam cinema which is a significant component of the Cinema of India, both as a form of art and as mass medium. ... The art of motion-picture making within the Indian state of Kerala, in the Malayalam language, is collectively known as Malayalam cinema which is a significant component of the Cinema of India, both as a form of art and as mass medium. ... Mohanlal Viswanathan Nair (born May 21, 1960), is a two time (1992 and 2000) National award winning Indian actor, producer, who works in Malayalam films, a part of Indian Cinema. ...


The Marathi Film Industry

Main article: Marathi cinema

Marathi Film Industry, one of the oldest film industries in India, originated in Nasik, and developed in Kolhapur and Pune. In recent years, it has moved mostly to Mumbai (Bombay), Maharashtra. Marathi cinema (मराठी चित्रपट) is one of the oldest in regional Indian films industry. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ...


Dadasaheb Phalke, recognized as the father of Indian cinema, was a pioneer of movies in Marathi. He produced the first Indian silent movie, and later some Marathi talkies. In his honor, a much coveted "Dadasaheb Phalke Award" is given annually for exceptional contribution to Indian cinema. Dhundiraj Govind Phalke, popularly known as Dadasaheb Phalke (Marathi: दादासाहेब फाळके) (April 30, 1870 - February 16, 1944) is known as the father of Indian cinema. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ...


1940s and '50s formed the classical era of Marathi cinema, mainly because of some hallmark productions by the now extinct "Prabhat Film Company" in Kolhapur. As an offshoot of Prabhat, V. Shantaram founded "Rajkamal Studios" in Pune, and produced some excellent Marathi movies in the late 1950s and early '60s. V. Shantaram, renowned Indian filmmaker, was born Rajaram Vankudre, in the then princely state of Kolhapur, on November 18, 1901. ...


Because of the rise of Hindi movies in Bollywood, Marathi film industry underwent a decline in the 1980s and '90s. But recently it has been reviving with some quality movies like "Shwaas" (which earned an official Indian entry for an Oscar award in 2004), "Pak Pak Pakaak" (which won Swarovski Trophy in AFFF, Singapore, in 2005),"Sane Guruji", "Uttarayan", "Aga Bai, Arecchaa", "Shubhamangal Saavdhaan", "Dombivali Fast", "Devrai", "Anaahat", "Kadachit", "Valu", "Tingya" and "Saatchya Aaat Gharaat".


Bhalji Pendharkar, Baburao Painter, V.Shantaram, Dada Kondke, Raja Paranjpe, Mahesh Kothare, Smita Talwalkar, Sumitra Bhave, Sunil Sukthankar, Sandeep Kashyap, Gajendra Ahire, Jabbar Patel, Amol Palekar, Chandrakant Kulkarni, Bipin Nadkarni, Sandeep Swant, Mangesh Hadawale and Kedar Shinde are some of the notable directors and producers in Marathi cinema in the past few decades. Krishna Kondke,(August 8th,1932 - March 14th, 1998) popularly known as Dada Kondke was a Marathi actor and film producer. ...


Modern Marathi actors include Dilip Prabhavalkar, Bharat Jadhav, Sonali Kulkarni, Sadashiv Amrapurkar, Ashwini Bhave, Amruta Subhash, Atul Kulkarni and Sanjay Narvekar. Dilip Prabhavalkar is an Indian Marathi-speaking stage, film and television actor. ...


While some old Marathi movie songs remain popular, new composers like Ajay-Atul have been producing some very popular songs. Some of the old songs have also been remixed.


The Tamil film industry (Kollywood)

Main article: Tamil Cinema
Sivaji: The Boss
Sivaji: The Boss

The Tamil film industry (Kollywood) is based in the Kodambakkam area of Chennai. Tamil films have enjoyed consistent popularity among Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia and Mauritius. Tamil films also receive fame in countries which contain Tamil immigrant communities such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and other European countries. Kollywood is a name often applied to Tamil Cinema, based in Chennai (formerly Madras) in the state of Tamil Nadu in south India. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kollywood (Tamil : கோலிவூட் ) is a name often applied to the home of the Tamil-language film industry based in India, and to the industry as a whole. ... Kollywood (Tamil : கோலிவூட் ) is a name often applied to the home of the Tamil-language film industry based in India, and to the industry as a whole. ... , Kodambakkam is a neighbourhood in Chennai, India, and the term Kollywood is derived from the name of this area. ... Madras redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Several technicians have crossed industries to encapture National fame such as Bharathiraja, Selvaraghavan, A. R. Rahman, Shankar, Ravi K. Chandran and Jeeva. However unlike the technical counterparts, artistes from South India tend to fail to break into Bollywood, with only a handful breaking through, them being: Kamal Haasan, Sridevi, Vijay and Asin Thottumkal. Ironically, several Bollywood actresses made their débuts in Kollywood, with Aishwarya Rai appearing in Iruvar, Priyanka Chopra in Thamizhan, Lara Dutta in Arasatchi and Sushmita Sen in Ratchagan. Furthermore, several actresses have done Tamil films while struggling to breakthrough in Bollywood, such as Kajol and her sister, Tanisha as well as Amisha Patel. Bharathiraja (born 17 July 1941 in Alli Nagaram, Tamil Nadu), is a South Indian filmmaker. ... Selvaraghavan is one of the Indias emerging prolific film director whose roots are from the southern part of India. ... Allah Rakha Rahman (Tamil: ஏ.ஆர்.ரஹ்மான்), born on January 6, 1966 as A. S. Dileep Kumar in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, is a critically acclaimed award-winning composer, record producer and musician. ... S. Shankar (Dr.S.Shankar) (born August 17, 1963) is a popular film director, film producer and screenwriter from Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu, India. ... Ravi K. Chandran (born Maduranathakam, India) is a cinematographer, educated at the A.M. Jain College in India. ... Template:Infobox Director Jeeva (born September 21, 1963) - died June 25, 2007) was a popular film cinematographer and director in Kollywood, the Chennai based Tamil movie industry. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Kamal Haasan (born November 7, 1954 in Paramakudi, India) is an Indian film actor and director, considered among the leading method actors of Indian cinema. ... Sridevi (Tamil: ஸ்ரீதேவி) also known as Sreedevi Ayyapan, was born on August 13, 1963 in Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu. ... Vijay is a common name for men in India. ... Asin Thottumkal (Tamil: அசின் தோட்டுங்கல்) born October 26, 1985[1]) is an award-winning Indian film actress who appears in various regional Indian movies. ... Aishwarya Rai (Kannada: ಐಶ್ವರ್ಯಾ ರೈ, IPA: ; born November 1, 1973) is an Indian actress. ... Iruvar (The Twosome) (1997) is a Tamil film directed by Mani Ratnam. ... Priyanka Chopra (Hindi: प्रियंका चोपड़ा; born July 18, 1982)[1] is an Indian film actress and former Miss World who works in Bollywood films. ... Thamizhan (2001) is a Tamil film directed by Ravichandran. ... Lara Dutta (born April 16, 1978) is an Indian actress, UNFPA Goodwill Ambassador and the 2000 Miss Universe. ... Sushmita Sen (Shushmita Shen, Hindi, सुष्मिता सेन, SuÅ›mitā Sen) was born on November 19, 1975 in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. ... Ratchagan is a record breaking, trendsetting blockbuster Tamil movie starring Nagarjuna and Sushmita Sen in the lead role and also stars Raghuvaran, SP Balasubramanyam, Vadivelu and Girish Karnad. ... Kajol Devgan, née Mukherjee (Bengali: কাজল দেবগন Kajol Debgôn, Hindi: काजोल देवगन), born August 5, 1975 in Mumbai, India, popularly known as Kajol, is an award-winning popular Bollywood actress. ... Tanisha Mukherjee (Bengali: ) (born 1 January 2008 in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India), known as Tanisha, is a Bollywood actress. ... Amisha Patel (born June 9, 1977, also known as Ameesha Patel) is a Bollywood actress and model from Maharashtra, India. ...


In the Tamil film industry, directors such as Mahendran, Shankar, Bala, Bharathiraja, Balu Mahendra, and Mani Ratnam have achieved box-office success whilst producing films that have balanced art and popular elements. The Tamil film industry accounts for approximately 1% of the gross domestic product of the state of Tamil Nadu. Costs of production have grown exponentially from just under Rs.4 million in 1980 to over Rs.110 million by 2005 for a typical star-studded big-budget film. Similarly, costs of processing per print have risen from just under Rs.2,500 in 1980 to nearly Rs.70,000 by 2005. There has been a growing presence of English in dialogue and songs as well. It is not uncommon to see movies that feature dialogue studded with English words and phrases, or even whole sentences. Some movies are also simultaneously released in two or three regional languages (either using subtitles or several soundtracks). Contemporary Tamil movies often feature Madras Bashai, a colloquial version of Tamil spoken in Madras. A select few, Iruvar and older films based on epics, for instance, employ literary Tamil extensively in dialogues when the situation calls for it. Many Tamil films are also dubbed into Telugu and Hindi and released in their respective states. S. Shankar (Dr.S.Shankar) (born August 17, 1963) is a popular film director, film producer and screenwriter from Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu, India. ... Bala has several meanings: Several places: Bala - Sikh Jatt Gotra or clan. ... Bharathiraja (born 17 July 1941 in Alli Nagaram, Tamil Nadu), is a South Indian filmmaker. ... Balu Mahendra is a film director from South India. ... Mani Ratnam (Tamil: ) (born June 2, 1956) is a critically acclaimed Tamil Indian film director, writer and producer. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Madras bashai (Tamil: மெட்ராஸ் பாஷை), is a type of mixed language spoken in the city of Chennai, India (previously known as Madras). ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Iruvar (The Twosome) (1997) is a Tamil film directed by Mani Ratnam. ... Telugu redirects here. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ...


The Telugu film industry (Tollywood)

A still from Bhakta Prahlad (1931)
A still from Bhakta Prahlad (1931)
Main article: Telugu Cinema

The Telugu film industry is based in Andhra Pradesh's capital city, Hyderabad. The state also has what is claimed to be the largest film studio in the world, Ramoji Film City. The first studio for Telugu talkies was Vel Pictures, constructed in 1934 by P.V. Das, located at Madras. The first film made here was Sita Kalyanam. The first film made by a Telugu person, R.S. Prakash, was Bhishma Pratigna (The Pledge of Bhishma, 1922). Another important Telugu personality of this era was Y.V. Rao (1903-1973), an actor and director, whose silent film (directing) credits include Pandava Nirvana (1930), Pandava Agnathavaas (1930) and Hari Maya (1932). The first big movies in Telugu were made by the Surabhi Theatres troupes.[14]. They produced the first Telugu talkie, Bhakta Prahlada, directed by Hanumappa Munioappa Reddy in 1931. In the first few years of Telugu talkies, films were all mythological stories, taken from the stage. In 1936, Krittiventi Nageswara Rao made the first Telugu film not based on mythology, Premavijayam. The film influenced other Telugu film-makers into making such films. Some popular themes of these films (often called 'social' films) were the feudal zamindari system (Raitu Bidda, 1939), untouchability (Maala pilla, 1938), and widow remarriage[10]. Since then, there have been both social (contemporary) and mythological or folk stories in Telugu cinema. Image File history File links Bhakta_Prahlada. ... Image File history File links Bhakta_Prahlada. ... Telugu Cinema refers to the Telugu film industry. ... Telugu redirects here. ... Andhra redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hyderabad. ... Bheeshma makes his vow. ... Zamindar, also known as Zemindar, Zamindari, or the Zamindari System (Persian: زمیندار) were employed by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ...


Successful Telugu films are also remade and dubbed in other languages like Tamil, Malayalam and Kannada and are released in respective states.


Art cinema in India

Main article: Parallel Cinema

In addition to commercial cinema, there is also Indian cinema that aspires to seriousness or art. This is known to film critics as "New Indian Cinema" or sometimes "the Indian New Wave", but most people in India simply call such films "art films". These films deal with a wide range of subjects but many are in general explorations of complex human circumstances and relationships within an Indian setting. Parallel Cinema also known as New Wave Cinema is that class of Indian movies which are based on real life situations. ...


From the 1960s through the 1980s, art films were subsidised by Indian governments: aspiring directors could get federal or state government grants to produce non-commercial films on Indian themes. Many of these directors were graduates of the government-supported Film and Television Institute of India. Their films were showcased at government film festivals and on the government-run TV station, Doordarshan. These films also had limited runs in art house theatres in India and overseas. Since the 1980s, Indian art cinema has to a great extent lost its government patronage. Today, it must be made as independent films on a shoestring budget by aspiring auteurs, much as in today's Western film industry. Film and Television Institute of India (FTII), is an autonomous Institute under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. ... Doordarshan (sometimes DoorDarshan; ) is a Public broadcast Terrestrial television channel run by Prasar Bharati, a board nominated by the Government of India. ... An independent film (or indie film) is a film produced without the support of a major movie studio or a big budget. ...


The art directors of this period owed more to foreign influences, such as Italian neorealism or the French New Wave, than they did to the genre conventions of commercial Indian cinema. The best known New Cinema directors were Bengali: Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen, Ritwik Ghatak, and Bimal Roy. Some well-known films of this movement include the Apu Trilogy by Ray , the Calcutta Trilogy of Sen, Meghe Dhaka Tara by Ghatak (all in Bengali) and Do Bigha Zameen by Roy (Hindi). Of these film-makers, Satyajit Ray was arguably the most well-known: his films obtained considerable international recognition during the mid-twentieth century. He was awarded an Oscar for life time achievement in 1992. His prestige, however, did not translate into large-scale commercial success[citation needed]. His films played primarily to art-house audiences (students and intelligentsia) in the larger Indian cities, or to film buffs on the international art-house circuit in India and abroad. Like him, Mrinal Sen who has primarily been a political film director and has received international acclaim, is not well known for commercial success, with the lone exception being Bhuvan Shome, which ushered the New Indian Cinema. Italian neorealism is a film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and working class, filmed in long takes on location, frequently using nonprofessional actors for secondary and sometimes primary roles. ... The New Wave (French: La Nouvelle Vague) was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced (in part) by Italian Neorealism. ... Satyajit Ray (Bengali:  ) (May 2, 1921–April 23, 1992) was a Bengali Indian filmmaker and polymath. ... Mrinal Sen (Bangla: মৄণাল সেন) is a Bengali Indian filmmaker. ... Ritwik Ghatak (Bengali: , Rittik Ghotok) (November 4, 1925 – February 6, 1976) was a Bengali Indian writer and filmmaker. ... Bimal Roy (July 12, 1909—January 7, 1966), nicknamed Bimalda, was one of the most successful Hindi film directors of all time. ... The Apu trilogy is a series of three films directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Meghe Dhaka Tara (The Cloud-Covered Star) is a 1960 film by director Ritwik Ghatak. ... Do Bigha Zameen is a classic Hindi movie, directed by Bengali film directorBimal Roy the movie has a heavy socialist theme as did most movies of that time. ... Bhuvan Shome is a 1969 Hindi film directed by Mrinal Sen. ...


Noteworthy Indian Art Cinema women filmmakers from the diaspora include Shashwati Talukdar, Nandini Sikand, Sonali Gulati, Prema Karanth, Nisha Ganatra, Eisha Marjara, Pratibha Parmar, Liggy Pullappally, and Shanti Thakur. Sonali Gulati is a filmmaker and an Assistant Professor in Virginia Commonwealth University’s Department of Photography & Film. ... For other uses, see Karanth (disambiguation). ...


Art cinema was also well-supported in the South Indian state of Kerala. Some outstanding Malayalam movie makers are Adoor Gopalakrishnan, G. Aravindan, T. V. Chandran, Shaji N. Karun, and M. T. Vasudevan Nair. Some of their films include National Film Award-winning Elippathayam, Piravi (which won the Camera d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival), Vaanaprastham and Nizhalkkuthu (a FIPRESCI-Prize winner). , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Adoor Gopalakrishnan standing next to his portrait Adoor Gopalakrishnan (b. ... Born in Kottayam, Kerala, G Aravindan was well known to the readers of Kerala through his cartoon serial Cheriya Manushyarum Valya Lokavum (Small Men and the Big World), which appeared in the Mathrubhoomi journal during the early 1960s, even before he started with films. ... T V Chandran is one of the well known film directors in Kerala, India. ... A graduate in cinematography from the FTII, Pune, Shaji N. Karun started working with notable directors like G Aravindan, K G George and M.T.Vasudevan Nair as a cinematographer. ... MT Vasudevan Nair M. T. Vasudevan Nair, popularly known as MT, is a Malayalam author, screenplay writer and film director. ... The National Film Awards, commonly known as the National Awards, are arguably the most prestigious and prominent film awards in India. ... Elippathayam (The Rat Trap) (1981) is a feature film written and directed by Adoor Gopalakrishnan. ... Piravi (The Birth) (1988) is an award-winning feature film directed by Shaji N. Karun. ... The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1939, is one of the worlds oldest, most influential and prestigious film festivals. ... Vaanaprastham (The Last Dance) (1999) is an Indo-French-German produced feature film, directed by Shaji N. Karun. ... The plot is set in the 1940s in a Southern village of Kerala. ... FIPRESCI (short for Fédération Internationale de la Presse Cinématographique), in English known as International Federation of Film Critics, comprised of the national organizations of professional film critics and film journalists from around the world for the promotion and development of film culture and for the safeguarding of...


Starting in the 1970s, Kannada film makers from Karnataka state produced a string of serious, low-budget films. Girish Kasaravalli is one of the few directors from that period who continues to make non-commercial films. He is the only Indian director other than Satyajit Ray and Buddhadev Dasgupta to win the Golden Lotus Awards four times. The Cinema of Karnataka encompasses movies made in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... Eminent Kannada film-maker Girish Kasaravalli started his career with Ghatashraddha in 1977. ... Satyajit Ray (Bengali:  ) (May 2, 1921–April 23, 1992) was a Bengali Indian filmmaker and polymath. ... Buddhadev Dasgupta is a poet and prominent contemporary Indian filmmaker. ...


From the 1970s onwards Hindi cinema produced a wave of art films. The foremost among the directors who produced such films is Shyam Benegal. Others in this genre include Govind Nihalani (Ardh Satya), Mani Kaul (Uski Roti), Kumar Shahani (Maya Darpan), H. K. Verma (Kadamabari),M.S. Sathyu (Garam Hava). Shyam Benegal ( श्याम बेनेगल )(born 14 December, 1934 in Alwal, Secunderabad, then a British Cantonment) is a prolific Indian director. ...


Many cinematographers, technicians and actors began in art cinema and moved to commercial cinema. The actor Naseeruddin Shah is one notable example; he has never achieved matinee idol status, but has turned out a solid body of work as a supporting actor and a star in independent films such as Mira Nair's Monsoon Wedding. H.K.Verma, a cinematographer turned to direction with his maiden venture Kadambari starring Shabana Azmi. Naseeruddin Shah in the role of Mirza Ghalib Naseeruddin Shah aka Nasiruddin Shah (b. ... Mira Nair (born October 15, 1957 at Rourkela, Orissa) is an India-born, New York-based film director. ... Monsoon Wedding (Hindi: पाणिग्रहण मॉनसून) is an award-winning 2001 film directed by Mira Nair and written by Sabrina Dhawan, which depicts various romantic entanglements during a traditional Punjabi wedding in Delhi. ...


Marathi art cinema has been continuously churning out gems even when Marathi mainstream cinema had no suffered a setback. Dr.Jabbar Patel, Bhave-Sukthankar, Amol Palekar are some of the notable names while acclaimed movie titles are Umbartha, Dhyaasparva, Uttarayan, Vaastupurush etc.


Globalization of Indian cinema

Cinema admissions in 1995

Contact between Indian and Western cinemas was established in the early days of film in India. Dadasaheb Phalke was moved to make Raja Harishchandra after watching the film Life of Christ at P.B. Mehta's American-Indian Cinema. Similarly, some other early film directors were inspired by Western movies. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of cinema admissions in 1995 as a percentage of the top market (India - 3,380,000,000). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of cinema admissions in 1995 as a percentage of the top market (India - 3,380,000,000). ...


In India at least 80 percent of films shown in the late 1920s were American, even though twenty-one studios manufactured local films, eight or nine of them in regular production. American serials such as Perils of Pauline and Exploits of Elaine, and the spectacular sets of films like Quo Vadis and Cabira were popular and inspiring during the World War I era. Universal Pictures set up an Indian agency in 1916, which went on to dominate the Indian distribution system[15]. J. F. Madan's Elphinstone Bioscope Company at first focused on distribution of foreign films and organization of their regular screenings Additionally, J.P. Madan, the prolific producer, employed Western directors for many of his films.


A number of Indian films have been accused of plagiarising from Hollywood Movies. Due to the long time taken by courts to decide a case, few cases relating to copyright violations are brought up. One of the reasons Bollywood hesitates in purchasing rights is the assumption that these would run into millions of dollars, though according to some like screenwriter-director Anurag Kashyap, this is incorrect; He argues that while the films may cost millions of dollars in the west, the rights would be less expensive for Hindi remakes because the price would be based on the audience's buying power, the economy and the number of bidders.[11]In 2003, best-selling fiction writer Barbara Taylor Bradford brought a copyright infringement suit against Sahara Television for allegedly making a television series (Karishma: A miracle of destiny) out of her book, A Woman of Substance, without acquiring the legal rights to do so. The Indian film industry centered in Mumbai, known as Bollywood, is an extremely prolific industry. ...


Today, Indian cinema is becoming increasingly westernised. This trend is most strongly apparent in Bollywood. Newer Bollywood movies sometimes include Western actors (such as Rachel Shelley in Lagaan), try to meet Western production standards, conduct filming overseas, adopt some English in their scripts or incorporate some elements of Western-style plots. Bollywood also produces box-office hit like the films Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge and Kal Ho Naa Ho, both of which deal with the overseas Indian's experience. Rachel Shelley is a Swindon-born English actress. ... Lagaan (Hindi: लगान; Urdu: لگان; English: land tax), also known as Lagaan: Once upon a time in India, is an award-winning film made in India, released on June 1, 2001. ... Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge, also known as DDLJ (English: The Brave Heart Will Take The Bride) is an Indian film which premiered on October 19, 1995 and was released nationwide on October 20, 1995. ... Kal Ho Naa Ho (Devanagari कल हो ना हो, Nastaliq: کل ہو نہ ہو, English: Tomorrow May or May Not Be) is a 2003 Bollywood film set in New York City. ...


However, the meeting between west and India is a two-way process: Western audiences mostly of Indian origin are becoming more interested in India[citation needed], as evidenced by the mild success of Lagaan, Bride and Prejudice and Sivaji. As Western audiences for Indian cinema grow, Western producers are funding maverick Indian filmmakers like Gurinder Chadha (Bride and Prejudice) and Mira Nair (Monsoon Wedding). Both Chadha and Nair are of Indian origin but do not live in India, and who made their names in Western independent films; they have now been funded to create films that "interpret" the Indian cinematic tradition for Westerners. A similar filmmaker is Deepa Mehta of Canada, whose films include the trilogy Fire, Earth and Water. Lagaan (Hindi: लगान; Urdu: لگان; English: land tax), also known as Lagaan: Once upon a time in India, is an award-winning film made in India, released on June 1, 2001. ... This article is about the 2004 Bollywood style film. ... The name Sivaji can be referred to: Sivaji Ganesan, a yesteryear legendary Tamil film actor Sivaji: The Boss, a Tamil film directed by S. Shankar starring Rajinikanth yet to be released Sivaji: The Boss (soundtrack), the soundtrack album of the film Sivaji: The Boss Sivaji can also be an alternate... Image:Gurinder Chadha. ... Mira Nair (born October 15, 1957 at Rourkela, Orissa) is an India-born, New York-based film director. ... Monsoon Wedding (Hindi: पाणिग्रहण मॉनसून) is an award-winning 2001 film directed by Mira Nair and written by Sabrina Dhawan, which depicts various romantic entanglements during a traditional Punjabi wedding in Delhi. ... Deepa Mehta ( दीपा मेहता ),(born 1950 in Amritsar Punjab, India) is a controversial Indian-Canadian film director and screenwriter who is based in Toronto and Delhi. ...


Indian cinema is also influencing the English and American musical; Baz Luhrmann's Moulin Rouge! (2001) incorporates a Bollywood-style dance sequence; The Guru and The 40-Year-Old Virgin feature Indian-style song-and-dance sequences; A. R. Rahman, a film composer, was recruited for Andrew Lloyd Webber's Bombay Dreams; and a musical version of Hum Aapke Hain Koun has played in London's West End. Baz Luhrmann (born Mark Anthony Luhrmann on September 17, 1962) is an Oscar and Golden Globe-nominated Australian film director, screenwriter, and producer. ... Moulin Rouge is a 2001 Academy Award-winning jukebox musical film directed by Baz Luhrmann. ... The Guru is a character from the video game Sly 3: Honor Among Thieves. ... The 40-Year-Old Virgin is a 2005 comedy film, written by Judd Apatow and co-written by Steve Carell, though it featured a great deal of improvised dialogue. ... Allah Rakha Rahman (Tamil: ஏ.ஆர்.ரஹ்மான்), born on January 6, 1966 as A. S. Dileep Kumar in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, is a critically acclaimed award-winning composer, record producer and musician. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber (born 22 March 1948) is a highly successful English composer of musical theatre, and also the elder brother of cellist Julian Lloyd Webber. ... Bombay Dreams on Broadway, New York City Bombay Dreams is a Bollywood-themed musical. ... Hum Aapke Hain Koun. ...


Awards

Since 1973, the Indian government has sponsored the National Film Awards (which first began in 1954), awarded by the government run Directorate of Film Festivals (DFF). The DFF screens films from all the Indian movie industries and independent/art films. These awards are handed out at an annual ceremony presided over by the President of India. The National Film Awards, commonly known as the National Awards, are arguably the most prestigious and prominent film awards in India. ... The Directorate of Film Festivals in India is a government organisation set up to organise National and International film festivals in India. ... The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ...


The Filmfare Awards ceremony is one of the oldest and most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India [12] and is sometimes referred to as the "Bollywood Oscars." [13] The Filmfare awards were first introduced in 1954, the same year as the National Film Awards and gave awards to the best films of 1953. The ceremony was referred to as the Clare Awards after the magazine's editor. A dual voting system was developed in 1956. [14] Under this system, "in contrast to the National Film Awards, which are decided by a panel appointed by Indian Government, the Filmfare Awards are voted for by both the public and a committee of experts." [15] The Filmfare Awards ceremony is one of the oldest and most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India [1] and is sometimes referred to as the Indian Oscars. ... Legendary Movie Poster Bollywood is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based film industry in India. ... The National Film Awards, commonly known as the National Awards, are arguably the most prestigious and prominent film awards in India. ... The National Film Awards, commonly known as the National Awards, are arguably the most prestigious and prominent film awards in India. ...


Additional ceremonies held within India are:

Ceremonies held overseas are: The Stardust Awards is a award ceremony which congratulates the superstars of the new generation who will make an impact in the future. ... Awards Popular awards Best Film Best Director Best Actor Best Actress Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actress Best Villain Best Comedian Best Music Director Best Lyricist Best Male Playback Best Female Playback Lifetime Achievement Technical Awards Best Art Direction Best Action Best Cinematographer Best Editing Best Choreography Best Story Best...

Most of these award ceremonies are lavishly staged spectacles, featuring singing, dancing, and lots of stars and starlets. The Bollywood Movie Awards, is an annual film award ceremony held in Long Island, New York, United States, celebrating films and actors from the Bollywood film industry based in Mumbai, India. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... This article is about the state. ... Global Indian Film Awards (GIFA) is promoted by Jordy Patel and Sameer Khan. ... The awards of the International Indian Film Academy (commonly known as the IIFA Awards) is a prestigious award ceremony, honouring Hindi movies (Bollywood) around the world. ... The Zee Cine Awards or ZCA for short is an Awards Ceremony in India. ...


Film Training In India

References

India Portal
  1. ^ Central Board of Film Certification of India
  2. ^ Deccan Herald-Indian movie tickets cheapest in the world-survey
  3. ^ Film Collection
  4. ^ The Hindu : Remembering a pioneer
  5. ^ Goddard, John. "Missouri Masala Fear not, St. Louisans: You don't need to go to Bombay to get your Bollywood fix" Riverfront Times, St. Louis, Missouri, July 30, 2003, Music section.
  6. ^ IMDb page on awards won by Seeta
  7. ^ News info from TribuneIndia.com
  8. ^ IMDb page on Bhagya Chakra
  9. ^ IMDb page on Dhoop Chhaon
  10. ^ Grand Prix du Festival International du Film (1939-54)
  11. ^ History will never forget Chetan Anand June 13, 2007.
  12. ^ Maker of innovative, meaningful movies The Hindu, June 15, 2007.
  13. ^ IMDB page on Jamai Shashthi: first Bengali talkie
  14. ^ a b "The World-wide Spread of Cinema". The Oxford History of World Cinema. (1996). Ed. Nowell-Smith, G.. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-811257-2. 
  15. ^ Thoraval, Y: "The Cinemas of India", Chapter 1, page 12, "The Cinemas of India"
  • Shedde, M. (2003) "Plagiarism issue jolts Bollywood" The Times of India, May 18. Available from: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/cms.dll/html/uncomp/articleshow?msid=46715385. Accessed 23 November 2006.
  • "The World-wide Spread of Cinema". The Oxford History of World Cinema. (1996). Ed. Nowell-Smith, G.. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-811257-2. 
  • Thoraval, Y. (2000). The Cinemas of India. Macmillan India. ISBN 0-333-93410-5. 

Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For followers of Hinduism, see Hindu. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links


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