FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Cinema of Germany
EUROPEAN CINEMA

Cinema in Germany can be traced back to the very beginnings of the medium at the end of the 19th Century and German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... European cinema is the cinema of Europe. ... The Cinema of Albania had its start in the years 1911-1912. ... // Directors Slatan Dudow Rangel Valtchanov Nikola Kovachev Sophia Peer Vulo Radev Dimitar Petkov- Opashkata Na Diavola aka Devils Tail Nikola Korabov Ivan Andonov Ludmil Staikov Metodi Andonov Zornitsa-Sophia Vladimir Yanchev Nikolai Volev Actors and actresses See also List of Bulgarian actors Stoyan Bachvarov Rusi Chanev Georgi Cherkelov Stefan... The cinema of Croatia has suffered in recent years, with quality films being few and far between in comparison to other countries. ... The Czech Republic (both as an independent country and as a part of former Czechoslovakia) was a seedbed for many acclaimed film directors. ... Danish cinema pioneer Peter Elfelt, a photographer, was the first Dane to make a film. ... France has been influential in the development of film as a mass medium and as an art form. ... // Beginning In the spring of 1897, the Greeks of Athens had the opportunity and privilege to watch the first cinematic attempts (short movies in journal). The projection of an animated movie resulted in excited reactions and the new-seen spectacle became a usual matter of discussion. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... The Luxembourg film industry is quite small, but this is unsurprising given that the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has a population of only about 400,000 people. ... The Dutch film industry is relatively small, though there have broadly been several very active periods in recent history in which Dutch filmmaking thrived. ... // Directors Józef Arkusz StanisÅ‚aw Bareja Aleksander Ford Wojciech Has Agnieszka Holland Jerzy Hoffman Jerzy Kawalerowicz Krzysztof KieÅ›lowski -- The Three Colors trilogy, The Decalogue Jan Jakub Kolski Kazimierz Kutz Juliusz Machulski Andrzej Munk Marek Piwowski Roman PolaÅ„ski Ladislas Starevich Wladyslaw Starewicz Andrzej Wajda Krzysztof Zanussi Andrzej Zulawski... Portuguese cinema is better known internacionally for its directors Manoel de Oliveira and João César Monteiro. ... The Russian Empire (1896-1917) The first films seen in Russia were via the Lumiere Brothers, in Moscow and St. ... The first films seen in the Russia Empire were via the Lumière brothers, in Moscow and St. ... Soviet Cinema should not be used as a synonym for Russian Cinema. Although Russian language films predominated, several of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union contributed films reflecting elements of their pre-Soviet culture, language and history, although sometimes censored by the Central Government. ... Spanish cinema is not held in as high esteem worldwide as French or American cinema. ... Swedish cinema is one of the most widely-known national cinemas in the world, and certainly the most prominent of Scandinavia. ... Michael Caine in Get Carter (1971) The United Kingdom has been influential in the technological, commercial, and artistic development of cinema. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Before 1918. Cinema pioneers

The history of cinema in Germany can be traced back to the year of the medium's birth. On November 1, 1895 Max Skladanowsky and his brother Emil demonstrated their self-invented film projector the Bioskop at the Wintergarten music hall in Berlin. This performance pre-dated the first paying public display of the Lumière brothers' Cinematographe in Paris on 28 December of the same year, a performance that Max Skladanowsky attended and at which he was able to ascertain that the Cinematographe was technically superior to his Bioskop. Other German film pioneers included the Berliners Oskar Messter and Max Gliewe, two of several individuals who independently in 1896 first used a Geneva drive (which allows the film to be advanced intermittently one frame at a time) in a projector, and the cinematographer Guido Seeber. November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Max Skladanowsky (born April 30, 1863, died November 30, 1939) was a German inventor and early filmmaker. ... 35mm Kinoton movie projector in operation. ... Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ... For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation). ... The Lumière Brothers, Louis Jean (October 5, 1864–June 6, 1948) and Auguste Marie Louis Nicholas (October 19, 1862–April 10, 1954), were the creators of the cinematographic projector. ... The cinematograph or Lumiére Cinématographe was an early type film projector, an all-in-one camera, projector and developer, circa 1895. ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city For other uses, see Paris (disambiguation). ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Geneva drive is a mechanism that translates a continuous rotation into an intermittent rotary motion. ... A cinematographer (from cinema photographer) is one photographing with a motion picture camera (the art and science of which is known as cinematography). ... Guido Seeber (born June 22, 1879 in Chemnitz, died July 2, 1940 in Berlin) was a German cinematographer and pioneer of early cinema. ...


In its earliest days, the cinematograph was perceived as an attraction for the well-to-do part of society, but the novelty of moving pictures did not last long. Soon trivial short films were being shown as fairground attractions aimed at the working and lower-middle class. The booths in which these films were shown were known in Germany somewhat disparagingly as Kintopps. Film-makers with an artistic bent attempted to counter this view of cinema with longer movies based on literary models, and the first German "artistic" films began to be produced from around 1910, an example being the Edgar Allen Poe adaptation The Student of Prague of 1913 which was directed by Paul Wegener, photographed by Guido Seeber and played by actors from the company of Max Reinhardt. 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809–October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, editor and critic. ... The eye is an adaptation. ... 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Paul Wegener (born December 11, 1874 in Arnoldsdorf (Westpreußen; now Jarantowice, Poland); died September 13, 1948 in Berlin) was a German actor and film director. ... There are two Max Reinhardts: Max Reinhardt (theatre director) Max Reinhardt (publisher) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Prior to 1914, however, many foreign films were imported. In the era of the silent film there were no language boundaries and Danish and Italian films were particularly popular in Germany. The public's desire to see more films with particular actors led to the development in Germany, as elsewhere, of the phenomenon of the film star; the actress Henny Porten was one of the earliest German stars. Public desire to see popular film stories being continued encouraged the production of film serials, especially in the genre of mystery films, which is where the director Fritz Lang began his illustrious career. 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... A movie star is a celebrity who is well known for his or her starring, or leading, roles in motion pictures. ... Serial is a term, originating in literature, for a format by which a story is told in contiguous installments in sequential issues of a single periodical publication. ... Mystery film is a film genre which uses mystery as an element to the plot. ... Friedrich Anton Christian Lang (December 5, 1890 - August 2, 1976) was an Austrian film director, screenwriter and occasional film producer, one of the best known émigrés from Germanys school of expressionism. ...


The outbreak of World War I and the subsequent boycott of, for example, French films left a noticeable gap in the market. By 1916, there already existed some 2000 fixed venues for movie performances and initially film screenings had to supplemented or even replaced by variety turns. In 1917 a process of concentration and partial nationalisation of the German film industry began with the founding of Universum Film AG (Ufa), which was partly a reaction to the very effective use that the Allied Powers had found for the new medium for the purpose of propaganda. Under the aegis of the military, so-called Vaterland films were produced, which equalled the Allies' films in the matter of propaganda and disparagement of the enemy. Audiences however did not care to swallow the patriotic medicine without the accompanying sugar of the light-entertainment films which, consequently, Ufa also promoted. It was in this way that the German film industry became the largest in Europe. Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... France has been influential in the development of film as a mass medium and as an art form. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Variety (linguistics) is a concept that includes for instance dialects, standard language and jargon. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... UFA logo Universum Film AG, better known as Ufa or UFA, was the principal film studio in Germany, home of the German film industry during the Weimar Republic and through World War II, and a major force in world cinema during its brief existence from 1917 to 1945. ... European military alliances in 1915. ... It has been suggested that Propaganda in the United States be merged into this article or section. ...


1918-1933. Film in the Weimar Republic

In the period immediately following World War I, movies were a popular escape into fantasy for many people, and the film industry boomed. The boom was helped by the hyperinflation of the early 1920s. This enabled film makers to borrow money in Papiermarks which would be vastly devalued by the time it had to be repaid. Nevertheless film budgets were tight and the need to save money was a contributing factor to the rise of German Expressionism, as was the desire to move forward and embrace the future that swept most of Europe at the time. Expressionist movies relied heavily on symbolism and artistic imagery rather than stark realism to tell their stories. The film usually credited with sparking the popularity of expressionism is Robert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920). It painted a picture on the cinema screen with wild, non-realistic sets built with exaggerated geometry, images painted on the floors and walls to represent objects (and often light and shadow), and a story involving the dark hallucinations of an insane man. Other notable works of Expressionism are Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau's Nosferatu (1922), and Carl Boese and Paul Wegener's The Golem: How He Came Into the World (1920). The Expressionist movement died down during the mid-1920s, but it continued to influence world cinema for years after, its influence being particular noticeable on horror films and film noir in America, and the works of European directors as diverse as Jean Cocteau and Ingmar Bergman. // For other meanings see Fantasy (disambiguation) Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... In economics, hyperinflation is inflation which is out of control, a condition in which prices increase rapidly as a currency loses its value. ... The name Papiermark (German: Paper mark) can be applied to the German currency from the point in 1914 when the link between the mark and gold was abandoned, due to the outbreak of the First World War. ... F.W. Murnaus Nosferatu German Expressionism, also referred to as expressionism in filmmaking, developed in Germany (especially Berlin) during the 1920s. ... A depiction of the future of mankind as seen in the motion picture Blade Runner. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Realism in art and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear, without embellishment or interpretation. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Robert Wiene (born April 27, 1873 in Breslau; died 17 July 1938 in Paris) was a German film director. ... Dr. Caligari, Caligari, and Doctor Caligari all redirect here. ... See also: 1919 in film 1920 1921 in film 1920s in film years in film film Events November 28 - The Mask of Zorro, starring Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. ... Table of Geometry, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Prism splitting light Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye (visible light) or, in a technical or scientific context, electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths that are studied in the field of optics. ... Shadows on a pavement A shadow is a region of darkness where light is blocked. ... An hallucination is a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... INSANE is a proprietary INteractive Streaming ANimation Engine developped by LucasArts. ... F W Murnau Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau (December 28, 1888 – March 11, 1931) was one of the most influential directors of the silent film era. ... This article describes the 1922 silent film and the mysterious origins of the word. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Expressionism in filmmaking developed in Germany (especially Berlin) during the 1920s. ... List of 1920s films Films released in the 1920s include: The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923) Metropolis (1927) ok yeash your gay this site sucks! Other lists of movies List of years in film in the 1920s 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 Decades in Film... DVD cover showing horror characters as depicted by Universal Studios. ... This still from The Big Combo (1955) demonstrates the visual style of film noir at its most extreme. ... Jean Cocteau Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (July 5, 1889 – October 11, 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... Ingmar Bergman (pronounced in Swedish, IPA notation) (born July 14, 1918 as Ernst Ingmar Bergman) is a Swedish stage and film director who is one of the key film auteurs of the second half of the twentieth century. ...


Ufa had been privatised in 1921 by a sale of the state's holdings to the Deutsche Bank and had become the mainstay of an industry that produced up to 600 feature films a year in the 1920s. In addition to Ufa, there were some 230 film companies in business in Berlin alone at this time. However, film industry financing was a fragile business in the unstable economy of the Weimar Republic, and this, coupled with the industry's tendency to overreach itself financially (such as in the production of Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927), perhaps the most famous German film of this period), frequently led to bankruptcies and financial ruin. Ufa itself was forced to go into a disadvantageous partnership called Parufamet with the American studios Paramount and MGM in 1925 before being taken over by the nationalist industrialist and newspaper owner Alfred Hugenberg in 1927. The company's financial travails did not prevent it from producing numerous significant films throughout this period, among them, Ernst Lubitsch's Madame Dubary (1919), Lang's epic production of Die Nibelungen, and F.W. Murnau's The Last Laugh (1925), and the development of the studios at Babelsberg, originally established in 1912 but later taken over by Ufa and expanded massively to accommodate the filming of Metropolis, gave the German film industry a highly-developed infrastructure. Deutsche Bank AG NYSE: DB (German for German Bank) is a multinational bank operating worldwide and employing almost 64,000 people (Dec. ... Flag of Germany, 1919–1933 This article outlines political events from 1918 until the collapse of the Republic in 1933. ... Metropolis Metropolis is a science fiction film produced in Germany set in a futuristic urban dystopia. ... Look up Paramount on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Paramount can refer to: Paramount, California, a city in Los Angeles County Paramount Pictures, a motion picture company Paramount Records, a record label United Paramount Network (UPN), a television network in the United States, owned by Viacom Inc. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Alfred Hugenberg (June 19, 1865 - March 12, 1951) was an influential German businessman and politician. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ernst Lubitsch (January 28, 1892 – November 30, 1947), was a German-born Jewish film director. ... The Last Laugh : A New Philosophy of Near-Death Experiences, Apparitions, and the Paranormal is a book by Dr. Raymond Moody presenting case histories of adults and children who have clinically reached the point of death and survived. ... See also: 1924 in film 1925 1926 in film 1920s in film years in film film Events Top grossing films Ben-Hur His People The Unholy Three The Freshman Movies released Movies released in 1925 include: Ben-Hur, starring Ramon Novarro. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In addition to developments in the industry itself, the Weimar period saw the birth of film criticism as a serious discipline whose practitioners included Rudolf Arnheim in Die Weltbühne and in Film als Kunst (1932), Béla Balázs in Der Sichtbare Mensch (1924), Siegfried Kracauer in the Frankfurter Zeitung, and Lotte H. Eisner in the Filmkurier. Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films, individually and collectively. ... Rudolf Arnheim (born July 15, 1904) is a German-born author, art and film theorist, and perceptual psychologist. ... Die Weltbühne (english: the World Stage) was a German weekly magazine focused on politics, art, and business. ... Béla Balázs (August 4, 1884, Szeged – May 17, 1949, Budapest), born Herbert Bauer, was a Hungarian-Jewish film critic, aesthete, writer and poet. ... Siegfried Kracauer (February 8, 1889, Frankfurt am Main, Germany - November 26, 1966, New York) was a journalist, sociologist, and film critic. ... The Frankfurter Zeitung is a German newspaper that appeared from 1856 to 1943. ...


After the influence of Expressionism began to wane a variety of other genres and styles developed in the 1920s. Movies influenced by New Objectivity with socially concerned themes and a return to realism, among them films by Georg Wilhelm Pabst such as Joyless Street (Die Freudlose Gasse) (1925) and Pandora's Box (1929), became widespread in the later 1920s. The influence of New Objectivity may also be seen in the trend towards so-called "asphalt" and "morality" films which dealt with "scandalous" subjects like abortion, prostitution, homosexuality and addiction. Contrastingly, in the same period the genre of the Bergfilm was also developed, mainly by the director Arnold Fanck, in which individuals were shown battling against nature in the mountains. Animators and directors of experimental film such as Lotte Reiniger, Oskar Fischinger and Walter Ruttmann were also very active in Germany in the 1920s. Ruttman's experimental documentary Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Großstadt (1927) epitomises the energy of 1920's Berlin. The polarised politics of the Weimar period were also reflected in some its movies. A series of patriotic films on Prussian history starring Otto Gebühr as Frederick the Great were produced throughout the 1920s and were popular with the nationalist right-wing, who strongly criticised the "asphalt" films' "decadence". The New Objectivity, or neue Sachlichkeit (new matter-of-factness), was an art movement which arose in Germany during the 1920s as an outgrowth of, and in opposition to, expressionism. ... Georg Wilhelm Pabst (August 25, 1885 - May 29, 1967) was a film director. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Die Büchse der Pandora (Pandoras Box) is a play by Frank Wedekind, written in 1903, upon which Alban Bergs opera Lulu was based. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services. ... The word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings over time. ... Addiction is chronic disorder proposed to be precipitated by a combination of genetic, biological/pharmacological and social factors. ... A mountain film is a film genre that focusses on mountaineering and especially the battle of man against nature. ... Arnold Fanck (born 6 March 1889 in Frankenthal; died 28 September 1974 in German mountain film. ... An animator is one who is involved in the process of animation. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Charlotte Reiniger (June 2, 1899 - June 19, 1981) was a German and later British silhouette animator. ... Oskar Fischinger (1900-1967) was an abstract animator, filmmaker, and painter. ... Walter Ruttmann (born December 28, 1887 in Frankfurt am Main; died July 15, 1941 in Berlin) was a German film director and along with Hans Richter the most important practitioner of experimental film. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with 1920s Berlin. ... Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1894-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa; Polish: ) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ...


The arrival of sound at the very end of the 1920s produced a final artistic flourish of German film before the collapse of the Weimar Republic in 1933. Sound production and distribution were quickly taken up by the German film industry and by 1932 Germany had 3,800 cinemas equipped to play sound films. Der blaue Engel (1930) by the Austrian director Josef von Sternberg was Germany's first talkie (shot simultaneously in German and English) and made an international star of Marlene Dietrich. Other early sound films of note include Berlin Alexanderplatz, Pabst's version of Bertolt Brecht's The Threepenny Opera and Lang's M (all 1931). Brecht was also one of the creators of the explicitly communist film Kuhle Wampe (1932), which was banned soon after its release. 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Der Blaue Engel (English: The Blue Angel) is a film directed by Josef von Sternberg in 1930, and is one of the most famous films made by Marlene Dietrich. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Josef von Sternberg (29 May 1894 – 22 December 1969) was an Austrian-American film director. ... Marlene Dietrich in the 1930s Marlene Dietrich (December 27, 1901 – May 6, 1992) was a German-born actress, entertainer and singer. ... Berlin Alexanderplatz is a novel by Alfred Döblin, published in 1929. ... Bertolt Brecht. ... The Threepenny Opera (Die Dreigroschenoper) was a revolutionary piece of musical theatre written (in German) by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht in collaboration with the composer Kurt Weill in 1928. ... M (original German title: M - Eine Stadt sucht einen Mörder, M - a city in search of a murderer) is a 1931 German film noir directed by Fritz Lang and written by Thea von Harbou. ... Kuhle Wampe ( the full title is Kuhle Wampe oder Wem gehört die Welt) is a German feature film, released in 1932, about unemployment and left wing politics in the Weimar Republic. ...


1933-1945. Film in the Third Reich

See also National socialist film policy

The uncertain economic and political situation in Weimar Germany had already led to a number of film-makers and performers leaving the country, primarily for the United States; Ernst Lubitsch moved to Hollywood as early as 1923, the Hungarian-born Michael Curtiz in 1926. However, the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 turned the trickle into a flood. Some 1,500 directors, producers, actors and other film professionals emigrated in the years after the Nazis came to power. Among them were such key figures as the producer Erich Pommer, the studio head of Ufa, stars Marlene Dietrich and Peter Lorre, and director Fritz Lang. Lang's exodus to America is legendary; it is said that Metropolis so greatly impressed Joseph Goebbels that he asked Lang to become the head of his propaganda film unit. Lang chose to flee to America instead, where he had a long and prosperous career. Many up-and-coming German directors also fled to the America, bringing their substantial talents to bear in Hollywood and having a major influence on American film as a result. A number of the Universal Horror films of the 1930s were directed by German emigrees, including Karl Freund, Joe May and Robert Siodmak. Directors Edgar Ulmer and Douglas Sirk and the Austrian-born screenwriter (and later director) Billy Wilder also emigrated from Nazi Germany to Hollywood success. Not all those in the film industry threatened by the Nazi regime were able to escape; the actor and director Kurt Gerron was one notable filmmaker who perished in a concentration camp. // Goals of the Nazi film policy Despite its authoritarian core, Nazism was a populism, a political movement that courted the masses by the means of slogans that were aimed directly at the instincts and emotions of the people. ... ... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was a Hungarian-American film director, whose best known films include The Adventures of Robin Hood, Casablanca, and White Christmas. ... National-Socialist German Workers Party (German: ), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Immigration. ... A film producer creates the conditions for making movies. ... Peter Lorre, 1946, by Yousuf Karsh Peter Lorre (June 26, 1904 – March 23, 1964), born Ladislav (László) Löwenstein, was a stage and screen actor of Austrian descent especially known for playing roles with sinister overtones in Hollywood crime films and mysteries. ... Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was Adolf Hitlers Propaganda Minister (see Propagandaministerium) in Nazi Germany. ... It has been suggested that Propaganda in the United States be merged into this article or section. ... Look up Career in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page is about the country United States of America. ... Universal Horror is the name given to the distinctive horror films made by Universal Studios in California from the 1920s through to the 1950s. ... Karl W. Freund (January 16, 1890-May 3, 1969) was a German cinematographer who worked on over 100 films, including Metropolis (1927), Dracula (1931), and Key Largo (1948). ... Joe May (born Joseph Mandel or Julius Otto Mandl November 7, 1880 in Vienna, died April 29, 1954, Hollywood, California) was an Austrian film director and film producer, one of the pioneers of German cinema. ... Robert Siodmak (August 8, 1900 - March 10, 1973) was a film director born in Memphis, Tennessee (sometimes his birthplace is stated as Dresden, Germany). ... Film director Edgar G. Ulmer (1904-1972) is mostly remembered for the movies The Black Cat (1934) and Detour (1945). ... Douglas Sirk - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Billy Wilder Billy Wilder (June 22, 1906 – March 27, 2002) was a screenwriter, film director and producer whose career spanned more than 50 years and 60 films. ... Kurt Gerron ( May 11, 1897 – October 28, 1944 ) was a Jewish actor and film director during the Nazi period. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ...


Within weeks of the Machtergreifung, Alfred Hugenberg had effectively turned over Ufa to the ends of the Nazis, excluding Jews from employment in the company in March 1933, several months before the foundation in June of the Reichsfilmkammer (Reich Chamber of Film), the body of the Nazi state charged with control of the film industry, which marked the official exclusion of Jews and foreigners from employment in the German film industry. As part of the process of Gleichschaltung all film production in Germany was subordinate to the Reichsfilmkammer, which was directly responsible to Goebbel's Propaganda ministry, and all those employed in the industry had to be members of the Reichsfachschaft Film. "Non-Aryan" film professionals and those whose politics or personal life were unacceptable to the Nazis were excluded from the Reichsfachschaft and thus denied employment in the industry. Some 3,000 individuals were affected by this employment ban. In addition, as journalists were also organised as a division of the Propaganda Ministry, Goebbels was able to abolish film criticism in 1936, and replace it with Filmbeobachtung (film observation); journalists could only report on the content of a film, not offer judgement on its artistic or other worth. Machtergreifung is a German word meaning seizure of power. ... The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... The Propagandaministerium () (or State Ministry for Public enlightenment and propaganda) was the ministry for propaganda in Nazi Germany. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films, individually and collectively. ...


With the German film industry now effectively an arm of the totalitarian state, no films could be made that were not ostensibly in accord with the views of the ruling regime. However, despite the existence of crassly anti-semitic propaganda works such as The Eternal Jew (1940) - which was a box-office flop - and the more sophisticated but equally anti-semitic Jud Süß (1940), which achieved commercial success at home and elsewhere in Europe, the majority of German films from the National Socialist period were intended principally as works of entertainment (although they often also sought to inculcate so-called "German values" such as submission to fate and the Führerprinzip). The import of foreign films was legally restricted after 1936 and the German industry, which was effectively nationalised in 1937, had to make up for the missing foreign films (above all American productions). Entertainment also became increasingly important in the later years of World War II when the cinema provided a distraction from Allied bombing and a string of German defeats. In both 1943 and 1944 cinema admissions in Germany exceeded a billion [1], and the biggest box-office hits of the war years were Die große Liebe (1942) and Wunschkonzert (1941), which both combine elements of the musical, wartime romance and patriotic propaganda, Frauen sind doch bessere Diplomaten (1941), a comic musical which was one of the earliest German films in colour, and Wiener Blut (1942), the adaptation of a Johann Strauß comic operetta. The importance of the cinema as a tool of the state, both for its propaganda value and its ability to keep the populace entertained, can be seen in the filming history of Veit Harlan's Kolberg (1945), the most expensive film of the Nazi era, for the shooting of which tens of thousands of soldiers were diverted from their military postions to appear as extras. The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... The Eternal Jew is a 1940 anti-Semitic Nazi propaganda film. ... Cover of the program for the 1940 Nazi film Jud Süß. Jud Süß, (The Jew Süss), was the nickname of Joseph Süss Oppenheimer and is the title of an 1827 novella by Wilhelm Hauff, a 1925 historical novel by Lion Feuchtwanger, a 1934 British film and a Nazi... Adolf Hitler made believe he was the incarnation of the Führerprinzip The Führerprinzip, the German name for the leader principle, refers to a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... The Golden Age of the Broadway musical is generally considered to have begun with Oklahoma! (1943) and to have ended with Hair (1968). ... Wiener Blut (Viennese Blood or Viennese Spirit) op. ... Johann Strauss II The Waltz King coming to life in the Stadtpark, Vienna Johann Strauss II (or Johann Strauss the Younger, or Johann Strauss Jr. ... Operetta (literally, little opera) is a performance art-form similar to opera, though it generally deals with less serious topics. ... Veit Harlan (* September 22, 1899 in Berlin; † April 13, 1964 in Capri/Italy) was a German film director and actor. ... Kolberg is a 1945 German propaganda film directed by Veit Harlan and Wolfgang Liebeneiner. ...


Despite the emigration of many talented film-makers and the political restrictions, the period was not without technical and aesthetic innovations, the introduction of Agfacolor film production being a notable example. Technical and aesthetic achievement could also be turned to the specific ends of the Nazi state, most spectacularly in the work of Leni Riefenstahl. Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will (1935), documenting the 1934 Nuremberg Rally, and Olympia (1938), documenting the 1936 Summer Olympics, pioneered techniques of camera movement and editing that have influenced many later films, but both films, particularly Triumph of the Will, remain highly controversial as their aesthetic merit is inseparable from their propagandising of Nazi ideals. Agfacolor is a series of colour photograpic products produced by the Agfa company of Germany. ... Riefenstahl, 1931 Berta Helene Amalie Leni Riefenstahl (August 22, 1902 – September 8, 2003) was a German athlete, actress, director and filmmaker widely noted for her aesthetics and advances in film technique. ... Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a documentary-style propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl that chronicles the 1934 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg. ... See also: 1934 in film 1935 1936 in film 1930s in film years in film film Events Judy Garland signs a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM). ... The Nuremberg Rally (officially, Reichsparteitag, literally national party congress) was the annual rally of the NSDAP (Nazi Party) in the years 1923 to 1938 in Germany. ... Olympia is a 1938 film by Leni Riefenstahl documenting the 1936 Summer Olympics. ... See also: 1937 in film 1937 1939 in film 1930s in film years in film film // Events January — MGM announces that Judy Garland would be cast in the role of Dorothy in the upcoming Wizard of Oz motion picture. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ...


Post-war reconstruction

The occupation and reconstruction of Germany by the Four Powers in the period immediately after the end of World War II brought a major and long-lasting change to the economic conditions under which the industry in Germany had previously operated. The holdings of Ufa were confiscated by the Allies and, as part of the process of decartelisation, licences to produce films were shared between a range of much smaller companies. In addition, the Occupation Statute of 1949, which granted partial independence to the newly created Federal Republic of Germany, specifically forbade the imposition of import quotas to protect German film production from foreign competition, the result of lobbying by the American industry as represented by the MPAA. The term Four Powers usually refers to the four countries that occupied a defeated Germany after the end of the Second World War in 1945 - France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Decartelization is the transition of a national economy from monopoly control by groups of large businesses, known as cartels, to a free market economy. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) is a non-profit trade association formed to advance the interests of movie studios. ...


Amidst the devastation of the Stunde Null year of 1945 cinema attendance was unsurprisingly down to a fraction of its wartime heights, but already by the end of the decade it had reached levels that exceeded the pre-war period [1]. For the first time in many years, German audiences had free access to cinema from around the world and in this period the films of Charlie Chaplin remained popular, as were melodramas from the United States. Nonetheless, the share of the film market for German films in this period and into the 1950s remained relatively large, taking up some 40% of the total market. American films took up around 30% of the market despite having around twice as many films in distribution as the German industry in the same time frame (Schneider 1990:35, 42 & 44). Stunde Null is the German language equivalent of zero hour, a military planning term indicating the beginning of some operation or event. ... Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin, Jr, KBE, (April 16, 1889 – December 25, 1977), better known as Charlie Chaplin, was a British comedy actor, becoming the most famous actor in the early to mid Hollywood cinema era, and also a notable director. ... Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ...


Many of the German films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as belonging to the genre of the Trümmerfilm (literally "rubble film"). These films show strong affinities with the work of Italian neorealists, not least Roberto Rossellini's neorealist trilogy which included Germany Year Zero (1948), and are concerned primarily with day-to-day life in the devastated Germany and an initial reaction to the events of the Nazi period (the full horror of which was first experienced by many in documentary footage from liberated concentration camps). Such films include Wolfgang Staudte's Die Mörder sind unter uns (The Murderers are among us) (1946), the first film made in post-war Germany, and Wolfgang Liebeneiner's Liebe 47 (Love 47) (1949), an adaptation of Wolfgang Borchert's play Draußen vor der Tür. Italian neorealism is a film movement which started in 1943 with Ossessione and ended in 1952 with Umberto D.. The movement is characterized by stories set amongst the poor and working class, filmed in long takes on location, frequently using non-actors for secondary and sometimes primary roles. ... Roberto Rossellini (May 8, 1906 - June 3, 1977), was an Italian film director. ... // Germany, Year Zero This is the final film in Roberto Rossellinis famed war movie trilogy (the first two being Rome, Open City and Paisan). ... Wolfgang Staudte (October 9, 1906 in Saarbrücken - January 19, 1984) was a German film director. ... Wolfgang Liebeneiner (October 6, 1905 - November 28, 1987) was a German actor and film and theater director. ... Wolfgang Borchert (May 20, 1921 - November 20, 1947) was a German author and playwright, whose work was affected by his experience of dictatorship and his service in the Wehrmacht during the Second World War. ... Draußen vor der Tür (The Man Outside) is a play written by Wolfgang Borchert. ...


West German cinema

The 1950s

Despite the advent of a regular television service in the Federal Republic in 1952, cinema attendances continued to grow through much of the 1950s, reaching a peak of 817.5 million visits in 1956 [1]. The majority of the films of this period set out to do no more than entertain the audience and had few pretensions to artistry or active engagement with social issues. The defining genre of the period was arguably the Heimatfilm ("homeland film"), in which morally simplistic tales of love and family were played out in a rural setting, often in the mountains of Bavaria, Austria or Switzerland. In their day Heimatfilms were of little interest to more scholarly film critics, but in recent years they have been the subject of study in relation to what they say about the culture of West Germany in the years of the Wirtschaftswunder. Other film genres typical of this period were adaptations of operettas, hospital melodramas, comedies and musicals. Many films were remakes of earlier Ufa productions shorn of the nationalistic Blut und Boden traits of those Nazi-period films. 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Heimatfilm is a film genre that was popular in Germany in the 1950s. ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... The term Wirtschaftswunder (English: economic miracle) designates the upturn experienced in the West German and Austrian economies after the Second World War. ... In film, a remake is a newer version of a previously released film or a newer version of the source (play, novel, story, etc. ... Blood and Soil (German Blut und Boden) was a phrase and doctrine exploited by Adolf Hitler to provide moral justification for the ejection of the Jewish, and generally non-Germanic, people. ...


Rearmament and the founding of the Bundeswehr in 1955 brought with it a wave of war films which tended to depict the ordinary German soldiers of World War II as brave and apolitical. This period also saw a number of films that depicted the military resistance to Hitler. The Wiederbewaffnung (German: Rearmament) referrs to the foundation of the Bundeswehr, the West German army in 1955. ... The Bundeswehr ( ) (Federal Defence) is the armed forces of Germany and its administration. ... Widerstand (German: resistance) is the name given to the resistance movements in Nazi Germany. ...


The international significance of the West German film industry of the 1950s could no longer measure up to that of France, Italy, or Japan. German films were only rarely distributed internationally as they were perceived as provincial. International co-productions such as were becoming common in France and Italy tended to be rejected by German producers (Schneider 1990:43). However a few German films and film-makers did achieve international recognition at this time, among them Bernhard Wicki's Oscar-nominated Die Brücke (The Bridge) (1959), and the actresses Hildegard Knef and Romy Schneider. Bernhard Wicki (28 October 1919 in St. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent film awards in the United States and most watched awards ceremony in the world. ... Die Brücke (German for The Bridge) is a German anti-war movie made in 1959. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hildegard Knef Hildegard Knef (December 28, 1925 - February 1, 2002) was a German actress, singer and writer. ... Romy Schneider Romy Schneider a. ...


The 1960s: Cinema in crisis

In the late 1950s, the growth in cinema attendance of the preceding decade first stagnated and then went into freefall throughout the 1960s. By 1969 West German cinema attendance at 172.2 million visits per year was less than a quarter of its 1956 post-war peak [1]. As a consequence of this, numerous German production and distribution companies went out of business in the 1950s and 1960s and cinemas across the Federal Republic closed their doors; the number of screens in West Germany almost halved between the beginning and the end of the decade. 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ...


Initially, the crisis was perceived as a problem of overproduction. Consequently, the German film industry cut back on production. 123 German movies were produced in 1955, only 65 in 1965. However, the roots of the problem lay deeper in changing economic and social circumstances. Average incomes in the Federal Republic rose sharply and this opened up alternative leisure activities to compete with cinema-going. At this time too, television was developing into a mass medium that could compete with the cinema. In 1953 there were only 10,000 sets in West Germany; by 1962 there were 7 million (Scheider 1990:49) (Hoffman 1990:69).


The majority of films produced in the Federal Republic in the 1960s were genre works: westerns, especially the series of movies adapted from Karl May's popular genre novels which starred Pierre Brice as the Apache Winnetou and Lex Barker as his white blood brother Old Shatterhand; thrillers and crime films, notably a series of Edgar Wallace movies in which Klaus Kinski, Heinz Drache, Wolfgang Völz, and Joachim Fuchsberger were among the regular players; and softcore sex films, both the relatively serious Aufklärungsfilme (sex education films) of Oswalt Kolle and such exploitation films as Schulmädchen-Report (Schoolgirl Report) (1970) and its successors. Such movies were commercially successful and often enjoyed international distribution, but won little acclaim from critics. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Karl May Karl Friedrich May (Hohenstein-Ernstthal, February 25, 1842 - Radebeul, March 30, 1912) was the best selling German writer of all time, noted chiefly for wild west books set in the American West and similar books set in the Middle East; in addition, he also wrote some lesser-known... Pierre Brice (born 6 February 1929 in Brest, France), birth name Baron Pierre Louis de Bris, is a French actor, mainly known to the audience for his role as fictional Apache-chief Winnetou in German Karl May movies. ... Group of Apaches Apache is the collective name for several culturally related nations of Native Americans, aboriginal inhabitants of North America, who speak a Southern Athabaskan language. ... Winnetou is the American-Indian hero of several novels written by Karl May (the best selling German writer of all time), in German language including the sequel Winnetou I to Winnetou III. According to Karl Mays story, first-person-narrator Old Shatterhand encounters Winnetou and, after initial dramatic events... Lex Barker as Tarzan Lex Barker (May 8, 1919 - May 11, 1973) was born Alexander Crichlow Barker, Jr. ... Old Shatterhand is a fictional character in over 70 western novels by German writer Karl May (1842-1912). ... The thriller is a broad genre of literature, film, and television that includes numerous, often-overlapping sub-genres. ... The Edgar Wallace movies are motion pictures based on the works of British novelist and playwright Edgar Wallace. ... Klaus Kinski Klaus Kinski (October 18, 1926 – November 23, 1991) was a German actor of partly Polish descent, famous for his ability to project on-screen intensity, and for his explosive temperament. ... Fuchsberger in Die weiße Spinne (The White Spider) (1963) Joachim Fuchsberger (born March 11, 1927 near Stuttgart) is a German actor and television host best known to a wide German-speaking audience as one of the recurring actors in various Edgar Wallace movies (always playing one of the good... Softcore is a form of pornography that is less explicit than hardcore material in depicting or describing sexual behaviour. ... Sex education is a broad term used to describe education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, and other aspects of human sexual behavior. ... Oswalt Kolle (born October 2, 1928) is a German sex educator, who became famous during the 1960s for his numerous books and films on human sexuality. ... Exploitation is the name given to genre of films, extant since the earliest days of moviemaking, but popularized in the 1970s. ... Schulmädchen-Report: Was Eltern nicht für möglich halten (Schoolgirl Report Part 1: What Parents Dont Think Is Possible) is a 1970 German so-called sex report film directed by Ernst Hofbauer, based on a book by Günther Hunold and produced by Wolfgang C. Hartwig. ...


New German Cinema

As a reaction to the artistic and economic stagnation of German cinema, a group of young film-makers issued the Oberhausen Manifesto on 28 February 1962. This call to arms, which included Alexander Kluge, Edgar Reitz, Peter Schamoni und Franz Josef Spieker among its signatories, provocatively declared "Der alte Film ist tot. Wir glauben an den neuen" ("The old cinema is dead. We believe in the new cinema"). Other up-and-coming film-makers allied themselves to this Oberhausen group, among them Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Jean-Marie Straub, Wim Wenders, Hans-Jürgen Syberberg and Rainer Werner Fassbinder in their rejection of the existing German film industry and their determination to build a new industry founded on artistic excellence rather than commercial dictates. The Oberhausen Manifesto was a declaration by a group of 26 young German filmmakers at the International Short Film Festival in Oberhausen, North Rhine-Westphalia on February 28, 1962. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Alexander Kluge (born February 14, 1932 in Halberstadt) is a German film director and author. ... Edgar Reitz (born November 1, 1932 in Morbach, Rhineland-Palatinate) is a German filmmaker. ... Volker Schlondorff Volker Schlöndorff (born in Wiesbaden, Germany on March 31, 1939) is a Berlin-based German filmmaker. ... Werner Herzog. ... Jean-Marie Straub was born in France in 1933. ... Wilhelm Ernst (Wim) Wenders (born August 14, 1945) is a German-born film director, author and producer. ... Hans-Jürgen Syberberg (December 8, 1935 - ) is one of the most controversial directors of New German Cinema. ... Fassbinder 1977 Rainer Werner Fassbinder (May 31, 1945 – June 10, 1982), German movie director and actor, was one of the most important representatives of the New German Cinema. ...


Despite the foundation of the Kuratorium Junger Deutscher Film (Young German Film Committee) in 1965, set up under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of the Interior to support new German films financially, the directors of this New German Cinema, who rejected co-operation with the existing film industry, were consequently often dependent on money from television. Young film-makers had the opportunity to test their mettle in such porgrammes as the stand-alone drama and documentary series Das kleine Fernsehspiel (The Little TV Play) or the television films of the crime series Tatort. However, the broadcasters sought TV premieres for the films which they had supported financially, with theatrical showings only occurring later. As a consequence, such films tended to be unsuccessful at the cinema box-office. The Federal Ministry of the Interior (in German, Bundesministerium des Innern) is a ministry of the German federal government. ... When the movie industry first flowered in the period from 1900 to 1915, it took hold in Europe as well as America. ... Tatort (Crime Scene) is a long-running German crime television series set in various parts of Germany and Austria. ...


This situation changed after 1974 when the Film-Fernseh-Abkommen (Film and Television Accord) was agreed between the Federal Republic's main broadcasters, ARD and ZDF, and the German Federal Film Board (a government body created in 1968 to support film-making in Germany)[2]. This accord, which has been repeatedly extended up to the present day, provides for the television companies to make available an annual sum to support the production of films which are suitable for both theatrical distribution and television presentation. (The amount of money provided by the public broadcasters has varied between 4.5 and 12.94 million euros per year). Under the terms of the accord, films produced using these funds can only be screened on television 24 months after their theatrical release. They may appear on video or DVD no sooner than six months after cinema release. As a result of the funds provided by the Film-Fernseh-Abkommen, German films, particularly those of the New German Cinema, gained a much greater opportunity to enjoy box-office success before they played on television (Blaney 1992:204). 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... ARD may refer to: ARD (broadcaster), the Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, the German association of public broadcasters. ... Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF), loosely translated to Second German Television Service, is a public service German language television network based in Mainz. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Look up Video in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ...


The artistically ambitious and socially critical films of the New German Cinema strove to delineate themselves from what had gone before and the works of auteur film-makers such as Kluge and Fassbinder are examples of this, although Fassbinder in his use of stars from German cinema history also sought a reconcilation between the new cinema and the old. In addition, a distinction is sometimes drawn between the avantgarde "Young German Cinema" of the 1960s and the more accessible "New German Cinema" of the 1970s. For their influences the new generation of film-makers looked to Italian Neorealism, the French Nouvelle Vague and the British New Wave but combined this eclectically with references to the well-established genres of Hollywood cinema. The auteur theory is the theory that a film (or a body of work) by a director (or, rarely, a producer) reflects the personal vision and preoccupations of that director, as if he or she were the works primary author (auteur). ... François Truffauts New Wave film Jules et Jim The New Wave (French: la Nouvelle Vague) was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced (in part) by Italian Neorealism. ... The British New Wave is the name given to a trend in filmmaking among directors in Britain in the late fifties and early sixties. ...


The new movement saw German cinema return to international critical significance for the first time since the end of the Weimar Republic. Films such as Kluge's Abschied von Gestern (1966), Herzog's Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972), Fassbinder's Fear Eats the Soul (1974) and The Marriage of Maria Braun (1979), and Wenders' Paris, Texas (1984) found international acclaim and critical approval. Often the work of these auteurs was first recognised abroad rather than in Germany itself. The work of post-war Germany's leading novelists Heinrich Böll and Günther Grass provided source material for the adaptations The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum (1975) (by Schlöndorff and Margarethe von Trotta) and The Tin Drum (1979) (by Schlöndorff alone) respectively, the latter becoming the first German film to win the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. The New German Cinema also allowed for female directors to come to the fore and for the development of a feminist cinema which encompassed the works of directors such as Von Trotta, Helma Sanders-Brahms and Helke Sander. Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes (Aguirre, the Wrath of God) is a 1972 German film written and directed by Werner Herzog. ... Fear Eats the Soul (Angst essen Seele auf) is a 1974 German film directed by Werner Fassbinder. ... The Marriage of Maria Braun (German title: Die Ehe der Maria Braun) is a 1979 film directed by Rainer Werner Fassbinder. ... Paris is a city located 98 miles (158 km) northeast of Dallas in Lamar County, Texas, in the United States. ... Heinrich Theodor Böll (December 21, 1917 – July 16, 1985) was one of Germanys foremost post-World War II writers. ... Günter Grass Günter Wilhelm Grass is a Nobel Prize-winning Kashubian-German author. ... The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum is a 1974 novel by Heinrich Böll. ... Margarethe von Trotta (February 21, 1942, Berlin -) is a German film director and a member of New German Cinema. ... The Tin Drum (German: Die Blechtrommel) is a 1959 novel by Günter Grass. ... The Academy Award (Oscar) for Best Foreign Language Film is a yearly US award for the best non-English film released in the period October - September in the country of origin. ... Helma Sanders-Brahms Helma Sanders-Brahms (1940 - ) studied acting then German and English. ... Helke Sander (* January 31, 1937 in Berlin) is a german feminist film director and writer. ...


The 1980s

Having achieved some of its goals, among them the establishment of state funding for the film industry and renewed international recognition for German films, the New German Cinema had begun to show signs of fatigue by the 1980s, even though many of its proponents continued to enjoy individual success. In addition, the "aesthetic left" nature of New German Cinema (in the words of the critic Enno Patalas [citation needed]) no longer coincided with the spirit of the times. German film historian, collector, and restorer. ...


Among the commercial successes for German films of the 1980s were the Otto film series beginning in 1985 starring comedian Otto Waalkes, Wolfgang Petersen's adaptation of The NeverEnding Story (1984), and the internationally successful Das Boot (1981), which still holds the record for most Academy Award nominations for a German film (six). Other notable film-makers who came to prominence in the 1980s include producer Bernd Eichinger and director Doris Dörrie. Otto Waalkes live (2005) Otto Waalkes (born July 22, 1948 in Emden, East Frisia, Lower Saxony, Germany) is a German comedian and actor. ... Wolfgang Petersen Wolfgang Petersen (born March 14, 1941 in Emden, Lower Saxony, Germany) is a German film director. ... The NeverEnding Story, or Die Unendliche Geschichte (its German title), is the 1984 film adaptation of the fantasy novel by Michael Ende. ... Das Boot (IPA: , German for The Boat) is a film directed by Wolfgang Petersen, adapted from a novel of the same name by Lothar-Günther Buchheim. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent film awards in the United States and most watched awards ceremony in the world. ... Bernd Eichinger (born 11 April 1949) is a German film producer and director. ... Doris Dörrie is an actress, screenwriter and director born in 1955 in Hanover, Germany. ...


Away from the mainstream, the splatter film director Jörg Buttgereit, the experimental film director Werner Nekes and the provocative Christoph Schlingensief all came to prominence in the 1980s. The development of arthouse cinemas (Programmkinos) from the 1970s onwards provided a venue for the works of less mainstream film-makers. A splatter film or gore film is a type of horror film that deliberately concentrates on portrayals of gore and violence. ... Jörg Buttgereit (born December 20, 1963) is a German writer/director known for his controversial films. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Christoph Schlingensief (born October 24, 1960 in Oberhausen) is a German film director, theatre director, actor, author, artist, and talkshow host. ...


From the mid-1980s the spread of videocassette recorders and the arrival of private TV channels such as RTL Television provided new competition for theatrical film distribution. Cinema attendance, having rallied slightly in the late 1970s after an all-time low of 115.1 million visits in 1976, dropped sharply again from the mid-1980s to end at just 101.6 million visits in 1989 [1]. However, the availability of a back catalogue of films on video also allowed for a different relationship between the viewer and an individual film, whilst in the long term, private TV channels brought new money into film finance and provided a launch pad for new talent to later move into film. U.S. stamp commemorating the VCR. The videocassette recorder (or VCR, more commonly known in the British Isles as the video recorder), is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable videotape cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be... RTL Television (formerly RTL plus) is Germanys biggest commercial television company. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


East German Cinema

East German cinema initially profited from the fact that much of the country's film infrastructure, notably the former UFA studios, lay in the Soviet occupation zone which enabled film production to get off the ground more quickly than in the Western sectors. The authorities in the Soviet Zone were keen to re-establish the film industry in their sector and an order was issued to re-open cinemas in Berlin in May 1945 within three weeks of German capitulation. The film production company Deutsche Film-Aktiengesellschaft or DEFA was founded on 17 May 1946 and took control of many of the film production facilities in the Soviet Zone which had been confiscated by order of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany in October 1945. Theoretically a joint-stock company, the majority interest in DEFA was held by the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) which became the ruling party of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) after 1949 and the company was founded with the express aim of denazification and the extolling of socialist values. The Soviet Occupation Zone (German: Sowjetische Besatzungszone (SBZ) or Ostzone) was the area of eastern Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II. It became East Germany. ... Deutsche Film-Aktiengesellschaft, better known as DEFA, was the state film monopoly in the German Democratic Republic throughout that countrys history. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Soviet Military Administration in Germany (Russian initials: SVAG (Советская военная администрация в Германии, СВАГ); German: Sowjetische Militäradministration in Deutschland - SMAD) was the Soviet military government which directly ruled the eastern areas of Germany from 1945 until the establishment of East Germany in 1949. ... A joint stock company is a special kind of partnership. ... The logo of the SED The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, or SED) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... This article is about the historical state. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Denazification (German: Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...


In total DEFA produced some 900 feature films during its existence as well as around 800 animated films and over 3000 documentaries and short films. In its early years, production was limited due to strict controls imposed by the authorities which restricted the subject-matter of films to topics that directly contributed to the Communist project of the state. Excluding newsreels and educational films, only 50 films were produced between 1948 and 1953. However, in later years numerous films were produced on a variety of themes. DEFA had particular strengths in children's films, notably fairy tale adaptations such as Drei Haselnüsse für Aschenbrödel (Three Nuts for Cinderella) (1973), but it also attempted other genre works: science-fiction, for example Der schweigende Stern (The Silent Star) (1960), an adaptation of a Stanislaw Lem novel, or "red westerns" such as The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (1966) in which, in contrast to the typical American western, the heroes tended to be Native Americans. Many of these genre films were co-productions with other Warsaw Pact countries. A childrens film is a film for young children. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... TÅ™i oříšky pro Popelku (international title: Drei Haselnüsse für Aschenbrödel, English titles: Three Nuts for Cinderella and Three Gifts for Cinderella (UK)) is a Czech-German fairy-tale film from 1973. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western was the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain countries take on the Western movie. ... The Sons of the Great Mother Bear, or Die Söhne der großen Bärin was a German language Red Western of 1966. ... This article is the current U.S. Collaboration of the Week. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ...


Notable non-genre films produced by DEFA include Wolfgang Staudte's adaptation of Heinrich Mann's Der Untertan (1951); Konrad Wolf's Der geteilte Himmel (Divided Heaven) (1964), an adaptation of Christa Wolf's novel; Frank Beyer's adaptation of Jurek Becker's Jacob the Liar (1973), the only East German film to be nominated for an Oscar; The Legend Of Paul And Paula (1973), directed by Heiner Carow from Ulrich Plenzdorf's novel; and Solo Sunny (1980), again the work of Konrad Wolf. Luiz (Ludwig) Heinrich Mann (March 27, 1871 – March 12, 1950) wrote German novels with social themes whose attacks on the authoritarian and increasingly militaristic nature of post-Weimar German society led to his exile in 1933. ... Der Untertan is the most famous novel by German author Heinrich Mann. ... Konrad Wolf (Hechingen 20 October 1925 - Berlin, 7 March 1982) was a East German film director, son of Friedrich Wolf, brother of Markus Wolf. ... Christa Wolf (born March 18, 1929 in Landsberg an der Warthe, Germany (currently Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland) as Christa Ihlenfeld) is one of the best-known writers to emerge from the former East Germany. ... Frank Beyer (born 26 May 1932 in Nobitz) is a German film director. ... Jurek Becker (* September 30, 1937, Lodz (Poland), † March 14, 1997, Berlin) was a german writer. ... Jakob the Liar is a novel written by the Polish author Jurek Becker published in 1969. ... Die Legende von Paul und Paula (The Legend of Paul and Paula) is a 1973 tragicomic East German film directed by Heiner Carow. ... Ulrich Plenzdorf (born October 26, 1934 in Berlin, Germany) is a German author and dramatist. ...


However, film-making in the GDR was always constrained and influenced by the political conditions in the country. Ernst Thälmann, the communist leader in the Weimar period, was the subject of several hagiographical films in the 1950s and although East German film-making moved away from this overtly Stalinist approach in the 1960s, film-makers were still subject to the changing political positions, and indeed the whims, of the SED leadership. For example, DEFA's full slate of contemporary films from 1966 were denied distribution, among them Frank Beyer's Spur der Steine (1966) which was pulled from distribution after three days, not because it was antipathetic to communist principles, but because it showed that such principles, which it fostered, were not put into practice at all times in East Germany. The huge box-office hit The Legend of Paul and Paula was initially threatened with a distribution ban because of its satirical elements and supposedly only allowed a release on the say-so of Party General Secretary Erich Honecker. Ernst Thälmann memorial in Weimar. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... Erich Honecker (25 August 1912 – 29 May 1994) was a German Communist politician who led East Germany (German Democratic Republic) from 1971 until 1989. ...


In the late 1970s numerous film-makers left the GDR for the West as a result of restrictions on their work, among them director Egon Günther and actors Angelica Domröse, Eva-Maria Hagen, Katharina Thalbach, Hilmar Thate, Manfred Krug and Armin Mueller-Stahl. Many had been signatories of a 1976 petition opposing the expatriation of socially critical singer-songwriter Wolf Biermann and had had their ability to work restricted as a result. Katharina Thalbach (born Katharina Joachim, January 19, 1954 in Berlin) is a German actress and film director. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Armin Mueller-Stahl (born December 17, 1930) is a leading German film actor. ... An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is someone temporarily or permanently in a country and culture other than that of their upbringing and/or legal residence. ... Wolf Biermann (15 November 1936 -) is a German singer-songwriter and former East German dissident. ...


In the final years of the GDR, distribution of foreign films became more widespread and as a consequence, DEFA's importance was reduced, although its continuing role in producing films for East German television should not be underestimated. Following the Wende, DEFA was sold off by the Treuhand in 1992, but its intellectual property rights were handed to the charitable DEFA-Stiftung (DEFA Foundation) which exploits these rights in conjunction with a series of private companies. German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR - in English often called East Germany) were incorporated into The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) (FRG). ... The Treuhand (Treuhandanstalt or Treuhand agency) was the agency that privatized the East German state owned enterprises. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


German cinema today

Today's biggest producers include Constantin Film, Bavaria, Studio Hamburg, and UFA Film und Fernsehproduktion. Recent film releases such as Run Lola Run by Tom Tykwer, Goodbye Lenin by Wolfgang Becker, and Downfall by Oliver Hirschbiegel have arguably managed to recapture the provocative and innovative nature of 1970s New German cinema. Run Lola Run (original German title Lola rennt, which translates to Lola Runs or Lola is Running) is a 1998 film by German screenwriter and director Tom Tykwer, starring Franka Potente as Lola. ... Tom Tykwer (born May 23, 1965 in Wuppertal, Germany) is a German film director. ... DVD cover for Goodbye Lenin Good bye, Lenin! is a German tragic comedy film, released internationally in 2003. ... Wolfgang Becker was born in 1954 in Hemer/Westphalia and studied German, History and American Studies at the Free University in Berlin. ... Der Untergang (2004; international English title Downfall) is a German film depicting the final days of Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany in 1945. ... Oliver Hirschbiegel Oliver Hirschbiegel (born 26 March 1957) is a German film director. ...


Other notable directors working in German currently include Caroline Link, Romuald Karmakar, Harun Farocki, Hans-Christian Schmid, Christian Petzold, Christoph Hochhäusler, Thomas Arslan, Andreas Dresen, Ulrich Köhler, Ulrich Seidl, and Sebastian Schipper. Hans-Christian Schmid (1965, Altötting) is a German film director. ...


The new decade has also seen a resurgence of the German film industry, with big-budget films and good returns at the German box office.


Literature and links

  • Blaney, Martin 1992 Symbiosis or Confrontation? Bonn
  • Hoffman, Kay 1990 Am Ende Video – Video am Ende? Berlin
  • Kracauer, Siegfried. 2004 RE. From Caligari to Hitler. Princeton: University of Princeton Press. ISBN 0-691-11519-2
  • Schneider, Irmela 1990 Film, Fernsehen & Co. Heidelberg.
  • German Film History
  • German films New releases, contemporary German cinema, East German film, early silent films, German actors & directors, & movie soundtracks.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Kinobesuche in Deutschland 1925 bis 2004 Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft e.V
  2. ^ Information on the Filmförderungsanstalt (FFA) - German Federal Film Board

See also


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m