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Encyclopedia > Cinema of Australia
Australasian cinema
Ned Kelly depicted in the first ever feature-length narrative film
Ned Kelly depicted in the first ever feature-length narrative film
Arts in Australia

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Visual arts Australasian cinema refers collectively to the film output and film industries of Australasia. ... New Zealand cinema refers to films made by New Zealand-based production companies in New Zealand. ... Image File history File links Image of the 1906 film, The Story of the Kelly Gang the first full length feature film about the Australian bush ranger, Ned Kelly. ... Image File history File links Image of the 1906 film, The Story of the Kelly Gang the first full length feature film about the Australian bush ranger, Ned Kelly. ... The arts in Australia have been influenced by its culture including a sense of European Australian isolation and remoteness. ... Architecture in Australia shows the substantial influence of that of English architecture with contemporary Australian architecture being more eclectic reflecting the multiculturalism of Australian society particularly post World War 2. ... // At first Australian comics copied British comic papers until its first comic book The Kookaburra appeared in 1931. ... Historically Australian cuisine was based on traditional British cooking brought to the country by the first settlers. ... A wide variety of dance occurs in Australia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Australian music is the music originating from the country of Australia. ... European style Theatre in Australia came with the first European settlers in the 1780s. ... The Art of Australia refers to both Australian Aboriginal art and Post Colonial art. ...

The cinema of Australia has a long history and has produced many internationally-recognized films, actors and filmmakers.

Contents

History

Australia's film history has been characterized as one of 'boom and bust' due to the unstable and cyclical nature of its industry; there have been deep troughs when few films were made for decades and high peaks when a glut of films reached the market.[1]


Australian film has a long history. Indeed, the earliest known feature length narrative film in the world was the Australian production The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906). A feature-length is a movie/film term meaning full-length or uncut. ... The narrative film uses chronological reality to tell a fictional story. ... The Story of the Kelly Gang (also screened as Ned Kelly and His Gang) is widely regarded as the worlds first feature length film. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Arguably one of the world's first film studios, The Limelight Department was operated by The Salvation Army in Melbourne, Australia, between 1891 and 1910. The Limelight Department produced evangelical material for use by the Salvation Army, as well as private and government contracts. In its 19 years of operation, the Limelight Department produced about 300 films of various lengths, making it the largest film producer of its time. The major innovation of the Limelight Department would come in 1899 when Herbert Booth and Joseph Perry began work on Soldiers of the Cross, arguably the first feature length film ever produced. Soldiers of the Cross fortified the Limelight Department as a major player in the early film industry. However, Soldier of the Cross would be dwarfed when the Limelight Department was commissioned to film the Federation of Australia. Arguably one of the worlds first film studios, the Limelight Department was operated by The Salvation Army in Melbourne, Australia between 1891 and 1910. ...


The boom of the 1910s

The first 'boom' in Australian film occurred in the 1910s. After beginning slowly in the years from 1900, 1910 saw 4 narrative films released, then 51 in 1911, 30 in 1912, and 17 in 1913, and back to 4 in 1914, the beginning of World War I.[2] While these numbers may seem small, Australia was one of the most prolific film-producing countries at the time [citation needed]. // The 1910s represent the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the second half of the 19th Century. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


There are various explanations for the subsequent demise of the industry; some historians have pointed to falling audience numbers, a lack of interest in Australian product and narratives, and the decision to participate in World War I. However, a major reason lay in the official banning of bushranger films in 1912.[3] Looking for alternative products, Australian theatre chains realised that Australian films were much more expensive than imported films from the United States, which could be purchased cheaply as production expenses had already been recouped. To redress this decline, the federal government imposed a tax on imported film in 1914, but this was removed by 1918. By 1923, U.S. films dominated the Australian exhibition sector, with 94% of all films coming from that country. [citation needed] 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The boom of the 1970s and 1980s

During the 1970s, government funding for Australian filmmakers was increased. The South Australian Film Corporation was established in 1972 to promote and produce films, while the Australian Film Commission was created in 1975 to fund and produce internationally competitive films.[1] A generation of directors and actors emerged who told distinctively Australian stories. Films such as Picnic at Hanging Rock (Peter Weir, 1975) and Sunday Too Far Away (Ken Hannam, 1975) made an impact on the international arena. The 1970s and 80s are regarded by many as a 'golden age' of Australian cinema, with many successful films, from the dark science fiction of Mad Max (George Miller, 1979) to the romantic comedy of Crocodile Dundee (Peter Faiman, 1986), a film that defined Australia in the eyes of many foreigners despite having little to do with the lifestyle of most Australians. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The South Australian Film Corporation (SAFC) is a statutory body established under the 1972 South Australian Film Corporation Act in South Australia. ... The Australian Film Commission is a government agency established in 1975 as the Australian Film Development Commission. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Picnic at Hanging Rock is the title of a 1967 novel by Australian author Joan Lindsay, and the 1975 film adaptation directed by Peter Weir. ... Peter Lindsay Weir (born August 21, 1944) is an Australian film director. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sunday Too Far Away is an Australian feature film which was directed by Ken Hannam and released in 1975. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Mad Max (disambiguation). ... George Miller (born March 3, 1945) is an Australian film and television screenwriter, film director and producer. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Crocodile Dundee is a 1986 Australian comedy film set in the Australian Outback in the area around Walkabout Creek and in New York City. ... Peter Pete Faiman is an Australian television producer. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


The industry today

The Australian film industry continues to produce a reasonable number of films each year,[citation needed] but in common with other English-speaking countries, Australia has often found it difficult to compete in a marketplace dominated by American product. The most successful actors and film-makers are easily lured by Hollywood and rarely return to the domestic film industry. ...


After Rupert Murdoch, the head of Fox Studios and an Australian, saw that the new Fox studios were moved to Sydney, some US producers have chosen to film at Fox's state of the art facilities as production costs in Sydney are well below US costs. Studios established in Australia, like Fox Studios Australia and Warner Bros. Movie World, host large international productions like The Matrix and Star Wars II and III. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The parks entrance gate. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ... Film poster for Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002) is the fifth Star Wars science fiction movie released and the second part of the prequel trilogy which began with Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. ... Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith is the third episode of the Star Wars film series (but the sixth film to be produced), to be released on Thursday, May 19, 2005. ...


Government support

A recurring debate in the Australian film industry revolves around the necessity or otherwise of government support for the industry. In brief, the argument for government support maintains that a viable film industry is only possible if it is supported in some way by the government and proponents of this view hold that the industry cannot compete against the hegemony of Hollywood. The argument against government support is that the industry is viable without support and will become stronger if increasingly globalized market forces are allowed full and untrammeled play. Others argue that a film industry in itself has little value. The history of the industry in Australia is to some extent a result of the ascendancy of one position over the other.


Australian exports

The Australian film industry has produced a number of successful actors and directors, some of whom have moved on to Hollywood. These include actors and actresses Hugo Weaving, Paul Hogan, Sam Neill, Mel Gibson, Guy Pearce, Cate Blanchett, Toni Collette, Nicole Kidman, Naomi Watts, Judy Davis, Anthony LaPaglia, Geoffrey Rush, Russell Crowe, Hugh Jackman, Heath Ledger, Rachel Griffiths, Rose Byrne and Eric Bana, directors Peter Weir, Mario Andreacchio and Baz Luhrmann, Phillip Noyce, Gillian Armstrong, Jane Campion and associated production experts. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Paul Hogan starring as Michael Crocodile Dundee Paul Hogan and The Paul Hogan Show (VHS) For other persons named Paul Hogan, see Paul Hogan (disambiguation). ... Sam Neill (born Nigel John Dermot Neill), DCNZM, OBE (born 14 September 1947) is a New Zealand-Australian film and television actor, and owner of the Two Paddocks winery in Central Otago. ... This article is about the actor. ... Guy Pearce in Memento (2000). ... Catherine Élise Blanchett (born on May 14, 1969) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award-winning Australian actress. ... Toni Collette (born November 1, 1972) is an Academy Award-nominated Australian actress and musician. ... Nicole Mary Kidman AC (born June 20, 1967), is an Australian [1] actress. ... Naomi Ellen Watts (born September 28, 1968) is a British-Australian actress known for her roles in Mulholland Dr., the film remakes of The Ring and King Kong, as well as her Academy Award-nominated role in the film 21 Grams. ... Judy Davis (born 23 April 1955) is an Academy Award-nominated and 3-time Emmy Award-winning Australian actress. ... Anthony LaPaglia (born 31 January 1959) (pronounced ) is an Australian actor, best known for his role as FBI agent Jack Malone on the American TV series Without a Trace, a role which won him a Golden Globe Award. ... Geoffrey Roy Rush (born 6 July 1951) is an Academy Award- and Emmy Award-winning Australian actor. ... Russell Ira Crowe (born April 7, 1964) is a New Zealand-Australian[1] actor. ... Hugh Michael Jackman (born 12 October 1968) is an Australian film producer, and film, television and stage actor, known for playing Wolverine in X-Men and its sequels, and for his Tony Award-winning performance on Broadway in The Boy from Oz. ... Heath Andrew Ledger (born April 4, 1979) is an Academy Award-nominated Australian actor. ... Rachel Griffiths Rachel Griffiths (born June 4, 1968 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) is a film and television actress. ... Rose Judith Esther Byrne (born July 24, 1979) is an Australian actress. ... Eric Bana (born Eric Banadinovich on August 9, 1968) is an Australian film and television actor. ... Peter Lindsay Weir (born August 21, 1944) is an Australian film director. ... Mario Andreacchio is the founder of the Adelaide Motion Picture Compan. ... Baz Luhrmann (born Mark Anthony Luhrmann on September 17, 1962) is an Oscar and Golden Globe-nominated Australian film director, screenwriter, and producer. ... Phillip Noyce on the set of Rabbit-Proof Fence with the films star, Everlyn Sampi. ... Gillian Armstrong (born December 18, 1950 in Melbourne, Australia) is a film director. ... Jane Campion (born April 30, 1954 in Wellington, New Zealand) is an Academy Award-winning film maker. ...


See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a chronological list of Australian films by decade and year. ... This is a list of movies set in Australia (and not just only filmed or created in Australia): Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 40,000... A list of movies filmed in Melbourne, Australia. ... The South Australian Film Corporation (SAFC) is a statutory body established under the 1972 South Australian Film Corporation Act in South Australia. ...

References

  1. ^ David Stratton, The Avocado Plantation: Boom and Bust in the Australian Film Industry, Sydney: Pan Macmillan, 1990
  2. ^ Andrew Pike and Ross Cooper, Australian Film 1900 – 1977: A Guide to Feature Film Production, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1998, 1 – 49
  3. ^ Reade, Eric (1970) Australian Silent Films: A Pictorial History of Silent Films from 1896 to 1926. Melbourne: Lansdowne Press, 59. See also Routt, William D. More Australian than Aristotelian:The Australian Bushranger Film,1904-1914. Senses of Cinema 18 (January-February), 2002. The banning of bushranger films in NSW is fictionalised in Kathryn Heyman's 2006 novel, Captain Starlight's Apprentice.

Kathryn Heyman (born 1965) is an Australian writer, born in Lismore, New South Wales. ...

Literature

Encyclopedia and Reference

  • Murray, Scott, ed. Australian Film: 1978 – 1994. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-19-553777-7
  • Pike, Andrew and Ross Cooper. Australian Film: 1900 – 1977. revised ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-550784-3
  • McFarland, Brian, Geoff Mayer and Ina Bertrand, eds. The Oxford Companion to Australian Film. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-553797-1
  • Moran, Albert and Errol Vieth. Historical Dictionary of Australian and New Zealand Cinema. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8108-5459-7
  • Reade, Eric. Australian Silent Films: A Pictorial History of Silent Films from 1896 to 1926. Melbourne: Lansdowne Press, 1970.
  • Verhoeven, Deb, ed. Twin Peeks: Australian and New Zealand Feature Films. Melbourne: Damned Publishing, 1999. ISBN 1-876310-00-6

Critique and Commentary

  • Collins, Felicity, and Theresa Davis. Australian Cinema After Mabo. Sydney: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Dawson, Johnathon, and Bruce Molloy, eds. Queensland Images in Film and Television. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press, 1990.
  • Dermody, Susan and Elizabeth Jacka, eds. The Screening of Australia, Volume 1: Anatomy of a Film Industry. Sydney: Currency Press, 1987.
  • — — — . The Screening of Australia, Volume 2: Anatomy of a National Cinema. Sydney: Currency Press, 1988.
  • Moran, Albert and Tom O’Regan, eds. An Australian Film Reader (Australian Screen Series). Sydney: Currency Press, 1985.
  • O'Regan, Tom. Australian National Cinema. London: Routledge, 1996.
  • Stratton, David. The Avocado Plantation: Boom and Bust in the Australian Film Industry. Sydney : Pan Macmillan, 1990. 465p. ISBN 0-7329-0250-9

External links



  Results from FactBites:
 
Australia Travel Guide » Cinema of Australia : Plan your Tour to Australia (586 words)
However, the purchase of virtually all cinemas by American distribution companies saw an almost total disappearance of Australian films from the screens.
The cinema of Australia has a long history-in fact, it is possible that the first feature-length narrative film was the Australian production, The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906).
Australia’s film history has been characterised as ‘boom and bust’, because of the unstable and cyclical nature of the industry, with deep troughs when few films were made for decades and high peaks when a glut of films reached the market.
Cinema of Australia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1973 words)
Australia's film history has been characterised as one of 'boom and bust' due to the unstable and cyclical nature of its industry; there have been deep troughs when few films were made for decades and high peaks when a glut of films reached the market.
The climax of the movie occurs on the Anzac battlefield at Gallipoli and depicts the ill-fated attack at the Nek on the morning of the 7 August 1915, by the 3rd Light Horse Brigade.
Released on April 30, 1986 in Australia, and on September 26, 1986 in the United States, it was the second highest grossing film in the USA in that year and went on to become the No. 1 film worldwide at the box office.
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