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Encyclopedia > Cincinnati in the Civil War

During the American Civil War, the Ohio River port city of Cincinnati, Ohio, played a key role as a major source of supplies and troops for the Union Army. It also served as the headquarters for much of the war for the Department of the Ohio, which was charged with the defense of the region, as well as directing the army's offensives into Kentucky and Tennessee. This article is becoming very long. ... The Ohio River is the largest tributary by volume of the Mississippi River. ... Nickname: The Queen City Location in Hamilton County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Hamilton Founded 1788 Incorporated 1802 (village) - 1819 (city) Government type Strong mayor  - Mayor Mark L. Mallory (D) Area    - City  79. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... The Department of the Ohio was an administrative military district created by the United States War Department early in the American Civil War to administer the troops in the Northern states near the Ohio River. ... Kentucky was a border state of key importance in the American Civil War. ... The American Civil War, to a large extent, was fought in cities and farms of Tennessee—only Virginia had more battles. ...

Contents

Cincinnati at the outset of the Civil War

Antebellum Cincinnati played a large role in the abolitionist movement, partially due to its location as a major city in the free state of Ohio directly across the river from the slave state Kentucky. The "Queen City" became a major migration path for escaped slaves. Leading abolitionists such as Lyman Beecher, James Birney, Salmon P. Chase, Levi Coffin, and Theodore Weld frequently spoke or wrote in support of freeing the slaves, but they often encountered local resistance, including violent actions from those with opposing viewpoints. Several locations in the region were alleged to be stops on the Underground Railroad. Debates held at the Lane Theological Seminary fueled the slavery controversary. Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before war(ante means before and bellum is war). ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... For the term free state as it arises in United States history, see: Free state. ... During the American Civil War, nearly 320,000 Ohioans served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York and Pennsylvania. ... A slave state was a U.S. state that had legal slavery of African Americans. ... Lyman Beecher Lyman Beecher (October 12, 1775 – January 10, 1865) was a Presbyterian clergyman, temperance movement leader, and the father of several noted leaders, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, and Catharine Beecher, and a leader of the Second Great Awakening of the United... James Gillespie Birney (February 4, 1792 - November 25, 1857) was an American presidential candidate for the Liberty Party in the 1840 and 1844 elections. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Levi Coffin Levi Coffin (Born: October 28, 1798 in Greensboro, North Carolina, United States-September 16, 1877 in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States) was an American educator and abolitionist. ... Theodore Dwight Weld (1803–1895), the author of American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses, was an evangelical American abolitionist. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lane Theological Seminary was established in the Walnut Hills section of Cincinnati, Ohio in 1829 to educate Presbyterian ministers. ...


Cincinnati had mixed political views. Many of the city's swelling immigrant population embraced the fledgling Republican Party, including many Germans. In 1859, Abraham Lincoln made his first political visit to Cincinnati, where he challenged presidential hopeful Stephen Douglas’s views on slavery. The political editor of the Cincinnati Daily Gazette later wrote the supportive biography, The Life of Abraham Lincoln, which was used as campaign propaganda during Abraham Lincoln’s 1860 presidential campaign, while the Cincinnati Daily Times, a Democratic newspaper, openly supported the South’s right to secede. The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Democratic Party. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809—April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865). ... Stephen A. Douglas Stephen Arnold Douglas (April 23, 1813 - June 3, 1861), American politician from Illinois, was one of the Democratic Party nominees for President in 1860 (the other being John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... Historic Southern United States. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ...


At the outset of the war in early 1861, hundreds of Cincinnati's young men flocked to military service . Among the more prominent regiments raised in Cincinnati was the 9th Ohio Infantry, the first almost all-German unit to enter the Union Army. The city gave $250,000.00 for the organization of this unit.[1] In May 1861, the United States Sanitary Commission recruited associate members in Cincinnati who began supplementing the government in providing comfort for the soldiers. Through their efforts, the Good Samaritan Hospital was finished as a medical facility for injured or wounded soldiers. A year later, they established a Soldiers' Home. A regiment is a military unit, larger than a company and smaller than a division. ... The United States Sanitary Commission was not an official agency of the United States government, created by legislation signed by President of the United States Mike The Man Rose on June 18, 1861, to coordinate the volunteer efforts of women who wanted to contribute to the war effort of the...


The city became noted as a major source of gunboats and other Union Navy vessels from the burgeoning shipyards in the Fulton neighborhood on the east side along the Ohio River. Boilers, armor plating, and cast iron cannons were also manufactured in Cincinnati. The city also was a major distribution point for grain, pork, beef, other food, and military supplies to the Union armies serving in the Western Theater. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ...


Camp Dennison

Main article: Camp Dennison
Camp Dennison
Camp Dennison

With the outbreak of the Civil War, George B. McClellan, a prominent Cincinnati resident and the commander of Ohio's state militia, was charged with selecting a site for a recruitment and training center for southern Ohio. The Cincinnati region was a possible target for the Confederate Army due to its Ohio River location and proximity to slave states such as Kentucky and Virginia, from which invasions could be launched. He chose a level tract of land near Indian Hill, Ohio, 17 miles from Cincinnati. More than 50,000 Union soldiers were mustered in or out of service at Camp Dennison. As many as 12,000 occupied the camp at any one time. George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker Militia is the activity of one or more citizens organized to provide defense or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... The Village of Indian Hill is a city located in Hamilton County, Ohio, and is the affluent suburb of the Greater Cincinnati area. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ...


Shortly after the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862, a military hospital was established on the grounds of Camp Dennison, with over 200 beds situated in a series of wooden barracks. The nearby Waldschmidt Cemetery served as the temporary gravesite for Union soldiers and Confederate prisoners of war. As the war progressed, Camp Dennison became a significant base of operations for Federal military units heading south to the front lines. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston† P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894) and Army of the Ohio (17,918) Army of Mississippi (44,699) Casualties 13,047 (1,754 killed, 8,408... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Another significant U.S. Army training camp near Cincinnati was Camp Harrison, located six miles north of Cincinnati, on the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton Railroad. The post was named for President William Henry Harrison, who was from Hamilton County. The soldiers at Camp Harrison usually remained at the camp for only a short time for training. The Cincinatti, Hamilton and Dayton Railroad (CH&DRR) was a United States railroad that existed between its incorporation on March 2, 1846 and its acquisition by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in December, 1917. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... Hamilton County is a county in the located in the southwest corner of the state of Ohio, United States. ...


1862 invasion threat

Main article: Defense of Cincinnati

A series of six artillery batteries were built along the Ohio River to protect the city, including Fort Shaler and Fort Mitchell. Only one, Battery Hooper, now the James A. Ramage Civil War Museum in Fort Wright, Kentucky, is open to the public. Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... Fort Mitchell is a city located in Kenton County, Kentucky. ... Fort Wright is a city located in Kenton County, Kentucky. ...


In September 1862, Confederate Brig. Gen. Henry Heth had been sent north to capture Cincinnati, then the sixth largest city in the United States. Mayor George Hatch declared martial law, and Union Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace organized the citizens for defense and raised the Black Brigade of Cincinnati. Along eight miles of hilltops from Ludlow to Fort Thomas, Kentucky, volunteers and soldiers constructed 23 batteries and four forts, which were defended by 22,000 Union soldiers and 50,000 local militia volunteers, called "Squirrel Hunters." On September 5, the governor announced to the public that no more volunteers would be needed for the defense of Cincinnati, but he advised that all military organizations be kept up for future needs.[2] Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven Southern states seceded from the United States (four more states soon followed). ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Henry Heth Henry Heth (December 16, 1825 – September 27, 1899) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Lew Wallace Lewis Lew Wallace (April 10, 1827 – February 15, 1905) was a lawyer, governor, Union general in the American Civil War, American statesman, and author, best remembered for his historical novel Ben-Hur. ... Ludlow is a city located in Kenton County, Kentucky. ... Fort Thomas is a city located in Campbell County, Kentucky, along the Ohio River. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker Militia is the activity of one or more citizens organized to provide defense or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ...


Cincinnati was briefly threatened by the Confederate cavalry of Brig. Gen. Albert G. Jenkins, who bypassed Cincinnati to the east and entered Ohio near Buffington Island. General Heth and his men marched up the Lexington Road in Northern Kentucky towards the Ohio River. He soon encountered the strong line of Federal defenses and wisely decided not to attack. He lingered in the region for one day and then retreated on September 13. Union General Wallace soon earned the nickname "Savior of Cincinnati" for his energetic defensive actions. The Squirrel Hunters returned to their homes.[3] Albert Gallatin Jenkins (November 10, 1830 – May 21, 1864) was an attorney, planter, representative to the United States Congress and First Confederate Congress, and a Confederate brigadier general during the American Civil War. ... Buffington Island is an island on the Ohio River in Jackson County, West Virginia north of Pomeroy, Ohio. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ...


Later war years

Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside, the new commander of the Department of the Ohio as of March 1863, established his headquarters in Cincinnati and garrisoned the area with veteran units from his newly created XXIII Corps. During Morgan's Raid in July, troops from Camp Dennison, at Burnside's orders, responded to the invasion by Confederate cavalry under Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan. Gunboats dispatched from Cincinnati played a large role in contributing to Morgan's defeat at the Battle of Buffington Island. Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was a railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... XXIII Corps was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan Morgans Raid was a highly publicized incursion by Confederate cavalry into the Northern states of Indiana and Ohio during the American Civil War. ... Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan John Hunt Morgan (June 1, 1825 – September 4, 1864) was a Confederate general and cavalry officer in the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Buffington Island, also known as the Buffington Island Skirmish, took place on July 19, 1863, during the American Civil War in Meigs County, Ohio. ...


In December 1863, the U.S. Sanitary Commission opened the "Cincinnati Sanitary Fair" at the opera house as a way of focusing attention on local relief efforts for the soldiers. Bazaars, food stands, art galleries, lectures, and concerts were among the attractions. The Fair ran until April 1864 and garnered $234,000 in revenues and donations, $175,000 collected from Cincinnatians themselves.[4]


Cincinnati became the scene of numerous military court-martials and trials of civilians accused of treason or aiding the Confederate cause. Among those convicted in these tribunals was Ohio Copperhead Clement Vallandigham. A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... The Copperheads were a faction of Democrats in the North who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ... Clement Vallandigham Clement Laird Vallandigham (velan´digham, -gam) (July 29, 1820 - June 17, 1871), Ohio politician, a key leader of the Copperheads in the American Civil War, was born in New Lisbon (now Lisbon), Ohio. ...


During the 1864 Presidential Election, Cincinnatians voted heavily for President Lincoln over General McClellan, whose strong personal Cincinnati ties were not enough to carry Hamilton County.


With the cessation of hostilities in 1865, Cincinnati became a major place for Federal troops to disembark from river steamers and reenter Northern soil. A network of roads and railroads carried soldiers back to Camp Dennison or to their home cities to be mustered out of the service.


Prominent Cincinnatians in the war effort

Note that Ulysses S. Grant was born in Point Pleasant, about 25 miles (40 km) east of Cincinnati. He maintained Cincinnati ties, and, for much of the Civil War, his favorite mount was a large horse named "Cincinnati." William Dennison, Jr. ... William Dwight (July 14, 1831 – April 21, 1888) was a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... James A. Greer (28 February 1833 - 17 January 1904) was an admiral in the United States Navy who served during the Civil War. ... Andrew Hickenlooper (August 10, 1837 – May 12, 1904) was an Ohio civil engineer, politician, and most famously an officer who served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... William Haines Lytle (November 2, 1826 - September 20, 1863) was a captain in the Mexican War and in the American Civil War he commanded the Fourth Ohio Regiment in General O.M. Mitchels brigade. ... George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | 1809 births | 1862 deaths | American astronomers | Astronomers stubs ... Dr. John Moore (1826-1907) was an United States Army physician who rose to become Surgeon General of the Army. ... Edward Follansbee Noyes (October 3, 1832 - September 4, 1890) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... John Potts Slough (1829-1867) was a politician, lawyer, Union general and Chief Justice of New Mexico. ... Godfrey Weitzel (November 1, 1835 – March 19, 1884) was a major general in the Union army during the American Civil War, as well as the acting Mayor of New Orleans during the Federal occupancy of the city. ... August Willich (1810-1878). ... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Categories: Unincorporated communities in Ohio | Clermont County, Ohio | Stub ...


Civil War monumentation and tourism

  • The National Steamboat Monument on Mehring Way (near its intersection with Broadway) in Cincinnati commemorates the hundreds of Ohio soldiers who had been liberated from Southern prison camps such as Cahaba and Andersonville, only to perish in the Sultana tragedy. An Ohio Historical Society marker at Sawyer Point also recounts the Sultana tragedy, as an estimated fifty Cincinnatians died in the disaster. The ill-fated ship had been constructed in 1862 by the John Lithoberry Shipyard on Front Street in Cincinnati.
  • Other markers and monuments are scattered throughout the town. Cincinnati has busts for Robert L. McCook and Friedrich Hecker and statues of Civil War-era composer Stephen Foster and Union general / President James A. Garfield. There are two statues of President Lincoln.
  • The Cincinnati Civil War Memorial Hall was erected in 1908.
  • Cincinnati's sprawling and well landscaped Spring Grove Cemetery is the final resting place for forty former Civil War generals, including Jacob Ammen, Jacob D. Cox, Manning F. Force, Joseph Hooker, William H. Lytle, Alexander McCook, Daniel McCook, Jr., Edwin S. McCook, Robert L. McCook, and Godfrey Weitzel. A prominent member of Lincoln's cabinet, Salmon P. Chase, is also interred in the cemetery. Sculptor Randolph Rogers' statue of a Union infantryman on guard, "The Sentinel," was installed in Spring Grove Cemetery in 1865; it was one of the state's first formal Civil War monuments.[5]
  • A number of Civil War reenactor encampments are held each year in the greater Cincinnati area, including "Civil War Days" the first weekend of May in Sharon Woods Park.

Blueprint of Cahaba Prison Cahaba Prison is a site in Alabama where the Confederacy held Union soldiers during the American Civil War. ... Andersonville prison The Andersonville prison, located at Camp Sumter, was the largest Confederate military prison during the American Civil War. ... The steamboat Sultana was a Mississippi River paddlewheeler which was destroyed in an explosion on 27 April 1865, the greatest maritime disaster in United States history. ... The Ohio Historical Society is a non-profit organization incorporated in 1885 ...to promote a knowledge of archaeology and history, especially in Ohio. ... Robert Latimer McCook (December 28, 1827 – August 6, 1862) was a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War who was killed by Confederate partisans in Alabama. ... Friedrich Franz Karl Hecker (September 28, 1811 - March 24, 1881), German revolutionary, was born at Eichtersheim in the Palatinate, his father being a revenue official. ... Stephen Foster Stephen Collins Foster (July 4, 1826 – January 13, 1864), known as the father of American music, was the pre-eminent songwriter in the United States of the 19th century. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881) and the second U.S. President to be assassinated (Abraham Lincoln was the first). ... Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum (733 acres) is a notable, nonprofit garden cemetery and arboretum located at 4521 Spring Grove Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio. ... General Jacob Ammen (7 January 1808 – 6 February 1894) was an officer in the United States Army during the American Civil War. ... Jacob Dolson Cox (October 27, 1828 - August 4, 1900) was an officer in the Union Army during the Civil War and later a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Robert Latimer McCook (December 28, 1827 – August 6, 1862) was a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War who was killed by Confederate partisans in Alabama. ... Godfrey Weitzel (November 1, 1835 – March 19, 1884) was a major general in the Union army during the American Civil War, as well as the acting Mayor of New Orleans during the Federal occupancy of the city. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Randolph Rogers (July 6, 1825, Waterloo, New York – January 15, 1892) was an American sculptor. ...

References

  • Geaslen, Chester F., Our Moment of Glory in the Civil War. Newport, Kentucky: Otto Printing Co., 1972.
  • Harper, Robert S., Ohio Handbook of the Civil War. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio Historical Society, 1961.
  • Simms, Henry Harrison. Ohio Politics on the Eve of Conflict. Columbus: Ohio State University Press for the Ohio Historical Society, 1961.
  • Tucker, Louis Leonard, Cincinnati during the Civil War. Columbus: Ohio State University Press for the Ohio Historical Society, 1962.
  • Reid, Whitelaw, Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen, Her Generals, and Soldiers. 2 vol. Cincinnati: Moore, Wilstach, & Baldwin, 1868.
  • U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, 70 volumes in 4 series. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1880-1901.

Whitelaw Reid Whitelaw Reid (October 27, 1837 - December 15, 1912) was a U.S. politician and newspaper editor, as well as the author of a popular history of Ohio in the Civil War. ...

Notes

  1. ^ 9th OVI webpage at ohiolink.edu
  2. ^ Heritage Pursuit
  3. ^ Ohio History Central
  4. ^ http://www.heritagepursuit.com/Hamilton/HamiltonChapXXII.htm
  5. ^ Campen, Richard N., Outdoor Sculpture in Ohio: A Comprehensive Overview of Outdoor Sculpture in Ohio, Mid-Nineteenth Century to the Present, West Summit Press, Chagrin Falls, Ohio, 1980

External links

  • Cincinnati Civil War Round Table
  • Harper's Weekly, "Defense of Cincinnati"
  • Lee Foundation - Preparations for the Defense of Cincinnati
  • Civil War burials in Spring Grove Cemetery
  • History of Cincinnati and Hamilton County

 
 

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