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Encyclopedia > Cimmerians

The Cimmerians (Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Ukraine and Russia, in the 8th and 7th century BC. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Eurasian nomads. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of...

Contents

Origins

Their origins are obscure, but they are believed to have been Indo-European. Their language is regarded as being related to Iranian[1] or Thracian, or they seem at least to have had an Iranian ruling class.[2] For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ...


According to Encyclopedia Britannica, "They probably did live in the area north of the Black Sea, but attempts to define their original homeland more precisely by archaeological means, or even to fix the date of their expulsion from their country by the Scythians, have not so far been completely successful."[3] The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ...


Very little is known archaeologically of the Cimmerians of the Northern Black Sea Coast. They are associated with the Srubna culture, which displaced the earlier catacomb culture (2000-1200 BC). Srubna or Timber-grave culture, 16th-12th centuries BC. This is a bronze age successor to the Yamna culture, the Catacomb culture and the Abashevo culture. ... Catacomb culture, ca. ...


A few stone stelae found in Ukraine and the northern Caucasus have been connected with the Cimmerians. They are in a style clearly different from both the later Scythian and the earlier Yamna/Kemi-Oba stelae. The anthropomorphic stone stelae found in the Ukrainian steppe, with some finds extending the area to Moldavia, the northern Caucasus (Southern Federal District) and and the area north of the Caspian (western Kazakhstan), date from the Copper Age (ca. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Yamna (from Russian яма pit) or pit grave culture is a prehistoric culture of the Bug/Dniester/Ural region, dating to the 36th–23rd centuries BC. The culture was predominantly nomadic, with some agriculture practiced near rivers and a few hillforts. ... Kemi Oba culture, ca. ...


Historical accounts

Cimmerian invasions of Colchis, Urartu and Assyria during the reign of King Rusas I
Cimmerian invasions of Colchis, Urartu and Assyria during the reign of King Rusas I

The first historical record of the Cimmerians appears in Assyrian annals in the year 714 BC. These describe how a people termed the Gimirri helped the forces of Sargon II to defeat the kingdom of Urartu. Their original homeland, called Gamir or Uishdish, seems to have been located within the buffer state of Mannae. The later geographer Ptolemy placed the Cimmerian city of Gomara in this region. After their conquests of Colchis and Iberia in the First Millennium BC, the Cimmerians also came to be known as Gimirri in Georgian. According to Georgian historians,[4] the Cimmerians played an influential role in the development of both the Colchian and Iberian cultures. The modern-day Georgian word for hero which is gmiri, is derived from the word Gimirri, a direct reference to the Cimmerians which settled in the area after the initial conquests. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 510 pixel Image in higher resolution (1706 × 1087 pixel, file size: 163 KB, MIME type: image/png) Urartu from 715 BC to 713 BC catalanian wikipedia by Usuari:Jolle File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 510 pixel Image in higher resolution (1706 × 1087 pixel, file size: 163 KB, MIME type: image/png) Urartu from 715 BC to 713 BC catalanian wikipedia by Usuari:Jolle File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC - 710s BC - 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC Events and Trends Judah, Tyre and Sidon revolt against Assyria 719 BC - Zhou Huan Wang of the... Sargon II, captor of Samaria, with a dignitary Sargon II (r. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... The Mannaeans were an ancient people of Asia Minor, occupying the region East of Assyria and South-East of Urartu, in present-day North-West Iran. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian/Laz: კოლხეთი, kolkheti; Greek: , Kolchís) was an ancient Georgian [1][2][3], state[4] [5]kingdom and region[6] in the Western Georgia (Caucasus region), which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation and its subgroups. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian: კოლხეთი Kʼolxeti; Laz: Kolkheti;[1] Greek: , Kolchís) was a nearly triangular ancient Georgian region[2] and kingdom in the Caucasus, which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ...


Some modern authors assert that the Cimmerians included mercenaries, whom the Assyrians knew as Khumri, who had been resettled there by Sargon. However, later Greek accounts describe the Cimmerians as having previously lived on the steppes, between the Tyras (Dniester) and Tanais (Don) rivers. Several kings of the Cimmerians are mentioned in Greek and Mesopotamian sources, including Tugdamme (Lygdamis in Greek; mid-7th century BC), and Sandakhshatra (late-7th century). Mercenary (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: translit. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of...


A "mythical" people also named Cimmerians are described in Book 11, 14 of Homer's Odyssey as living beyond the Oceanus, in a land of fog and darkness, at the edge of the world and the entrance of Hades; most probably they are unrelated to the Cimmerians of the Black Sea.[5] This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. ...


According to the Histories of Herodotus (c. 440 BC), the Cimmerians had been expelled from the steppes at some point in the past by the Scythians. To ensure burial in their ancestral homeland, the men of the Cimmerian royal family divided into groups and fought each other to the death. The Cimmerian commoners buried the bodies along the river Tyras and fled from the Scythian advance, across the Caucasus and into Anatolia and the Near East. Their range seems to have extended from Mannae eastward through the Mede settlements of the Zagros Mountains, and south of there as far as Elam. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... Median Empire, ca. ... The Zagros Mountains (Kurdish: زنجیره‌ چیاکانی زاگروس), make up Irans and Iraqs largest mountain range. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ...


The migrations of the Cimmerians were recorded by the Assyrians, whose king, Sargon II, died in battle against them in 705 BC. They are subsequently recorded as having conquered Phrygia in 696 BC-695 BC, prompting the Phrygian king Midas to take poison rather than face capture. In 679 BC, during the reign of Esarhaddon of Assyria, they attacked Cilicia and Tabal under their new ruler Teushpa. Esarhaddon defeated them near Hubushna (tentatively identified with modern Cappadocia). Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC Events and Trends 699 BC - Khallushu succeeds Shuttir-Nakhkhunte as king of the Elamite Empire 697 BC... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC Events and trends 699 BC - Khallushu succeeds Shuttir-Nakhkhunte as king of the Elamite Empire 697 BC... For other uses, see Midas (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC - 670s BC - 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC Events and Trends 677 BC - Death of Zhou li wang, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. ... Esarhaddon (Greek and Biblical form; Akkadian Aššur-aha-iddina Ashur has given a brother to me), was a king of Assyria who reigned 681 BC-669 BC), the youngest son of Sennacherib and the Aramaic queen Naqia (Zakitu), Sennacheribs second wife. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Tabal (Bib. ... Teushpa (or Teispes or Chaishpish) was a 7th century BC king of the Cimmerians. ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ...


In 654 BC or 652 BC – the exact date is unclear – the Cimmerians attacked the kingdom of Lydia, killing the Lydian king Gyges and causing great destruction to the Lydian capital, Sardis. They returned ten years later during the reign of Gyges' son Ardys II and this time captured the city, with the exception of the citadel. The fall of Sardis was a major shock to the powers of the region; the Greek poets Callinus and Archilochus recorded the fear that it inspired in the Greek colonies of Ionia, some of which were attacked by Cimmerian and Treres raiders. Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC Events and Trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras, Guatemala 657 BC - Cypselus becomes the... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC Events and Trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras, Guatemala 657 BC - Cypselus becomes the... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Gyges, was the founder of the third or Mermnad dynasty of Lydian kings and reigned from 687 to 652 BC (according to H Gelzer. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Ardys II was the twenty-seventh king of Lydia, and second king of the Mermnad dynasty; see List of Kings of Lydia. ... Callinus (also known as Kallinus) was a poet who lived in Ephesus in ancient Greece in the mid-7th century BC. He is the earliest known Greek elegiac poet. ... Archilochus (Greek: ) (c. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ...


The Cimmerian occupation of Lydia was brief, however -- possibly due to an outbreak of plague. Between 637 BC and 626 BC they were beaten back by Alyattes II of Lydia. This defeat marked the effective end of Cimmerian power. The term "Gimirri" was used about a century later in the Behistun inscription (ca. 515 BC) as a Babylonian equivalent of Persian Saka (Scythians), but otherwise Cimmerians are not heard of again in Asia, and their ultimate fate is uncertain. It has been speculated that they settled in Cappadocia, known in Armenian as Gamir (the same name as the original Cimmerian homeland in Mannae). However, certain Frankish traditions would locate them at the mouth of the Danube (see Sicambri). In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC - 630s BC - 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC Events and Trends 637 BC - Josiah becomes king of Judah. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC Events and Trends 627 BC - Death of Assurbanipal, king of Assyria; he is succeeded by Assur_etel_ilani (approximate... Alyattes II, king of Lydia (619_560 BC), the real founder of the Lydian empire, was the son of Sadyattes, of the house of the Mermnadae. ... The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... The Germanic tribe of the Sicambri (var. ...


A reference to the Cimmerians is preserved in Gomer גמר of the Hebrew Bible (Standard Hebrew Gómer, Tiberian Hebrew Gōmer, Genesis 10:2, Ezekiel 38:6). As the eldest son of Japheth and the father of Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah, his descendants thus represent one of the major branches of the Japhethic race. In medical slang, a true gomer is a patient who, in spite of old age and multiple diseases, just never seems to die. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... Japheth (Hebrew. ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, Standard Hebrew Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzîm), are Jews who are descendants of Jews from Germany, Poland, Austria and Eastern Europe. ... Riphath - a crusher, Gomers second son (Gen. ... In the Torah, Togarmah is listed in the genealogy of nations as the son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth (Gen. ...


Timeline

  • 721-715 BC – Sargon II mentions a land of Gamirr near to Urartu.
  • 714 – suicide of Rusas I of Urartu, after defeat by both the Assyrians and Cimmerians.
  • 705 – Sargon II of Assyria dies on an expedition against the Kulummu.
  • 679/678 – Gimirri under a ruler called Teushpa invade Assyria from Hubuschna (Cappadocia?). Esarhaddon of Assyria defeats them in battle.
  • 676-674 – Cimmerians invade and destroy Phrygia, and reach Paphlagonia.
  • 654 or 652 – Gyges of Lydia dies in battle against the Cimmerians. Sack of Sardis; Cimmerians and Treres plunder Ionian colonies.
  • 644 – Cimmerians occupy Sardis, but withdraw soon afterwards
  • 637-626 – Cimmerians defeated by Alyattes II.
  • ca. 515 – Last historical record of Cimmerians, in the Behistun inscription of Darius.

Sargon II (right), king of Assyria (r. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... Tushpa - The fortress ruins of Rusas I Rusas I (ruled 735-713 BC) was the King of Urartu. ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... Paphlagonia was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia and Pontus, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. ...

Language

Of the language of the Cimmerians, only a few personal names have survived in Assyrian inscriptions: For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ...

  • Te-ush-pa-a; according to Professor J. Harmatta it goes back to Old Iranian Tavis-paya "swelling with strength".[1] Mentioned in the annals of Esarhaddon, has been compared to the Hurrian war deity Teshub[citation needed]; others interpret it as Iranian, comparing the Achaemenid name Teispes (Herodotus 7.11.2).
  • Dug-dam-mei (Dugdammê) king of the Ummân-Manda (nomads) appears in a prayer of Ashurbanipal to Marduk, on a fragment at the British Museum. According to to Professor J. Harmatta, it goes back to Old Iranian Duγda-maya "giving happiness"[1]. Other spellings include Dugdammi, and Tugdammê. Yamauchi also interprets the name as Iranian, citing Ossetic Tux-domæg "Ruling with Strength."[6]The name appears corrupted to Lygdamis in Strabo 1.3.21.
  • Sandaksatru, son of Dugdamme. This is an Iranian reading of the name, and Mayrhofer (1981) points out that the name may also be read as Sandakurru. Mayrhofer likewise rejects the interpretation of "with pure regency" as a mixing of Iranian and Indo-Aryan. Ivancik suggests an association with the Anatolian deity Sanda. According to Professor J. Harmatta, it goes back to Old Iranian Sanda-Kuru "Splendid Son"[1]. Kur/Kuru is still used as "son" in Kurdish languages and in Persian, korr is used for the male offspring of horses.

Some researchers have attempted to trace various place names to Cimmerian origins. It has been suggested that Crimea is named after the Cimmerians[7] as well as the Armenian city of Gyumri. This, however, seems to be a dubious premise. The name "Crimea" is traceable to the Crimean Tatar word qırım "my steppe, hill" and the peninsula was known as Taurica "(Peninsula) of the Tauri" in antiquity (Strabo 7.4.1; Herodotus 4.99.3, Amm. Marc. 22.8.32). The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ... Esarhaddon (Greek and Biblical form; Akkadian Aššur-aha-iddina Ashur has given a brother to me), was a king of Assyria who reigned 681 BC-669 BC), the youngest son of Sennacherib and the Aramaic queen Naqia (Zakitu), Sennacheribs second wife. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Teshub was the Hurrian god of sky and storm. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... Ashurbanipal, Assurbanipal or Sardanapal, in Akkadian AÅ¡Å¡ur-bāni-apli, (b. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Sanda Sanda - Eurovision Song Contest 2004 Sanda LadoÅŸi Sanda LadoÅŸi (born 2nd January 1970) whose stage name is Sanda, is a famous Romanian singer. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is a term used for a range of different dialects of a language spoken by Kurds. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Location of Gyumri in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Marz Established 401 BC Government  - Mayor Vartan Ghukasyan Area  - City 36 km²  (13. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... The Chersonesus Tauricus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 Taurica (Greek: , Latin: ) also known as Tauris, Taurida, Tauric Chersonese, and Chersonesus Taurica was the name of Crimea in Antiquity. ... The Tauri were the original inhabitants of the southern coast of Crimea, inhabiting the Crimean Mountains and the narrow strip of land between the mountains and the Black Sea. ...


The Cimmerians are generally classified as an Iranian people[1], but based on ancient Greek historical sources, a Thracian[8][9] or (less commonly) a Celtic[10] association is sometimes assumed. According to Ferdinand Friedrich Carl Lehmann-Haupt, the language of the Cimmerians could have been a "missing link" between Thracian and Iranian. The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... This article is about the European people. ...


Possible offshoots

The Cimmerians are thought to have had a number of offshoots. The Thracians have been identified as a possible western branch of the Cimmerians. If Herodotus is to be believed, both peoples originally inhabited the northern shore of the Black Sea, and both were displaced around the same time by invaders from further east. Whereas the Cimmerians would have departed this ancestral homeland by heading east and south across the Caucasus, the Thracians migrated west and south into the Balkans, where they established a successful and long-lived culture. The Tauri, the original inhabitants of Crimea, are sometimes identified as a people related to the Thracians. Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Balkan redirects here. ... The Tauri were the original inhabitants of the southern coast of Crimea, inhabiting the Crimean Mountains and the narrow strip of land between the mountains and the Black Sea. ...


Although the Cimmerians of historical record only appear on the stage of world history for a brief time (during the 7th century BC), numerous Celtic and Germanic peoples have traditions of being descended from the Cimmerians or Scythians, and some of their ethnic names might bear out this belief (e.g. Cymru, Cwmry or Cumbria, Cimbri).[citation needed] It is unlikely that either Proto-Celtic or Proto-Germanic entered Europe as late as the 7th century BC, their formation being commonly associated with the Bronze Age Urnfield and Nordic Bronze Age cultures, respectively. It is, however, conceivable that a small-scale (in terms of population) 8th century "Thraco-Cimmerian" migration triggered cultural changes that contributed to the transformation of the Urnfield culture into the Hallstatt C culture, ushering in the European Iron Age. Later Cimmerian remnant groups may have spread as far as to the Nordic Countries. For example the Cimbri tribe, considered to be a Germanic tribe hailing from the Himmerland (Old Dutch Himber sysæl) region in northern Denmark [11]. This article is about the European people. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... For alternate meanings, see Wales (disambiguation) National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Official languages: English and Welsh Capital: Cardiff First Minister: Rhodri Morgan AM Area  - Total:  - % water: Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² xx% Population  - Total (2001):  - Density: Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² NUTS... Cumbria is a administrative county located in the northwest area of England. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... The migrations of the Teutons and the Cimbri The Cimbri were a Celtic tribe who together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late 2nd century BC. The ancient sources located their home of origin in the northern Jutland. ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Urnfield culture of central European culture is dated roughly between 1300 BC and 750 BC. The name describes the custom of cremating the dead and placing them in cemeteries. ... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... distribution of Thraco-Cimmerian finds Thraco-Cimmerian is a historiographical and archaeological term, composed of the names of the Thracians and the Cimmerians. ... The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... The migrations of the Teutons and the Cimbri The Cimbri were a Celtic tribe who together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late 2nd century BC. The ancient sources located their home of origin in the northern Jutland. ...


The etymology of Cymro "Welshman" and Cwmry "Cumbria", connected to the Cimmerians by 17th-century celticists, might instead (according to Phillip Gove) come from Old Welsh combrog "compatriot, Welshman"[12], deriving from an old Brythonic word "combroges" or Proto-British *kom-brogos[13][14], meaning "compatriots", (as a result of the struggle with the Anglo-Saxons) possibly therefore related to its sister language Breton's keñvroad, keñvroiz "compatriot" [15]. Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ...


In addition, in sources beginning with the Royal Frankish Annals, the Merovingian kings of the Franks traditionally traced their lineage through a pre-Frankish tribe called the Sicambri (or Sugambri), mythologized as a group of "Cimmerians" from the mouth of the Danube river, but who instead came from Gelderland in modern Netherlands and are named for the Sieg river [16]. The Royal Frankish Annals (Latin: Annales Regni Francorum) are annals written for the early Frankish kings, covering the years 741 to 829. ... For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The Germanic tribe of the Sicambri (var. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Capital Arnhem Queens Commissioner Clemens Cornielje Religion (1999) Protestant 31% Catholic 29% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   4,975 km² (1st) 161 km² Population (2005)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 1,970,865 (4th) 393/km² (6th) Inclusion {{{inclusion}}} Anthem Ons Gelderland ISO NL-GE Official website www. ... The Sieg is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany named after the folk of the Sigambrer. ...


If the Scythians are assumed to be related to the Cimmerians, as has often been claimed, many other peoples claiming possible Scythian descent could also be added to this list.


The association of the Cimmerians with one of the Lost Tribes of Israel plays a certain role in British Israelism. Lost Ten Tribes, also referenced as the Ten Lost Tribes or the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, usually refers to ten of the tribes of the ancient Kingdom of Israel that were reported lost after the Kingdom of Israel was totally destroyed, enslaved and exiled by ancient Assyria. ... British Israelism (sometimes called Anglo-Israelism) is a Christian theology based on the premise that many early British people, Europeans and/or their royal families were direct lineal descendants of the Lost Tribes of Israel and in some cases of the Tribe of Judah. ...


Josephus, in his Antiquities, says the descendants of Gomer who were then called Gauls by the Romans, were previously called Gomerites.


Archaeology

The Koban culture (ca. ... ... The Chernogorovka and Novocherkassk cultures (ca. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e J.Harmatta: "Scythians" in UNESCO Collection of History of Humanity - Volume III: From the Seventh Century BC to the Seventh Century AD. Routledge/UNESCO. 1996. pg 182
  2. ^ Cimmerian. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 30, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium [1]. Actual quote: "The origin of the Cimmerians is obscure. Linguistically they are usually regarded as Thracian or as Iranian, or at least to have had an Iranian ruling class."
  3. ^ Cimmerian. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 30, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium [2].
  4. ^ Berdzenishvili, N., Dondua V., Dumbadze, M., Melikishvili G., Meskhia, Sh., Ratiani, P., History of Georgia (Vol. 1), Tbilisi, 1958, pp. 34-36
  5. ^ Entry: Κιμμέριοι at Henry Liddell & Robert Scott.
  6. ^ Yamauchi, Edwin M (1982). Foes from the Northern Frontier: Invading Hordes from the Russian Steppes. Grand Rapids MI USA: Baker Book House. 
  7. ^ Aasimov, Isaac (1991). Asimov's Chronology of the World. New York: HarperCollins, 50. 
  8. ^ Meljukova, A. I. (1979). Skifija i Frakijskij Mir. 
  9. ^ Strabo ascribes the Treres to the Thracians at one place (13.1.8) and to the Cimmerians at another (14.1.40)
  10. ^ Posidonius in Strabo 7.2.2.
  11. ^ Jones, Gwyn. A History of the Vikings. London: Oxford University Press, 2001.
  12. ^ Gove, Philip Babcock, ed. Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 2002: 321
  13. ^ Jones, J. Morris. Welsh Grammar: Historical and Comparative. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.
  14. ^ Russell, Paul. Introduction to the Celtic Languages. London: Longman, 1995.
  15. ^ Delamarre, Xavier. Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise. Paris: Errance, 2001.
  16. ^ Geary, Patrick J. Before France and Germany: The Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...

Bibliography

  • Ivanchik A.I. "Cimmerians and Scythians", 2001
  • Terenozhkin A.I., Cimmerians, Kiev, 1983
  • Cimmerian. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 30, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9082650
  • Collection of Slavonic and Foreign Language Manuscripts - St.St Cyril and Methodius - Bulgarian National Library: http://www.nationallibrary.bg/slavezryk_en.html

See also

Gog and Magog redirect here. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC  maximal Celtic expansion, by the 3rd century BC  the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period  areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today Celts (pronounced or , see pronunciation... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... The migrations of the Teutons and the Cimbri The Cimbri were a Celtic tribe who together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late 2nd century BC. The ancient sources located their home of origin in the northern Jutland. ... distribution of Thraco-Cimmerian finds Thraco-Cimmerian is a historiographical and archaeological term, composed of the names of the Thracians and the Cimmerians. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Cimmerians Airsoft Association -- The Cimmerians (1552 words)
The Cimmerians is a group of historical military combat re-enactors from all walks of life who get together on the third Saturday of each month, regardless of weather conditions, to participate in true-to-life military combat re-enactment using Airsoft equipment and to educate ourselves and the public about military history.
The goal of the Cimmerians is to conduct historical re-enactments for the purpose of education and enjoyment, in a safe and friendly environment, with the highest degree of honor possible.
Cimmerian combat re-enactments are held legally with permission in national forests, land managed by the BLM (Bureau of Land Management), Federal range lands, and on private property.
Cimmerians - definition of Cimmerians in Encyclopedia (440 words)
The Cimmerians were an ancient people of Iranian origin, who lived in the south of modern-day Ukraine (Crimea and northern Black sea coast) and Russia (Black Sea coast and Caucasus), at least in the 8th and 7th century BC.
After their defeat at the hands of the Scythians, a remnant of the Cimmerians took refuge in the mountains of the Crimean peninsula and became subsequently known as the Tauri.
The reputation of the Cimmerians for savagery, combined with their mysteriousness, led the fantasy author Robert E. Howard to identify his character Conan the Barbarian as a Cimmerian.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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