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Encyclopedia > Cigarette
Unlit filtered cigarettes.
Unlit filtered cigarettes.

A cigarette is a product consumed via smoking and manufactured out of cured and finely cut tobacco leaves, which are combined with other additives, then rolled or stuffed into a paper-wrapped cylinder (generally less than 120 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter). The cigarette is ignited at one end and allowed to smoulder for the purpose of inhalation of its smoke from the other (usually filtered) end, which is usually inserted in the mouth. They are sometimes smoked with a cigarette holder. The term cigarette, as commonly used, refers to a tobacco cigarette but can apply to similar devices containing other herbs, such as cannabis. They are colloquially known as "cigs", "ciggies", "cancer sticks", "coffin nails", "death sticks", "smokes", "grits", "bogies" and "fags". Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... In polymer chemistry and Process Engineering, curing refers to the toughening or hardening of a polymer material by cross-linking of polymer chains, brought about by chemical additives, ultraviolet radiation or heat. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chemicals in a cigarette. ... A cigarette filter has the purpose of reducing the amount of smoke, tar, and fine particles as combustion products from a cigarette, being inhaled. ... A cigarette holder is a slender tube in which a single cigarette is held for smoking, as opposed to the cigarette case which holds many cigarettes for the purpose of carrying. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ...


Cigarettes are proven to be highly addictive, as well as a cause of multiple types of cancer, heart disease, respiratory disease, circulatory disease and birth defects.[1][2] Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... Diseases of the mammalian respiratory system are classified under one of two broad categories: physiologic, where disease states are characterised by alterations in physiology, or anatomical, where disease states are defined by the anatomical location/level affected, or by the layers of the respiratory system affected by disease. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ...


A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its smaller size, use of processed leaf, and white paper wrapping. Cigars are typically composed entirely of whole-leaf tobacco. For other uses, see Cigar (disambiguation). ...


Cigarettes contain nicotine, an addictive stimulant. They deliver smoke to the lungs immediately and produce a rapid psychoactive effect[citation needed]. This article is about the chemical compound. ...

Contents

History

A reproduction of a carving from the temple at Palenque, Mexico, depicting a Mayan priest smoking from a smoking tube.
A reproduction of a carving from the temple at Palenque, Mexico, depicting a Mayan priest smoking from a smoking tube.

The earliest forms of cigarettes have been attested in Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds and smoking tubes. The Maya, and later the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and various psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and frequently depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette, and the cigar, were the most common method of smoking in the Caribbean, Mexico and Central and South America until recent times.[3] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 355 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (780 × 1316 pixel, file size: 508 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 355 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (780 × 1316 pixel, file size: 508 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... The Palace, Ruins of Palenque Palenque is a Maya archeological site near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, located at about 130 km south of Ciudad del Carmen (see map). ... Maya may refer to: // The Maya, Native American peoples of southern Mexico and northern Central America Maya peoples, the contemporary indigenous peoples Maya civilization, their historical pre-Columbian civilization Mayan languages, the family of languages spoken by the Maya Yucatec Maya language, specific and most widespread Mayan language, frequently referred... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic...


Cigarettes were largely unknown in the English-speaking world before the Crimean War, when British soldiers began emulating their Ottoman Turkish comrades, who resorted to rolling their tobacco with newsprint.[4] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Newsprint is low-cost, low-quality, non-archival paper. ...


The cigarette was named some time in the 18th century: beggars in Seville began to pick from the ground the cigar ends left by the señoritos ("rich, young men"), wrapped the tobacco remains with paper and smoked them. The first attested use in this habit can be seen in three 18th-century paintings by Francisco de Goya: La cometa (The Kite), La merienda en el Manzanares (Picnic by the River Manzanares) and El juego de la pelota a pala (The Ball and Paddle Game). For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ...


In the George Bizet opera Carmen, which was set in Spain in the 1830s, the title character Carmen was at first a worker in a cigarette factory. Georges Bizet (October 25, 1838 – June 3, 1875), was a French composer of the romantic era best known for his opera Carmen. ... For other uses, see Carmen (disambiguation). ...


The use of tobacco in cigarette form became increasingly popular during and after the Crimean War. This was helped by the development of tobaccos that are suitable for cigarette use. During World War I and World War II, cigarettes were rationed to soldiers. During the second half of the 20th century, the adverse health effects of cigarettes started to become widely known and text-only health warnings became commonplace on cigarette packets. The United States has not yet implemented graphical cigarette warning labels, which is a more effective method to communicate to the public the dangers of cigarette smoking.[5] Canada, Australia and the UK, however, have both textual warnings and graphic visual images displaying, among other things, the damaging effects tobacco use has on the human body. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The cigarette has evolved much since its conception; for example, the thin bands that travel transverse to the "axis of smoking" (thus forming circles along the length of the cigarette) are alternate sections of thin and thick paper to facilitate effective burning when being drawn, and retard burning when at rest. Synthetic particulate filters remove some of the tar before it reaches the smoker.


Manufacturing

Commercially manufactured cigarettes are relatively simple objects consisting mainly of a tobacco blend, paper, PVA glue to bond the outer layer of paper together, and often also a cellulose acetate–based filter.[6] While the assembly of cigarettes is straightforward, much focus is given to the creation of each of the components, in particular the tobacco blend, which may contain over 100 ingredients[7], many of them flavourants for the tobacco. Polyvinyl acetate formula Polyvinyl acetate or PVA is a rubbery synthetic polymer. ... Cellulose acetate, first prepared in 1865, is the acetate ester of cellulose. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chemicals in a cigarette. ...


Paper

Main article: Cigarette paper

The paper for holding the tobacco blend may vary in porosity to allow ventilation of the burning ember or contain materials that control the burning rate of the cigarette and stability of the produced ash. The papers used in tipping the cigarette (forming the mouthpiece) and surrounding the filter stabilise the mouthpiece from saliva and moderate the burning of the cigarette as well as the delivery of smoke with the presence of one or two rows of small laser-drilled air holes.[8] Rolling papers are small sheets, rolls, or leaves of paper which are sold for rolling ones own cigarettes either by hand or with a rolling machine. ...


The burn rate of cigarette paper is regulated through the application of different forms of microcrystalline cellulose to the paper[9]. Cigarette paper is also specially engineered with different bands of porosity in fire-safe cigarettes to reduce its idle burning speed and allows it to self extinguish[10] Many states in the USA and as well as Canada is considering to require such papers as regulatory measure to reduce fire risks for cigarettes[11]. The paper is manufactured by mechanically altering the setting of the paper slurry[12] Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ...


Tobacco blend

The tobacco part viewed from a cigarette
The tobacco part viewed from a cigarette

The process of blending, like the blending of scotch and cognac, gives the end product a consistent taste from batches of tobacco grown in different areas of a country that may change in flavour profile from year to year due to different environmental conditions.[13] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Modern cigarettes produced after the 1950s, although composed mainly of shredded tobacco leaf, use a significant quantity of tobacco processing by-products in the blend. Each cigarette's tobacco blend is made mainly from the leaves of flue-cured brightleaf, burley tobacco, and oriental tobacco. These leaves are selected, processed, and aged prior to blending and filling. The processing of brightleaf and burley tobaccos for tobacco leaf "strips" produces several by-products such as leaf stems, tobacco dust, and tobacco leaf pieces ("small laminate").[13] To improve the economics of producing cigarettes, these by-products are processed separately into forms where they can then be possibly added back into the cigarette blend without an apparent or marked change in the cigarette's quality. The most common tobacco by-products include:

  • Blended leaf (BL) sheet: a thin, dry sheet cast from a paste made with tobacco dust collected from tobacco stemming, finely milled burley-leaf stem, and pectin.[14]
  • Reconstituted leaf (RL) sheet: a paper-like material made from tobacco stems and "class tobacco", which consists of tobacco particles less than 30 mesh in size (~0.599 mm) that are collected at any stage of tobacco processing.[15] RL is made by extracting the soluble chemicals in the tobacco by-products, processing the leftover tobacco fibres from the extraction into a paper, and then reapplying the extracted materials in concentrated form onto the paper in a fashion similar to what is done in paper sizing.
  • Expanded (ES) or improved stems (IS): ES are rolled, flattened, and shredded leaf stems that are expanded by being soaked in water and rapidly heated. Improved stems follow the same process but are simply steamed after shredding. Both products are then dried. These two products look similar in appearance but are different in taste.[13]

Whole tobacco can also be processed into a product called expanded tobacco. The tobacco is "puffed", or expanded, by saturating it with supercritical carbon dioxide and heating the CO2 saturated tobacco to quickly evaporate the CO2. This quick change of physical state by the CO2 causes the tobacco to expand in a similar fashion as polystyrene foam. This is used to produce light cigarettes by reducing the density of the tobacco and thus maintain the size of a cigarette while reducing the amount of tobacco used in each cigarette.[13] Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ... Sieving or screening is a method of categorizing a powder’s particle size by running the powder through a specific sized screen. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Carbon dioxide pressure-temperature phase diagram Supercritical carbon dioxide refers to carbon dioxide with some unique properties. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ...


A recipe-specified combination of brightleaf, burley-leaf and oriental-leaf tobacco will be mixed with humectants such as propylene glycol or glycerol, as well as flavouring products and enhancers such as cocoa, licorice, tobacco extracts, and various sugars, which are known collectively as "casings". The leaf tobacco will then be shredded, along with a specified amount of small laminate, expanded tobacco, BL, RL, ES and IS. A perfume-like flavour/fragrance, called the "topping" or "toppings", which is most often formulated by flavor companies, will then be blended into the tobacco mixture to improve the consistency in flavour and taste of the cigarettes associated with a certain brand name.[13] As well, they replace lost flavours due to the repeated wetting and drying used in processing the tobacco. Finally the tobacco mixture will be filled into cigarettes tubes and packaged. A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that is used as a food additive. ... Propylene glycol, also known as 1,2-propanediol, is an organic compound (a diol alcohol), usually a tasteless, odorless, and colorless clear oily liquid that is hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ...


In recent years, the manufacturers' pursuit of maximum profits has led to the practice of using not just the leaves, but also the plant stem.[16] The stem is first crushed and cut to resemble the leaf before being merged or blended into the cut leaf.[17]


Sale

A smoking symbol, usually signifying that smoking is allowed.
A smoking symbol, usually signifying that smoking is allowed.
A Woolworths supermarket cigarette counter in NSW, Australia. Other Australian states currently prohibit such large displays.
A Woolworths supermarket cigarette counter in NSW, Australia. Other Australian states currently prohibit such large displays.

Before the Second World War many manufacturers gave away collectible cards, one in each packet of cigarettes. This practice was discontinued to save paper during the war and was never generally reintroduced, though for a number of years Natural American Spirit cigarettes included "vignette" cards depicting endangered animals and American historical events; this series was discontinued in 2003. On April 1, 1970 President Richard Nixon signed the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, banning cigarette advertisements on television in the United States starting on January 2, 1971. However, some tobacco companies attempted to circumvent the ban by marketing new brands of cigarettes as "little cigars"; examples included Tijuana Smalls, which came out almost immediately after the ban took effect, and Backwoods Smokes, which reached the market in the winter of 1973–1974 and whose ads used the slogan, "How can anything that looks so wild taste so mild." Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links from www. ... Image File history File links from www. ... The exterior of a Woolworths supermarket in Southlands Boulevarde, Willetton, Western Australia. ... NSW is a three-letter acronym that refers to: New South Wales, a state of the Commonwealth of Australia U.S. Naval Special Warfare Command This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Cigarette Cards were issued by tobacco manufacturers both to protect the cigarettes by stiffening the pack, and also to gain customer loyalty to their particular brand of cigarettes. ... A package of Natural American Spirit cigarettes Natural American Spirit is a brand of cigarette and tobacco products manufactured in the United States by the Santa Fe Natural Tobacco Company. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nixon redirects here. ... In the United States, the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1969 (passed in 1970), required a stronger health warning on cigarette packages: It also banned cigarette advertising on radio and televison. ... Tobacco advertising is the promotion of tobacco use (typically cigarette smoking) by the tobacco industry through a variety of media. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Backwoods Smokes were a brand of cigarettes produced in the United States beginning in 1973. ...


Beginning on April 1, 1998, the sale of cigarettes and other tobacco products to people under 18 is now prohibited by law in all fifty states of the United States. The legal age of purchase has been additionally raised to 19 in Alabama, Alaska, New Jersey, Utah, and Nassau, Suffolk, and Onondaga Counties in New York.[18] Legislation was pending as of 2004 in some other states. In Massachusetts[19] and Virginia[citation needed], parents and guardians are allowed to give cigarettes to minors, but sales to minors are prohibited. is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The concept of legal age is a limitation set by law that specifies that only people that have reached a certain age are allowed to participate in some activity. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Nassau County is a suburban city county in the New York Metropolitan Area east of New York City in the U.S. state of New York. ... Suffolk County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Onondaga County is a county located in the state of New York. ... This article is about the state. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Similar laws exist in many other countries. In Canada, most of the provinces require smokers to be 19 years of age to purchase cigarettes (except for Quebec, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Alberta, where the age is 18). However, the minimum age only concerns the purchase of tobacco, not use. Alberta, however, does have a law which prohibits the possession or use of tobacco products by all persons under 18, punishable by a $100 fine. Australia, and Pakistan have a nationwide ban on the selling of all tobacco products to people under the age of 18. This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ...


Since 1 October 2007, it has been illegal for retailers to sell tobacco in all forms to people under the age of 18 in three of four of the UK's constituent countries (England, Wales and Scotland) (rising from 16). It will also be illegal to sell lighters, rolling papers and all other tobacco-associated items to people under 18. However, it will not be illegal for people under 18 to buy or smoke tobacco; it is only illegal for the said retailer to sell the item. Northern Ireland is expected to follow suit with the age increase. In the Republic of Ireland, bans on the sale of the smaller ten-packs and confectionery that resembles tobacco products came into force on May 31, 2007 in a bid to cut underaged smoking. The UK Department of Health plans to follow suit with the ten-pack ban. is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... It has been suggested that Candy be merged into this article or section. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Department of Health headquarters in Whitehall The Department of Health is a department of the United Kingdom government. ...

Tabak-Trafik in Vienna. Since January 1, 2007, all cigarette machines in Austria must attempt to verify a customer's age by requiring the insertion of a debit card or mobile phone verification.
Tabak-Trafik in Vienna. Since January 1, 2007, all cigarette machines in Austria must attempt to verify a customer's age by requiring the insertion of a debit card or mobile phone verification.

Most countries in the world have a legal smoking age of 18. Five exceptions are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, and the Netherlands, where the age is 16. Since January 1, 2007, all cigarette machines in public places in Germany must attempt to verify a customer's age by requiring the insertion of a debit card. Turkey, which has one of the highest percentage of smokers in its population,[citation needed] has a legal age of 18. Another curiosity is Japan, one of the highest tobacco-consuming nations, which requires purchasers to be 20 years of age (suffrage in Japan is 20 years old).[20] However, due to the prevalence of cigarette vending machines in the most public of places, the effectiveness of an underage ban is in doubt.[citation needed] In other countries, such as Egypt, it is legal to use and purchase tobacco products regardless of age. Germany raised the purchase age from 16 to 18 on the 1 September 2007. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 190 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cigarette ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 190 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cigarette ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Look up debit card in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Soda pop and snack machines A vending machine is a machine that dispenses merchandise when a customer deposits money sufficient to purchase the desired item (as opposed to a shop, where personnel is required for every purchase). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Some police departments in the United States occasionally send an underaged teenager into a store where cigarettes are sold, and have the teen attempt to purchase cigarettes, with their own or no ID. If the vendor then completes the sale, the store is issued a fine.[21] Similar enforcement practices are regularly performed by Trading Standards Officers in the UK and the Gardai Siochana, the police force of the Republic of Ireland.[22] For other uses, see Police (disambiguation). ... The Trading Standards Institute is the UK government-appointed body responsible for protecting consumers rights and enforcing related laws. ...


Consumption

Cigarette packs in Australia with graphic health warnings

Approximately 5.5 trillion cigarettes are produced globally each year by the tobacco industry, smoked by over 1.1 billion people, which is more than one-sixth of the world's total population. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (700x618, 106 KB) Summary Health warning on cigarettes in Australia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (700x618, 106 KB) Summary Health warning on cigarettes in Australia. ... A pack of cigarettes is a rectangular container, mostly of paperboard, which contains cigarettes. ... A UK Warning message Cigarette packet warning signs are health warning messages that appear on the packaging of cigarettes and other tobacco products. ... The tobacco industry comprises those persons and companies engaged in the growth, preparation for sale, shipment, advertisement, and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products. ...

Smoking Prevalence by Gender
PERCENT SMOKING
REGION MEN WOMEN
Africa 29 4
United States 35 22
Eastern Mediterranean 35 4
Europe 46 26
Southeast Asia 44 4
Western Pacific 60 8
(2000, World Health Organization estimates)

A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Pacific redirects here. ... WHO redirects here. ...

Smoking bans

Many governments impose restrictions on smoking tobacco, especially in public areas. The primary justification has been the negative health effects of secondhand smoke.[23] Laws vary by country and locality. See: Smoking bans are government prohibitions or voluntary bans decided by establishment management on tobacco smoking in public or quasi-public indoor areas such as offices, restaurants, hotels, or even outdoor public areas such as parks and sports stadiums. ... Tobacco smoking is the act of smoking tobacco products, especially cigarettes and cigars. ...

Smoking bans are government prohibitions or voluntary bans decided by establishment management on tobacco smoking in public or quasi-public indoor areas such as offices, restaurants, hotels, or even outdoor public areas such as parks and sports stadiums. ... Many governments impose restrictions on smoking tobacco, especially in public areas. ...

Cigarette litter

A cigarette disposal canister, encouraging the public to dispose of their cigarettes properly.
A cigarette disposal canister, encouraging the public to dispose of their cigarettes properly.

Cigarette butts are the most littered item in the world. Discarded butts can be found almost any place accessible to people, including streets, sidewalks, parks and beaches. The butts of filtered cigarettes are not biodegradable. The filters, made of cellulose acetate, take many years to decompose. Many of the filters end up in waterways, where the toxic chemicals that they are designed to filter out find their way into the water supply.[24] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 864 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Butt Out Australia cigarette disposal canister in Brisbane, Australia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 864 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Butt Out Australia cigarette disposal canister in Brisbane, Australia. ... A cigarette filter has the purpose of reducing the amount of smoke, tar, and fine particles as combustion products from a cigarette, being inhaled. ... The International Tidy Man For other meanings of litter, see Litter (disambiguation). ... Biodegradation is the decomposition of material by microorganisms. ... Cellulose acetate, first prepared in 1865, is the acetate ester of cellulose. ... Chemical decomposition or analysis is the fragmentation of a chemical compound into elements or smaller compounds. ... Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users. ...


Cigarette advertising

Main article: Tobacco advertising

In many parts of the world tobacco advertising and even sponsorship of sporting events has been outlawed. The ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship in the EU in 2005 has prompted Formula One Management to look for races in areas that allow the tobacco sponsored teams to display their livery. As of 2007, only Ferrari retains tobacco sponsorship, continuing their relationship with Marlboro until 2011. Tobacco advertising is the promotion of tobacco use (typically cigarette smoking) by the tobacco industry through a variety of media. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rather unusually, these Angels wear white hart (deer) badges, with the personal livery of King Richard II of England, who commissioned this, the Wilton diptych, about 1400 A livery is a uniform or other sign worn in a non-military context on a person or object (such as an airplane...


References

  1. ^ Smoking While Pregnant Causes Finger, Toe Deformities. Science Daily. Retrieved on March 6, 2007.
  2. ^ List of health effects by CDC
  3. ^ Robicsek, Francis Smoke; Ritual Smoking in Central America pp. 30-37
  4. ^ http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-conflicts-periods/other/crimea.htm
  5. ^ http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/15/suppl_3/iii19
  6. ^ Clean Virginia Waterways, Cigarette Butt Litter - Cigarette Filters, Longwood University, Retrieved October 31, 2006
  7. ^ Philip Morris USA, Product Information -Cigarette ingredients, Retrieved March 5, 2007
  8. ^ JTI, "Composite List of Ingredients in Non-Tobacco Materials". www.jti.com, Retrieved November 2, 2006
  9. ^ " Smoking article wrapper for controlling burn rate and method for making same".
  10. ^ "What is a fire-safe cigarette?".
  11. ^ "Compliance with a Cigarette Ignition Propensity Standard - Economic Evaluation Of Health Canada's Regulatory Proposal for Reducing Fire Risks from Cigarettes".
  12. ^ "Method and apparatus for making banded smoking article wrappers".
  13. ^ a b c d e David E. Merrill, (1994), "How cigarettes are made". Video presentation at Philip Morris USA, Richmond offices. Retrieved October 31, 2006
  14. ^ "PCL Sheet Tobacco Cigarettes"., Retrieved November 2, 2006
  15. ^ Grant Gellatly, " Method and apparatus for coating reconstituted tobacco"., Retrieved November 2, 2006
  16. ^ http://uk.geocities.com/synergy.editorial@btinternet.com/polonium210radiationpoisoning.htm
  17. ^ http://www.dickinsonlegg.com/STS/STSframeset.htm
  18. ^ News 10 Now (19 December 2006), "Lawmakers raise minimum age on purchasing tobacco products". Retrieved December 19, 2006
  19. ^ Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 270 (Crimes Against Public Health), Section 6 (Tobacco; sale or gift to minors) [1]
  20. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ja.html
  21. ^ http://www.abc.state.va.us/licensing/downloads/underagebuyer.pdf
  22. ^ BBC News, "Retailers sell tobacco to youths", September 2005. Retrieved 9 November 2006.
  23. ^ WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; First international treaty on public health, adopted by 192 countries and signed by 168. Its Article 8.1 states "Parties recognize that scientific evidence has unequivocally established that exposure to tobacco causes death, disease and disability."
  24. ^ CigaretteLitter.org. CigaretteLitter.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  • Bogden JD, Kemp FW, Buse M, Thind IS, Louria DB, Forgacs J, Llanos G, Moncoya Terrones I. (1981) Composition of tobaccos from countries with high and low incidences of lung cancer. I. Selenium, polonium-210, Alternaria, tar, and nicotine. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 66: 27-31.
  • Hecht SS (1999) Tobacco Smoke Carcinogens and Lung Cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • Smoke: A Global History of Smoking (2004) edited by Sander L. Gilman and Zhou Xun ISBN 1-86189-200-4

is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Longwood University is a four-year public, liberal-arts university located in Farmville, Virginia. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Philip Morris USA is the United States tobacco division of Altria Group, Inc. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... News 10 Now is a 24-hour local news channel headquartered in Syracuse, New York. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

For other uses, see Cigar (disambiguation). ... A cigarette filter has the purpose of reducing the amount of smoke, tar, and fine particles as combustion products from a cigarette, being inhaled. ... A cigarette holder is a slender tube in which a single cigarette is held for smoking, as opposed to the cigarette case which holds many cigarettes for the purpose of carrying. ... A pack of cigarillos A cigarillo (Spanish for cigarette, pronounced see-gah-ree-yoh in Spanish and see-gah-ree-loh in English) is a short, narrow cigar. ... Both direct inhalation of tobacco smoke and inhalation of second hand smoke have significant negative effects on health. ... A popular brand of kreteks. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chemicals in a cigarette. ... According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services[1], the following carcinogens are found in cigarette smoke: Chemical Amount (per cigarette) Acetaldehyde 980 micrograms to 1. ... Audrey Hepburn with a cigarette holder in Breakfast at Tiffanys, evoking a sense of flair from the 1960s Since the introduction of tobacco to the world at large in the 1500s, a smoking culture has built around it, and is evident in many parts of the world to this...

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