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Encyclopedia > Cider
For the non-alcoholic beverage commonly known in the U.S. as "cider", see apple cider.
Cider in a pint glass
Cider in a pint glass

Cider (pronounced /ˈsaɪdɚ/) is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples mainly, though pears are also used;[1] in the UK, pear cider is known as perry. In the United States and parts of Canada, where the term cider almost exclusively refers to non-alcoholic apple juice (apple cider), the phrase hard cider is used to denote the fermented version. TransGaming Inc. ... American-style apple cider, left; Apple juice, right. ... A pint glass is a drinking vessel holding a British pint (568ml; ≈1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Species About 30 species; see text For other uses, see Pear (disambiguation). ... This article is about is about the alcoholic beverage. ... A glass of clear apple juice, from which pectin and starch have been removed. ... American-style apple cider, left; Apple juice, right. ...


While any variety of apple, and even other pome fruits such as pear or quince, may be used, certain cultivars are preferred in some regions, and may be known as cider apples. The drink varies in alcohol content from less than 3% ABV in French cidre doux to 8.5% ABV or above in traditional English ciders. This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... A cider apple is a cultivar of apple grown for its use in cider production. ... Alcohol by volume (ABV) is an indication of how much alcohol (expressed as a percentage) is included in an alcoholic beverage. ... This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Cider is very popular in the United Kingdom, especially in South West England, in comparison to other countries. The UK has the highest per capita consumption as well as the largest cider producing companies in the world,[2] including H. P. Bulmer, the largest.[3] Overall, the UK produces 500 million litres (110 million imperial gallons) of cider per year. This article is about the region. ... Bulmers Cider was founded in 1887 in Hereford, England by Percy Bulmer, the 20-year-old son of the local rector at Credenhill, taking his mothers advice to make a career in food or drink, because neither ever go out of fashion. Using apples from the orchard at his... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ...


The drink is also popular and traditional in Brittany and Normandy (France) (cidre), Ireland and the Asturias and Basque Country regions of Spain and France (sidra). Pear cider is popular in Sweden and in Basse-Normandie (France) (poiré). The drink is making a resurgence in both Europe and the United States.[4] This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... This article covers the entire historic Basque Country domain. ... Capital Caen Land area¹ 17,589 km² Regional President Philippe Duron (PS) (since 2004) Population  - Jan. ...

Contents

Appearance and types of cider

The flavour of different ciders differ enormously. They can be classified in the first instance from dry to sweet. The appearance ranges from cloudy with sediment to completely clear. Colour ranges from light yellow through orange to brown. The variations in clarity and colour are mostly due to filtering between pressing and fermentation. Some apple varieties will produce a clear cider without any filtration. Sparkling and still ciders are made; sparkling is more common. For other uses, see Fermentation. ...


Modern, mass-produced ciders more closely resemble sparkling wine in appearance. More traditional brands tend to be darker and cloudier. They are often stronger than processed varieties and taste more strongly of apples. Almost colourless white cider is produced on a large scale. It is typically strong (typically 7-8% ABV) and available very cheaply. A glass of sparkling wine A Sparkling wine cork It has been suggested that Spumante, Frizzante, Sekt and Cremant be merged into this article or section. ...


Some ciders produced in the UK are sold under the alternative spelling cyder.


Cider production

Scratting and pressing

Layers of pomace are wrapped in canvas
Layers of pomace are wrapped in canvas

Apples grown for consumption are suitable for cider making, though some regional cider-makers prefer to use a mix of eating and cider apples (as in Kent, England), or exclusively cider apples (as in the West Country, England). There are many hundreds of varieties of cultivars developed specifically for cider making. Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 1379 KB)Making cider with a traditional cider press during a cider festival in Jersey Image created by User:Man vyi on 1st May 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Cider Culture of Jersey Image:Cider making Jersey. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 1379 KB)Making cider with a traditional cider press during a cider festival in Jersey Image created by User:Man vyi on 1st May 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Cider Culture of Jersey Image:Cider making Jersey. ... A cider apple is a cultivar of apple grown for its use in cider production. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The West Country is an informal term for the area of south-western England roughly corresponding to the modern South West England government region. ...


Once the apples are gathered from trees in orchards they are scratted (ground down) into what is called pomace or pommage. Historically this was done using pressing stones with circular troughs, or by a cider mill. Cider mills were traditionally driven by the hand, water-mill, or horse-power. In modern times they are likely to be powered by electricity. The pulp is then transferred to the cider press and built up in layers into a block known as a cheese. An orchard is an intentional planting of trees maintained for food production. ... Pomace is a substance prepared by pressing or grinding various fruits, for example in the manufacture of olive oil (from olives), wine (from grapes), or cider (from apples). ...


Traditionally the method for squeezing the juice from the cheese involves placing clear, sweet straw or hair cloths between the layers of pomace. This will usually alternate with slatted ash-wood racks, until there is a pile of ten or twelve layers. It is important to minimise the time that the pomace is exposed to air in order to keep oxidation to a minimum.


This pile is then subjected to different degrees of pressure in succession, until all the 'must' or juice is squeezed from the pomace. This juice, after being strained in a coarse hair-sieve, is then put into either open vats or closed casks. The pressed pulp is given to farm animals as winter feed, composted or discarded, or used to make liqueurs.[5] Bottles of strawberry liqueur A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavoured with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream. ...


Fermentation

Fermentation is carried out at a temperature of 4–16 °C (40–60 °F). This is low for most kinds of fermentation, but is beneficial for cider as it leads to slower fermentation with less loss of delicate aromas. For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


Shortly before the fermentation consumes all the sugar, the liquor is racked (siphoned) into new vats. This leaves dead yeast cells and other undesirable material at the bottom of the old vat. At this point it becomes important to exclude airborne acetic bacteria, so vats are filled completely to exclude air. The fermenting of the remaining available sugar generates a small amount of carbon dioxide that forms a protective layer, reducing air contact. This final fermentation creates a small amount of carbonation. Extra sugar may be added specifically for this purpose. Racking is sometimes repeated if the liquor remains too cloudy. Not to be confused with Psiphon. ... For the chemical reaction forming calcium carbonate, see carbonatation. ...


Apple based juices with cranberry also make fine ciders; and many other fruit purées or flavourings can be used, such as grape, cherry, and raspberry.


The cider is ready to drink after a three month fermentation period, though more often it is matured in the vats for up to two or three years.[6]


Blending and bottling

For larger-scale cider production, ciders from vats produced from different varieties of apple may be blended to accord with market taste. If the cider is to be bottled, usually some extra sugar is added for sparkle. Higher quality ciders can be made using the champagne method, but this is expensive in time and money and requires special corks, bottles, and other equipment. Some home brewers use beer bottles, which work perfectly well, and inexpensively. This allows the cider to become naturally carbonated.


Health

Conventional apple cider has a relatively high concentration of phenolics and antioxidants which may be helpful for preventing heart disease, cancer and other ailments.[7] This is, in part, because apples themselves have a fairly high concentration of phenolics in them to begin with. In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... An antioxidant is a chemical that prevents the oxidation of other chemicals. ...


Cider festivals

A cider festival is an organised event promoting cider and usually perry. A variety of ciders and perries will be available for tasting and buying. Festivals may be organised by cider-promoting private organizations, pubs or cider producers. This article is about is about the alcoholic beverage. ... An amusingly named pub (the Old New Inn) at Bourton-on-the-Water, in the Cotswold Hills of South West England A pub in the Haymarket area of Edinburgh, Scotland A public house, usually known as a pub, is a drinking establishment found mainly in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada...


Uses of cider

A distilled spirit, apple brandy, is made from cider. Its best known forms are calvados and applejack. In Calvados, Normandy, France calvados is made from cider by double distillation. In the first pass, the result is a liquid containing 28%–30% alcohol. In a second pass, the amount of alcohol is augmented to about 40%. Applejack is a strong alcoholic beverage made in North America by concentrating cider, either by the traditional method of freeze distillation, or by true evaporative distillation. In traditional freeze distillation, a barrel of cider is left outside during the winter. When the temperature is low enough, the water in the cider starts to freeze. If the ice is removed, the (now more concentrated) alcoholic solution is left behind in the barrel. If the process is repeated often enough, and the temperature is low enough, the alcohol concentration is raised to 30–40% alcohol by volume. In freeze distillation, methanol and fusel oil, which are natural fermentation by-products, may reach harmful concentrations. These toxins can be separated when regular heat distillation is performed. Home production of applejack is illegal in most countries. Brandy pot stills at the Van Ryn Brandy Cellar near Stellenbosch, South Africa Brandy (short for brandywine, from Dutch brandewijn—fire wine) is a general term for distilled wine, usually 40–60% ethyl alcohol by volume. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... For other uses, see Applejack. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fractional freezing. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Fusel alcohols, also sometimes called fusel oils, are higher order (more than two carbons) alcohols formed by fermentation and present in cider, mead, beer, wine, and spirits to varying degrees. ...


A popular aperitif in Normandy is pommeau– a drink produced by blending unfermented apple juice and apple brandy in the barrel (the high alcoholic content of the spirit stops the fermentation process of the cider and the blend takes on the character of the aged barrel). Alternate meaning: Aperitif (record label) An ap ritif is an alcoholic drink usually enjoyed as an appetiser before a large meal. ... Pommeau is an alcoholic drink made in northern France by mixing apple juice with apple brandy. ...


Cocktails may include cider. Besides kir and snakebite, an example is Black Velvet in a version of which cider may replace champagne, usually referred to as a "Poor Man's Black Velvet". In scuba diving, the word cocktail also means a hazard with diving with some rebreathers: it means a caustic solution resulting from water reaching and dissolving the absorbent. ... For other uses, see Snakebite (disambiguation). ... The Black Velvet cocktail, also known as a Bismarck, is a cocktail made from a stout beer (often Guinness) and a white, sparkling wine, traditionally champagne. ...


A few producers in Quebec have developed ice cider (French: cidre de glace), sometimes called "apple ice wine"), inspired from ice wines, where the apples are naturally frozen either before or after harvest. The alcohol concentration of ice cider is 9–13%. This article is about the Canadian province. ... Ice Cider, (French “cidre de glace”), is the cider equivalent of ice wine. ... Grapes for ice wine, still frozen on the vine. ...


Related drinks

Other fruits can be used to make cider-like drinks. The most popular is perry, known in France as poiré, produced mostly in Normandy, and is made from fermented pear juice. A branded sweet perry known as Babycham, marketed principally as a women's drink and sold in miniature Champagne-style bottles, was once popular but has now become unfashionable. Another related drink is cyser – cider fermented with honey. This article is about is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Species About 30 species; see text For other uses, see Pear (disambiguation). ... Babycham is the trade name of a light, sparkling perry invented by Francis Showering, a brewer in Shepton Mallet in Somerset, England. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ...


Although not widely made in modern times, various other pome fruits can produce palatable drinks. Apicius, in Book II of De re coquinaria, includes a recipe calling for quince cider. An apple is an example of a pome fruit. ... Apicius was a name applied to three celebrated Roman epicures, the first of whom lived during the Republic; the second of whom, Marcus Gavius (or Gabius) Apicius—the most famous in his own time—lived under the early Empire; a third lived in the late 4th or early 5th century. ... De re coquinaria is the oldest known cookbook, dating from the 3rd century A.D., still in existence. ... Binomial name Mill. ...


Another similar drink is plum jerkum, made from fermented plums, traditional of Warwickshire in the English Midlands. It is said that it "left the head clear while paralysing the legs". The Warwickshire Drooper plum from which it is traditionally brewed is now uncommon, which explains the rarity of the drink.[8] Species See text. ... A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced // or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ...


Cider by country

Before the development of rapid long distance transportation, regions of cider consumption generally coincided with regions of cider production: that is, areas with apple orchards. For example, R. A. Fletcher notes that in the Liber Sancti Jacobi, cider was said to be more common than wine in 12th century Galicia. Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Argentina

In Argentina, cider, or sidra is by far the most popular alcoholic carbonated drink during the Christmas and New Year holidays. It has traditionally been considered the choice of the middle and lower classes (along with ananá fizz, a sort of pineapple cider), whereas the higher classes would rather go for champagne for their Christmas or New Year toast. Popular commercial brands of cider are Real, La Farruca and Rama Caída. It is usually marketed in 0.7 litre glass or plastic bottles. For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...


Austria

In Austria cider is made in the south west of Lower Austria, the so called "Mostviertel" and in Upper Austria. Almost every farmer there has some apple or pear trees. Many of the farmers also have a kind of inn called "Mostheuriger". There they serve cider and also something to eat. Map of Lower Austria showing districts and the four quarters (Waldviertel in green, Weinviertel in red, Mostviertel in yellow and Industrieviertel in blue) Lower Austria (de: Niederösterreich) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria. ... Mostviertel (English: Must Quarter) is the southwestern of the four quarters of Lower Austria. ... Upper Austria (Ober sterreich) is one of the nine federal states or Bundesl nder of Austria. ...


Australia

In Australia, 'cider' is considered an alcoholic beverage made from apples. The most popular brands of alcoholic cider in Australia are Strongbow, and Mercury Cider made at the Cascade Brewery in Hobart, Tasmania. Cascade's 'Apple Isle' Sparkling Apple Juice is the most popular selling brand of non-alcoholic cider in Australia. Alcoholic cider is sold in bottleshops, while the non-alcoholic version is stocked in the soft-drink aisles of supermarkets. The Cascade Brewery, with Mount Wellington in the background Cascade Brewery is the oldest brewery in Australia. ... A glass of clear apple juice, from which pectin and starch have been removed. ... A liquor store in Decatur, Georgia. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ...


Belgium

Scottish & Newcastle own Belgium cider maker Stassen SA, who in addition to their own local brands such as Strassen X Cider also produce Strongbow Jacques, a 5.5% ABV cider with cherry, raspberry and blackcurrant flavours. Zonhoven based Konings NV specialises in private label ciders for European retailers and offers a wide variety of flavours and packaging options to the beverage industry. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Canada

In Quebec, cider is considered a traditional alcoholic beverage. Cider making was, however, forbidden from the early years of the British rule as it was in direct conflict with established British brewers' interests (most notably John Molson). In recent years, a unique variety has emerged on the market: ice cider. This type of cider is made from apples with a particularly high level of sugar caused by natural frost. John Molson (December 28, 1763 – January 11, 1836) was an Anglo-Quebecer who was a major brewer and entrepreneur in Canada, starting the Molson Brewing Company. ... Ice Cider, (French “cidre de glace”), is the cider equivalent of ice wine. ...


In Ontario, apple cider or apple hooch is often home-made. Cider is commercially produced in British Columbia, New Brunswick and Ontario, usually with a 7% alcohol content. It is sold in 341 ml glass bottles and 2 litre plastic bottles, and does not have the added sugar injected into much of US hard cider. This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Channel Islands

Few traditional horse-drawn circular apple crushers are still in use, but many may still be seen used as garden ornaments, flower planters or architectural features
Few traditional horse-drawn circular apple crushers are still in use, but many may still be seen used as garden ornaments, flower planters or architectural features

Along with Normandy, the Channel Islands had a strong cider-making tradition. Cider had been the ordinary drink of people of Jersey from the 16th century, when the commercial opportunities offered by cider exports spurred the transformation of feudal open-field agriculture to enclosure. Until the 19th century, it was the largest agricultural export with up to a quarter of the agricultural land given over to orchards. In 1839, for example, 268,199 gallons (1,219,257 litres) of cider were exported from Jersey to England alone,[9] and almost half a million gallons were exported from Guernsey 1834-1843,[10] but by 1870 exports from Jersey had slumped to 4,632 gallons.[11] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1569x889, 243 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cider Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1569x889, 243 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cider Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... This article is about the British dependencies. ... For other uses, see Enclosure (disambiguation). ...


Beer had replaced cider as a fashionable drink in the main export markets, and even the home markets had switched to beer as the population became more urban. Potatoes overtook cider as the most important crop in Jersey in the 1840s, and in Guernsey glasshouse tomato production grew in importance. Small-scale cider production on farms for domestic consumption, particularly by seasonal workers from Brittany and mainland Normandy, was maintained, but by the mid-20th century production dwindled until only 8 farms were producing cider for their own consumption in 1983.[12]


The number of orchards had been reduced to such a level that the destruction of trees in the Great Storm of 1987 demonstrated how close the Islands had come to losing many of its traditional cider apple varieties. A concerted effort was made to identify and preserve surviving varieties and new orchards were planted. As part of diversification, farmers have moved into commercial cider production, and the cider tradition is celebrated and marketed as a heritage experience. In Jersey, a strong (above 7%) variety is currently sold in shops and a bouché style is also marketed.[13]


In Jersey, cider is used in the preparation of black butter (Jèrriais: nièr beurre), a traditional preserve. Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ...


Chile

Cider have been made in Chile since colonial times. Southern Chile stands for nearly all Cider production in Chile. Cider is also often linked to production of Chicha, a traditional alcoholic drink. the Captaincy until 1776 the Captaincy between 1776 and 1818 The Kingdom of Chile or Realm of Chile (Spanish: Reino de Chile), also known as the General Captaincy of Chile (Capitanía General de Chile), was an administrative territory of the Spanish Empire from 1541 to 1818, the year in... The Zona Sur (Southern Zone) is one of the five natural regions on wich CORFO divided continental Chile in 1950. ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ...


Denmark

Despite a strong apple tradition, Denmark has little cider production. Three places that produce cider in Denmark are Pomona (since 2003), Fejø Cider (since 2003) and Ørbæk Bryggeri (since 2006). All are inspired mainly by English and French cider styles. The assortment of imported ciders has grown significantly since 2000, prior to that only ciders from Sweden, primarily non-alcoholic, were generally available. On March 31 Carlsberg launched an alcoholic cider in Denmark called Somersby Cider.[14]


East Asia

Cider in Japan and South Korea refers to a soft drink similar to Sprite or the UK definition of lemonade. The Chilsung Cider brand dominates the Korean market. A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... Sprite is a clear soda, lemon-lime flavored, caffeine free soft drink, produced by the Coca-Cola Company. ... This article is about the drink made with lemons. ... Chilsung Cider is a carbonated beverage marketed by South Korean firm Lotte Chilsung. ...


Finland

In Finland cider holds the position as one of the most common drinks after beer. The best-known brands are Golden Cap, Fizz and Upcider. They typically contain 4,5-4,7 %vol of alcohol. Virtually all Finnish cider is produced from fermented apple (or pear) juice concentrate and comes in a variety of flavours ranging from forest berries to rhubarb and vanilla. For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ...


France

Cidre bouché from Normandy.
Cidre bouché from Normandy.

French cidre is an alcoholic drink produced predominantly in Normandy and Brittany. It varies in strength from below 4% alcohol to considerably more. Cidre Doux is a sweet cider, usually up to 3% in strength. 'Demi-Sec' is 3–5% and Cidre Brut is a strong dry cider of 5% alcohol and above. Most French ciders are sparkling. Higher quality cider is sold in champagne-style bottles (cidre bouché). Many ciders are sold in corked bottles, but some screw-top bottles exist. Until the mid-20th century, cider was the second most-consumed drink in France (after wine) but an increase in the popularity of beer displaced cider's market share outside traditional cider-producing regions. In crêperies (pancakes restaurants) in Brittany, cider is generally served in traditional ceramic bowls (or wide cups) rather than glasses. A kir breton (or kir normand)is a cocktail apéritif made with cider and cassis, rather than white wine and cassis for the traditional kir. The Domfrontais, in the Orne (Basse-Normandie), is famous for its pear cider (poiré). The calvados du Domfrontais is made of cider and poiré. For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... Campari apéritif. ... Binomial name Ribes nigrum L. The blackcurrant is a temperate shrub which produces small edible berries with a high natural vitamin C content, which are very dark purple/blue in colour—almost black—hence the name. ... Kir Kir is a cocktail made with a measure of crème de cassis (blackcurrant liquor) topped up with white wine. ... Orne is a department in the northwest of France named after the Orne River. ...


Some cider is also made in south western France, in the French portion of the Basque Country. It is a traditional drink there and is making a recovery. Ciders produced here are generally of the style seen in Spanish part of the Basque country. This article covers the entire historic Basque Country domain. ...


Calvados, Normandy, France; Calvados, the spirit is made of cider through a process called double distillation. In the first pass, the result is a liquid containing 28%–30% alcohol. In a second pass, the amount of alcohol is augmented to about 40%. A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate...


Keeving

Breton cider making employs the technique of keeving (from the French cuvée). In keeving, calcium chloride and a special enzyme are added to the pressed apple juice, causing protein in the juice to precipitate to the top for removal. This reduces the amount of protein available to the yeast, starving it and therefore causing the cider to finish fermenting while sugar is still available. The result is a sweeter drink at a lower alcohol level but still retaining the full flavour of the apples, without dilution. R-phrases S-phrases , , Related Compounds Other anions calcium fluoride calcium bromide calcium iodide Other cations magnesium chloride strontium chloride Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Human glyoxalase I. Two zinc ions that are needed for the enzyme to catalyze its reaction are shown as purple spheres, and an enzyme inhibitor called S-hexylglutathione is shown as a space-filling model, filling the two active sites. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ...


Germany

Main article: Apfelwein

German cider, usually called Apfelwein (apple wine), and regionally known as Apfelmost (apple must), Viez (from Latin vice, the second or substitute wine), or Saurer Most (sour must), has an alcohol content of 5.5–7% and a tart, sour taste. Apfelwein Apfelwein (German, apple wine) is the German form of cider, produced from apples. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


German cider is mainly produced and consumed in Hesse, particularly in the Frankfurt, Wetterau and Odenwald areas, in Moselfranken, Merzig (Saarland) and the Trier area, as well as the lower Saar area and the region bordering on Luxembourg. In these regions, there are several large producers, as well as numerous small, private producers often using traditional recipes. An official Viez route or cider route connects Saarburg with the border to Luxembourg. Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (Acting) (CDU) Votes in Bundesrat 5 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,073,000 (09/2007)[1]  - Density 288 /km... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... The Wetterau is a fertile undulating tract, watered by the Wetter, a tributary of the Main, in German region of Hesse, between the hilly province Oberhessen and the north-western Taunus mountains. ... The Odenwald is a mountain chain in southern Hessen, northern Bavaria and northern Baden-Württemberg. ... Merzig is a town and a municipality, capital of the district Merzig-Wadern, in Saarland, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... Saarburg (pop. ...


Ireland

Cider is a popular drink in Ireland; for a long time cider production was officially encouraged and supported by a preferential tax treatment. A single cider, Bulmers, dominates sales in Ireland: Owned by C&C and produced in Clonmel, Co. Tipperary, this Bulmers is now unrelated to the British Bulmers cider. Outside the Republic of Ireland, C&C brand their cider as Magners. It is very popular in Ireland to drink cider over ice. This article is about the Irish brand of cider. ... For the Command & Conquer PC games, see Command & Conquer C&C (Cantrell & Cochrane), (ISE: CCR) , (LSE: CCR) , (Xetra: GCC) , is a multi-million euro consumer goods group based in Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S199229 Statistics Province: Munster County: Population (2002)  - Town:  - Rural: 16,910 Clonmel (Cluain Meala in Irish) is the largest inland town in the south of Republic of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: North: Nenagh South: Clonmel Code: North: TN South: TS Area: 4,303 km² Population (2006) 149,040[[1]] County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann in Irish) is a county in the Republic of Ireland, and situated in the province of Munster. ... Magners - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Mexico

There are two types of cider (sidra) sold in Mexico. One type is a popular apple flavoured carbonated soft drink, sold under a number of soft drink brands, such as Sidral Mundet and Manzana Lift (both Coca-Cola FEMSA brands). The alcoholic sidra is a sparkling cider typically sold in champagne-style bottles. Sidra is, due to the expense of imported champagne, the traditional drink used for New Year's Eve toasts in Mexico. A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Fomento Económico Mexicano, S.A. is a company based in Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. ... This article is about Champagne, the alcoholic beverage. ... For other articles with similar names, see New Year (disambiguation). ...


Luxembourg

In Luxembourg, viez (pronounced feetz) is rather like English scrumpy. It is cloudy and varies from non-alcoholic to very alcoholic. It is made only in autumn. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Norway

In Norway, cider (sider) is a naturally fermented apple juice. Pear juice is sometimes mixed with the apple to get a better fermenting process started. The main area for cider production is in the proclaimed "fruit garden" or "apple orchard" of Norway, the Hardanger region. From Hardanger, a painting by Hans Gude, 1847 Hardanger is a traditional district in the western part of Norway, dominated by the Hardangerfjord. ...


Following lengthy navigation through the directives of Norway's complex alcohol laws, three brands of sparkling cider with an abv of approximately 10% are available to the Norwegian public through distribution by the monopoly outlet Vinmonopolet, Hardanger Sider Sprudlande from Hardanger, Krune Sider from Bergen sourcing apples from Hardanger, and Liersider from Lier.[15][16] In line with the law of 1975 prohibiting all advertising of alcoholic beverages of abv greater than 2.5%,[17] the products receive little exposure despite some favourable press reaction.[16][18] Alcohol by volume (ABV) is an indication of how much alcohol (expressed as a percentage) is included in an alcoholic beverage. ... Vinmonopolet (English: ), commonly shortened to Polet, is a government owned alcoholic beverage retailer and the only company allowed to sell beverages containing a higher alcohol content than 4. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... County Buskerud Landscape Municipality NO-0626 Administrative centre Lier Mayor (2003) Ulla Nævestad (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 277 301 km² 281 km² 0. ...


Ciders of low alcohol levels are widely available, mostly brands imported from Sweden, although carbonated soft drinks with no alcoholic content may also be marketed as "cider".[18]


South Africa

There are two main types of cider produced in South Africa, Hunters Gold and Savanna Dry. The are produced and distributed through Distell Group Limited. Hunters Gold was first introduced in South Africa in 1988 as an alternative to beer. The range includes Hunters Dry and Hunters Export. Savanna Dry was introduced in 1996 and also comes in a Light Premium variety.


Spain

The Spanish region of Asturias and the Basque Country are well known for traditional sidra, an alcoholic cider of 4–8% strength. Capital Oviedo Area  - total  - % of Spain Ranked 10th 10 604 km² 2,1% Population  - Total (2003)  - % of Spain  - Density Ranked 12th 1 056 789 2,5% 99,65/km² Demonym  - English  - Spanish Asturian asturiano/a, astur Statute of Autonomy January 11, 1982 ISO 3166-2 O Parliamentary representation  Congress seats... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ...


In Asturias cider is traditionally poured in very small quantities from a height into a wide glass, with the arm holding the bottle extended upwards and the one holding the glass extended downwards. This technique is called to escanciar un culín (also echar un culín) and is done to get air bubbles into the drink, thus giving it a sparkling taste like Champagne that lasts a very short time. Spanish sidra is closely associated with sidrerías or sidreríes (Asturias).


Sidra is also known as sagardoa (IPA: /s̺a'gaɾrdoa/) in the Basque Country and drunk either bottled or in a traditional cider house called sagardotegi.

For more details on this topic, see sagardotegi.

Sweden

Kopparberg cider is growing in popularity, particularly in the UK. It comes in a variety of flavours, including apple, pear, summer fruits, forest berries, peach and cloudberry.[citation needed] Kopparbergs pear cider in its can Kopparbergs Brewery (Kopparbergs Bryggeri) is a Swedish brewery and cider company based in Bergslagen. ...


The Netherlands

In the Netherlands cider is not as commonly available as in its surrounding countries. During 2007 Heineken started testing a cider brand named Jillz in a number of bars troughout the country. The beverage is promoted as an alternative for beer. It contains 5% alcohol by volume wich is similar to a typical draught beer in the Netherlands. Jillz will be available on draught in bars, pubs and restaurants only. Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Heineken (or Heineken Brouwerijen) is a Dutch beer brewer, established in 1863 when Gerard Adriaan Heineken purchased a brewery in Amsterdam. ...


The United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, cider is mostly associated with the West Country and Herefordshire, but is also produced in Wales and across England, particularly Kent, Suffolk and Norfolk. Cider is available in sweet, medium and dry varieties. Recent years have seen a significant increase in cider sales in the UK.[19] The West Country is an informal term for the area of south-western England roughly corresponding to the modern South West England government region. ... For the similarly named county in the East of England, see Hertfordshire. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Norfolk (pronounced ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ...


There are two broad main traditions in cider production in the UK - the West tradition and the Kent and East Anglia tradition. The former are made using a much higher percentage of true cider-apples and so are richer in tannins and sharper in flavour. Kent and East Anglia ciders tend to use a higher percentage of, or are exclusively made from, culinary and dessert fruit; Kentish ciders such as Biddenden's and Theobolds are typical of this style. They tend to be clearer, more vinous and lighter in body and flavour. Biddenden is a village that lies on the Weald of Kent, some five miles north of Tenterden. ...


At one end of the scale are the traditional, small farm-produced varieties. These are non-carbonated and usually cloudy orange in appearance. England's West Country contains many of these farms. Production is often on such a small scale the product is only sold at the point of manufacture or in local pubs and shops[20] At the other end of the scale are the mass production cider factories producing Magners "Irish Cider" and Hereford's Strongbow Cider. For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... A public house, usually known as a pub, is a drinking establishment found mainly in the Great Britain, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and other countries influenced by British cultural heritage. ... Magners - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Some Strongbow cider in a Pint glass Strongbow is a brand of mass-produced cider manufactured in England by Bulmers. ...


Mass produced commercial cider such as that produced by Bulmers is likely to be pasteurised and force-carbonated. The colour is likely to be golden yellow with a clear appearance from the filtration. White ciders are almost colourless in appearance. This article is about the English brand of cider. ... ... For the chemical reaction forming calcium carbonate, see carbonatation. ... This article is about operation of solid-fluid separation. ...


Cheap strong ciders

A key market segment exists in the UK for strong white mass-produced cider at 7.5% alcohol by volume. Cider with higher than 7.5% alcohol has a higher rate of excise duty. Typical brands include White Lightning, Diamond White, Frosty Jack, and White Strike. White Lightning is a brand of white cider brewed by Bulmers in the UK. Categories: | | | ... The Gaymer Cider Company produces and markets Cider. ... Aston Manor Brewery is a brewery and beer bottling company in Thimblemill Lane, Aston, Birmingham, in the United Kingdom. ...


By volume of alcohol, the excise duty on cider is lower than any other drink. The duty, as of 2007, was £26.48 per 100 litres of cider of up to 7.5% alcohol. 100 litres of table wine or alcopops would attract £177.99 of duty, wine under 5.5% was charged £75.42, £102.83 for beer under 7.5%, and £146.70 for the equivalent alcohol volume of spirits.[21] Alcopop is a term coined by the popular media of the United Kingdom to describe alcoholic soft drinks. In the alcohol industry they are known as RTDs (ready to drink) or FABs (Flavoured Alcoholic Beverages). ... Spirits redirects here. ...


Before 1996 brands could be labelled at up to 8.4% alcohol when they actually contained 7.4%. This happened because the duty was levied on the actual strength of the alcohol but Trade Descriptions legislation allowed the label to overstate the alcohol content by up to 1%.[22] White Lightning was then sold in both 7.4% and 8.4% strengths, due to uncertainty about whether consumers would prefer the pricier, stronger drink, or the slightly weaker, cheap one.[23]


Until 2005, the market leading White Lightning brand was being sold on an almost continual 50% extra free promotion, giving 3 litres of 7.5% cider for a typical selling price of £2.99. Scottish Courage, which ownned the brand, decided that year to restrict bottle size to 2 litres as part of its responsible drinking strategy. A spokesman for the company spoke of white cider in general, "It is the cheapest way to buy alcohol in the UK. This is pocket money these days. There is no other alcohol category that has the same challenge as white cider. One three litre plastic bottle of white cider contains almost the full recommended weekly alcohol intake for a male drinker" (225 ml, 22.5 units, of pure alcohol content compared with the recommended maximum of 28 units).[24][25] This led to a 70% drop in sales of White Lightning,[26] but increased sales of the brand owner's weaker, more profitable brands. Other manufacturers followed by increasing prices and scrapping their 3 litre bottles.


The price increases on 7.5% cider has increased sales of 5% mass-market cider, which is still widely available in 3 litre bottles in supermarkets.[26]


The West Country of England

Ciders made in the West Country are often called "scrumpy", from "scrump",[27] a local dialect term for a small or withered apple. The archaic spelling cyder is sometimes used, but as a marketing ploy rather than authentic usage. Ciders from Gloucestershire, Herefordshire and Worcestershire made from traditional recipes forms a European Union Protected Geographical Indication; traditional cider is also made in Devon and Somerset. Examples of a working cider house still existed here in recent times, though many have now gone. There are over 25 cider producers in Somerset alone, many of them small family businesses.[5] The West Country is an informal term for the area of south-western England roughly corresponding to the modern South West England government region. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... For the similarly named county in the East of England, see Hertfordshire. ... For the condiment, see Worcestershire sauce. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Protected geographical indications in the European Union. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... A cider house is an establishment, often little more than a room in a farmhouse or cottage, selling cider only, for consumption on the premises. ...


During the 17th and 18th centuries, a condition known as Devon colic, a form of lead poisoning, was associated with the consumption of cider, vanishing after a campaign to remove lead components from cider presses in the early 19th century. A rebuttal to claims that the colic was caused by lead poisoning from cider, written by a cider manufacturer. ... Lead poisoning is a medical condition, also known as saturnism, plumbism, or painters colic caused by increased blood lead levels. ...


Shepton Mallet, Somerset, is home to the largest cider plant in Europe. This plant produces Blackthorn and Olde English as well as light perry Babycham. , Shepton Mallet is a small rural town in Somerset, England. ... Blackthorns logo Blackthorn Cider is a processed commercial cider produced by Matthew Clark plc. ... Gaymers Olde English cider is a brand of cider. ... Babycham is the trade name of a light, sparkling perry invented by Francis Showering, a brewer in Shepton Mallet in Somerset, England. ...


Wales

Smallhold production of cider, made on farms as a beverage for labourers, died out in Wales during the 20th century. Cider and perry production in Wales began a dramatic revival in the early 2000s, with many small firms entering production throughout the country. The Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) has actively encouraged this trend, and Welsh ciders and perries have won many awards at CAMRA festivals; meanwhile, the establishment of groups such as UKCider and the Welsh Perry & Cider Society have spurred communication among producers. The Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) is an independent, voluntary, consumer organisation in the United Kingdom whose main aim is promoting real ale and the traditional British pub. ...


Welsh varieties of apples and pears are often distinct from those grown in England, giving cider from Wales a flavour noticeably different to ciders from nearby regions.


Definition of "real" cider

CAMRA define "real" cider as a product containing at least 90% fresh apple juice, with no added flavourings or colourings. CAMRA appear to endorse chaptalisation of the juice (added sugar prior to fermentation) plus dilution with water afterwards.[28] The Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) is an independent, voluntary, consumer organisation in the United Kingdom whose main aim is promoting real ale and the traditional British pub. ...


UKCider define "real" cider as a product containing at least 85% fresh apple juice, with no artificial flavourings or colourings. UKCider campaigns for the percentage juice content to be listed as part of a full ingredients labelling.[29]


The United States

During colonial times apple cider was consumed as the main beverage with meals because water was often unsafe for drinking. Ciderkin, a very weak, slightly cidery beverage made from cider pomace could also be found on colonial tables. Ciderkin, sometimes referred to as water-cider, is a kind of weak alcoholic cider traditionally drunk by children, and made by steeping the refuse pomace in water. ... Pomace is a substance prepared by pressing or grinding various fruits, for example in the manufacture of olive oil (from olives), wine (from grapes), or cider (from apples). ...


Sometime after Prohibition the word cider came to mean unfiltered, unfermented apple juice. For instance, in Pennsylvania, apple cider is legally defined as an "amber golden, opaque, unfermented, entirely non-alcoholic juice squeezed from apples".[citation needed] Imitation "cider" products may contain natural or artificial flavours or colours generally recognized as safe, provided their presence is declared on the label by the use of the word "imitation" in type at least one-half the size of the type used to declare the flavour. Cider containing more than 0.5 percent alcohol by volume is classified as hard cider. Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... American-style apple cider, left; Apple juice, right. ... Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) is a United States of America Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements. ...


Cider may also refer to sparkling apple juice, which is often filtered, such as Martinelli's sparkling apple cider, once touted specifically as "non-alcoholic cider". Martinelli's is sold as "cider" or "juice" depending on regional usage. A bottle of Martinellis famous cider S. Martinelli & Company, better known by the brand name Martinellis, is a company based in Watsonville, California. ...


Alcoholic cider is produced in the United States, especially in New England and upstate New York. Woodchuck cider, from Vermont, is one of the most common brands in the north-eastern US. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article is about the state. ... Woodchuck is a brand of hard cider produced by the Green Mountain Cidery in Middlebury, Vermont. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


See also

/ Cider Jack] [ ... A glass of fassbrause Fassbrause, literally keg brew, is a non-alcoholic German soda made from natural fruit and spices, traditionally stored in a keg. ...

References

  1. ^ S&N looks at pear cider. BarKeeper.co.uk (2007-05-28). Retrieved on 2007-12-21.
  2. ^ National Association of Cider Makers. Retrieved on 2007-12-21.
  3. ^ Bulmers to take on Magners in a cider decider. The Guardian (2006-06-26). Retrieved on 2006-06-20.
  4. ^ Kristin Rowles (2000-06). Hard Cider and Apple Wine (PDF). Cornell University. Retrieved on 2006-06-20.
  5. ^ a b James Crowden. Somerset Cider. Somerset County Council. Retrieved on 2006-06-20., a Orcharding year, b Somerset cider producers
  6. ^ History of cider. W3commerce (2000). Retrieved on 2006-06-20.
  7. ^ Mangas, J. J.; Rodríguez, R.; Suárez, B.; Picinelli, A. & Dapena, E. (October 1999). "Study of the phenolic profile of cider apple cultivars at maturity by multivariate techniques.". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10 (47): 4046–4052. doi:10.1021/jf9903197. 
  8. ^ The Great British Kitchen. Retrieved on 2008-02-14.
  9. ^ Syvret , Marguerite (April 2001). Balleine's History of Jersey. Phillimore & Co Ltd. ISBN 1-86077-065-7. 
  10. ^ Cider-making, An Old-time Guernsey industry. Priaulx, Guernsey, nd
  11. ^ The Triumph of the Country, Kelleher, Jersey 1994, ISBN 0-9518162-4-1
  12. ^ Jersey Society in London, Bulletin, 1983
  13. ^ Jersey Evening Post, 22 July 2006
  14. ^ http://www.pressesystemet.dk/default.asp?id=1910
  15. ^ Hofseth, Arne, Bergens Tidende (2006-05-29). Sprudlande Hardanger i stettglas (Norwegian).
  16. ^ a b Jacobsen, Aase E., VG (2006-05-29). Brusende nasjonalfølelse (Norwegian).
  17. ^ Stortinget. Alkoholloven (Norwegian).
  18. ^ a b Ørjasæter, Lars Ola, Aperitif (2005-04-20). Nødvendig opprydding (Norwegian).
  19. ^ Matthew Goodman. "Magners leads the great cider revival", Times Online, 2006-08-06. Retrieved on 2007-12-21. 
  20. ^ Fare of the country; England's Realm Of Cider With a Kick. The New York Times (1989-04-02). Retrieved on 2006-06-20.
  21. ^ Alcohol Duty Rates. HMRC. Retrieved on 2008-01-20.
  22. ^ Clauses 3,4&5 : Introduces a sparkling cider and perry definition and sets a duty rate. 1996 Budget. HM Treasury. Retrieved on 2008-01-20.
  23. ^ "Bulmer beats cider tax", The Independent, July 18, 1996. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. 
  24. ^ "Drink firm axes 'supersize' cider", BBC News, 12 September 2004. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. 
  25. ^ SCB strikes Lightning off 'extra free' circuit. Talking Retail website (22 October 2004). Retrieved on 2008-01-20.
  26. ^ a b SCB puts own-label cider in its sights. Talking Retail website (22 October 2005). Retrieved on 2008-01-20.
  27. ^ Scrumptious Somerset. The Great British Kitchen. Retrieved on 2007-12-21.
  28. ^ About Cider and Perry. Campaign for Real Ale. Retrieved on 2007-12-21.
  29. ^ Real Cider and Perry. UKCider. Retrieved on 2007-12-21.
General references
  • Household Cyclopedia, 1881
  • Farmhouse Cider & Scrumpy, Bob Bunker 1999
  • Richard A. Fletcher, 1984. Saint James' Catapult: The Life and Times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela (Oxford University Press)

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cornell redirects here. ... 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Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) is an independent, voluntary, consumer organisation in the United Kingdom whose main aim is promoting real ale and the traditional British pub. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Household Cyclopedia was an 1881 guide to housekeeping. ...

External links

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Cider eliminates the typical arduous, expensive, and lengthy development process and allows game developers and publishers to extend their gaming franchises to the explosively growing Mac market - cost effectively, efficiently, and with a quicker time-to-market.
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Cider - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2916 words)
Cider (known in parts of North America as hard cider, and also spelled cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made from apples.
Cider is often the drink of choice for teenagers in the UK, along with alcopops; compare the Snakebite, a blend of pale lager and cider which is often served with a dash of flcurrant.
Cider made in the West Country is often referred to as "scrumpy", from the local dialect verb "to scrump": to steal apples.
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