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Encyclopedia > Cichlid
Cichlids
Common freshwater angelfish,Pterophyllum scalare
Common freshwater angelfish,
Pterophyllum scalare
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Cichlidae
Subfamilies

Astronotinae
Cichlasomatinae
Cichlinae
Etroplinae
Geophaginae
Heterochromidinae
Paratilapiinae
Pseudocrenilabrinae
Ptychochrominae
Retroculinae
For genera, see below. Freshwater angelfish at the Montreal Biodome, by mendel. ... Species Pterophyllum altum Pterophyllum leopoldi Pterophyllum scalare Freshwater angelfish are cichlids that originate around the Amazon River basin with a striking, compressed body shape and long extended dorsal and anal fins. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ... Families many, see text The Perciformes, also called the Percomorphi or Acanthopteri, include about 40% of all fish and are the largest order of vertebrates. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Species Paratilapia polleni Paratilapia toddi Paratilapia is a small genus of cichlids with only two known species. ... In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a grouping in the classification of living organisms having one or more related and morphologically similar species. ...

Cichlids (IPA pronunciation: [ˈsɪklɪd]) are fishes from the family Cichlidae in the order Perciformes. The family Cichlidae, a major family of perciform fish, is both large and diverse. Estimates of the number of cichlid species range from 1,300 to 1,900, making it one of the three largest vertebrate families.[1][2] Cichlids span a wide range of body sizes, from species as small as 2.5 centimetres (1.0 in) in length (e.g. Neolamprologus multifasciatus ) to much larger species approaching 1 metre (3 ft) in length (e.g. Boulengerochromis and Cichla). As a group, cichlids exhibit a similarly wide diversity of body shapes, ranging from strongly laterally compressed species (such as Altolamprologus, Pterophyllum, and Symphysodon) through to species that are cylindrical and highly elongate (such as Julidochromis, Teleogramma, Teleocichla, Crenicichla, and Gobiocichla).[3] Generally, however, cichlids tend to be of medium size, ovate in shape and slightly laterally compressed, and generally very similar to the North American sunfishes in terms of morphology, behaviour, and ecology.[4] Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, the most abundant fish species in the world, Photo by Uwe Kils This page is about the animals which live in water. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Families many, see text The Perciformes, also called the Percomorphi or Acanthopteri, include about 40% of all fish and are the largest order of vertebrates. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Binomial name Neolamprologus multifasciatus (Boulenger, 1906) Neolamprologus multifasciatus (Boulenger, 1906) is one of the small shell-dwelling cichlids endemic to Lake Tanganyika. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... Species Boulengerochromis microlepis (Boulenger, 1899) Boulengerochromis is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Cichla is a genus of fifteen describedspecies, (and according to Kullander & Ferreira 2006, approximately 5 to 15 additional undescribed species) of Central American fish from the family Cichlidae. ... Species Altolamprologus calvus Altolamprologus compressiceps Altolamprologus is a small genus of cichlids endemic to Lake Tanganyika, east Africa, with only two species. ... Binomial name (Pellegrin, 1903) Pterophyllum leopoldi (Gosse, 1963) Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823) Pterophyllum is a small genus of freshwater fish from the family Cichlidae known to most aquarists as angelfish. ... Species Symphysodon aequifasciatus - Blue discus Symphysodon discus - Red discus Discus are freshwater perciform fish, peculiar cichlids native to the Amazon River basin. ... Species See text. ... Species Teleogramma brichardi Teleogramma depressum Teleogramma gracile Teleogramma monogramma Teleogramma is a small genus of cichlids with only four species. ... Teleocichla is a small genus of cichlid fish endemic to South America. ... Crenicichla are elongated (compressed) cichlids found in South and Central America. ... Species Gobiocichla ethelwynnae Gobiocichla wonderi Gobiocichla is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... Genera  Acantharchus  Ambloplites  Archoplites  Centrarchus  Enneacanthus  Lepomis  Micropterus  Pomoxis Sunfish range The sunfishes are a family (Centrarchidae) of freshwater ray-finned fish belonging to the order Perciformes. ...


Some species, particularly the tilapiines are important food fishes, while others are valued game fish (eg. Cichla species). Many species, including the angelfish, oscars, and discus, are also highly valued in the aquarium trade.[3][5] Cichlids are also the family of vertebrates with by far the highest number of endangered species, most of these being from among the haplochromine group.[6] Cichlids are particularly well known for having evolved rapidly into a large number of closely related but morphologically diverse species within large lakes, particularly the African Rift Valley lakes of Tanganyika, and Victoria, and Malawi.[7][8] The diversity of cichlids in the African Great Lakes is important for the study of speciation in evolution.[9] Many cichlids that have been accidentally or deliberately released into freshwaters outside of their natural range have become nuisance species, for example tilapia in the southern United States.[10] Genera Oreochromis (about 30 species) Sarotherodon (over 10 species) Tilapia (about 40 species) and see text Tilapia is the common name for nearly 100 species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. ... Cichla is a genus of fifteen describedspecies, (and according to Kullander & Ferreira 2006, approximately 5 to 15 additional undescribed species) of Central American fish from the family Cichlidae. ... Binomial name Pterophyllum altum (Pellegrin, 1903) Pterophyllum leopoldi (Gosse, 1963) Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823) Freshwater angelfish are cichlids that originate around the Amazon River basin with a striking, elongated vertical body shape and long extended dorsal and anal fins. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Species Symphysodon aequifasciatus - Blue discus Symphysodon discus - Red discus Discus are freshwater perciform fish, peculiar cichlids native to the Amazon River basin. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... The haplochromine cichlids, subfamily Haplochrominae, are a grouping of genera including Haplochromis plus a number of closely related genera (such as Aulonocara, Astatotilapia, and Chilotiplapia) endemic to eastern and southern Africa. ... Four of the 13 finch species found on the Galápagos Archipelago, and thought to have evolved by an adaptive radiation that diversified their beak shapes to adapt them to different food sources. ... In evolutionary biology, a species flock is a diverse group of closely related species in an isolated area. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Victoria (disambiguation). ... Sweet clover (), introduced and naturalized to the U.S. from Eurasia as a forage and cover crop. ... Genera Oreochromis (about 30 species) Sarotherodon (over 10 species) Tilapia (about 40 species) and see text Tilapia is the common name for nearly 100 species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. ...

Contents

Anatomy and appearance

Relationships within the Labrodei.[11]

Cichlids are members of a group of perciform fish known as the Labroidei alongside the wrasses Labridae, damselfish Pomacentridae, and surfperches Embiotocidae.[11] This very large grouping shares a single key trait: the fusion of the lower pharyngeal bones into a single tooth-bearing structure. A complex set of muscles allows the upper and lower pharyngeal bones to be used as a second set of jaws for processing food, allowing a division of labour between the "true jaws" (mandibles) and the "pharyngeal jaws". Cichlids in particular have evolved to be very efficient feeders that are able to capture and process a very wide variety of food items and this is assumed to be one reason why they are so diverse (see section on diet below).[3] Cichlids have a great variability in body shape, ranging from compressed and disc-shaped (such as Symphysodon) to elongate and cylindrical (such as Crenicichla.[12] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 436 pixelsFull resolution (949 × 517 pixel, file size: 237 KB, MIME type: image/png) Labroid interrelationships (after Stiassny & Jensen, 1987) Uploaded/Created by Dr. David Midgley See: Stiassny MLJ, Jensen JS (1987) Labroid intrarelationships revisited: morphological complexity, key innovations, and... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 436 pixelsFull resolution (949 × 517 pixel, file size: 237 KB, MIME type: image/png) Labroid interrelationships (after Stiassny & Jensen, 1987) Uploaded/Created by Dr. David Midgley See: Stiassny MLJ, Jensen JS (1987) Labroid intrarelationships revisited: morphological complexity, key innovations, and... Families many, see text The Perciformes, also called the Percomorphi or Acanthopteri, include about 40% of all fish and are the largest order of vertebrates. ... Genera (60 genera) The wrasses are a family (family Labridae) of reef safe marine fish, many of which are brightly-colored and popular for aquaria. ... Genera See text. ... Genera Amphistichus Brachyistius Cymatogaster Ditrema Embiotoca Hyperprosopon Hypsurus Hysterocarpus Micrometrus Neoditrema Phanerodon Rhacochilus Zalembius See text for species. ... This article is about the human bone. ... Subfamilies Astronotinae Cichlasomatinae Cichlinae Etroplinae Geophaginae Heterochromidinae Paratilapiinae Pseudocrenilabrinae Ptychochrominae Retroculinae For genera, see below. ... Species Symphysodon aequifasciatus - Blue discus Symphysodon discus - Red discus Discus are freshwater perciform fish, peculiar cichlids native to the Amazon River basin. ... Crenicichla are elongated (compressed) cichlids found in South and Central America. ...


The particular features of cichlids that distinguish them from the other Labroidei include:[1]

  • A single nostril on each side of the forehead instead of two.
  • No bony shelf below the orbit of the eye.
  • The lateral line organ is divided into two sections, one on the upper half of the flank and a second along the midline of the flank from about halfway along the body to the base of the tail (except for genera Teleogramma and Gobiocichla).
  • A distinctively shaped otolith.
  • The small intestine leaves the stomach from its left side, not from its right side as in other Labroidei.

In fish, the lateral line is a sense organ used to detect movement in the surrounding water. ... Species Teleogramma brichardi Teleogramma depressum Teleogramma gracile Teleogramma monogramma Teleogramma is a small genus of cichlids with only four species. ... Species Gobiocichla ethelwynnae Gobiocichla wonderi Gobiocichla is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... An otolith, or otoconium is a [[[calcium]] carbonate structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear (hence the name otolith, or ear-stone). It can be used for age determination, showing rings of different growth summer/winter, like tree rings. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ...

Taxonomy

Kullander (1998) recognises eight subfamilies of cichlids: the Astronotinae, Cichlasomatinae, Cichlinae, Etroplinae, Geophaginae, Heterochromidinae, Pseudocrenilabrinae and Retroculinae.[2] Nelson (2006), however, indicates that cichlid taxonomy is still greatly debated, and despite these attempts, classification of genera cannot yet be accurately given.[12] A comprehensive system of assigning species to monophyletic genera is still lacking, and there is not complete agreement on what genera should be recognized in this family.[12] ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one race) if it consists of an inferred common ancestor and all its descendants. ...


As an example of the extant problems in Cichlid taxonomy, Kullander published a phylogeny of the Cichlidae (details of which can be found here) i which the African genus Heterochromis ended up being placed phylogenetically within Neotropical (i.e., South American) Cichlds, although later papers arrived at different conclusions. Other extant problems (mentioned in the following paragraph) centre upon the identity of the putative common ancestor for the Lake Victoria superflock, and the precise ancestral lineages of the Tanganyikan Cichlids. However, the research is active and intensive (see below for just two of many recent papers), with new papers expected in the immediate future that may resolve some of the outstanding questions.


The paper Multilocus Phylogeny of Cichlid Fishes (Pisces: Perciformes): Evolutionary Comparison of Microsatellite and Single-Copy Nuclear Loci by Streelman, Zardoya, Meyer and Karl (1998) (Mol. Biol. Evol. 15(7):798–808. 1998, paper available as PDF here) provides comparisons between the phylogeny (due to Stiassny, 1991) as determined using morphological characteristics, and two maximum-pasrimony bootstrap consensus trees based upon analyses of two different gene loci, along with majority-rule trees and other similar phylogenetic trees based upon assorted gene locus analyses. There are some extant differences between the assorted trees at the genus level that require resolution, though the consensus from the various nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses in this and other papers is that the Cichlidae as a family is monophyletic. Further insights into the attractiveness of Cichlid taxonomy as a fertile area of research is given by the paper The species flocks of East African cichlid fishes: recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and population genetics by Salzburger and Meyer (Naturwissenschaften (2004) 91:277–290, paper available as PDF here), in which the advances made in the analysis of the phylogeny of the Lake Victoria superflock (among other East African Cichlids) is discussed in depth.


One problem that resulted in a major upheaval of Cichlid taxonomy was highlighted by Dr Humphrey Greenwood of the Natural History Museum, London, in a paper in 1977 (cited in TFH magazine, August 1977, with a follow up letter by Dr Greenwood in the November 1977 issue complaining about poor reportage of his work). Dentition (characteristics of tooth shape and arrangement) had been used prior to this date as classifying characteristics, which Greenwood demonstrated was invalid upon phylogenetic grounds because in many Cichlid species, dentition is an environmentally plastic characteristic (tooth shape changes in numerous species with age, due to wear etc), and cannot be relied upon universally across the family as a diagnostic characteristic upon which to base phylogenetic judgements. It is in the light of this that Cichlid taxonomy has undergone major revisions in the 30-plus years since, with the advent of genome sequencing and other technologies adding to the ever-growing body of data resulting in the still-fluid state of Cichlid taxonomy at the genus level.


Range and habitat

Tilapia mariae, caught on a hook and line, in Australia. Originally from Africa, the species established feral populations in Australia.
Tilapia mariae, caught on a hook and line, in Australia. Originally from Africa, the species established feral populations in Australia.[13]

Cichlids are the most species-rich non-Ostariophysan family in freshwaters worldwide. They are mainly freshwater fish that are most diverse in Africa and South America, with at least 900 species in the former and 291 in the latter. It is estimated that there will be about 1300 species in Africa alone when all are discovered and described.[12] Substantial numbers are also found in Central America as far north as the Rio Grande in southern Texas, and Madagascar has its own distinctive fauna of cichlids phylogenetically only distantly related to those on the African mainland.[1][14] Endemic cichlids are largely absent in Asia except for four species in the Jordan Valley in the Middle East, one in Iran, and three in India and Sri Lanka.[12] There are four species found in Cuba and Hispaniola. Europe, Australia, Antarctica, and most of North America do not have any native cichlids, although where environmental conditions are suitable, for example in Florida, Mexico, Japan and northern Australia, feral populations of cichlids have become established as exotics.[15][13][16][17][18][19][20] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 700 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 532 pixel, file size: 136 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tilapia mariae, caught on a hook and line, in the heated outflow of a coal powerplant in southern Australia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 700 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 532 pixel, file size: 136 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tilapia mariae, caught on a hook and line, in the heated outflow of a coal powerplant in southern Australia. ... Binomial name Tilapia mariae Boulenger, 1899 The spotted tilapia (Tilapia mariae) is a fresh and brackish water fish of the cichlid family. ... Orders Gonorynchiformes Cypriniformes Characiformes Gymnotiformes Siluriformes Ostariophysi is a superorder of fish. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rio Grande (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Early map of Hispaniola The island of Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ...


Cichlids are largely freshwater fish and are less commonly found in brackish and salt water habitats, though many species will tolerate brackish water for extended periods; Cichlasoma urophthalmus, for example, is equally at home in freshwater marshes and mangrove swamps, and can be found living and breeding in salt water environments such as the mangrove belts around barrier islands.[3] Several species of tilapias (species of Tilapia, Sarotherodon, and Oreochromis) are euryhaline and can disperse along some brackish coastlines between rivers.[12] Only a few cichlids, however, are found primarily in brackish or salt water, most notably Etroplus maculatus, Etroplus suratensis, and Sarotherodon melanotheron.[21] Binomial name Cichlasoma urophthalmus Gunther 1862 // Natural History Description and Taxonomy The Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus is a member of the Cichlidae family of fish. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Genera Oreochromis (about 30 species) Sarotherodon (over 10 species) Tilapia (about 40 species) and see text Tilapia is the common name for nearly 100 species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. ... Genera and species Oreochromis A. Günther,1889   Oreochromis alcalica- Alkaline tilapia   Oreochromis aurea- Blue tilapia   Oreochromis macrochir- Longfin tilapia   Oreochromis mossambicus- Mozambique tilapia   Oreochromis niloticus niloticus- Nile tilapia   Oreochromis urolepis urolepis- Rufigi tilapia   Oreochromis urolepis hornorum- Wami tilapia Sarotherodon W. P. E. S. Rüppell, 1852   Sarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus... Genera and species Oreochromis A. Günther,1889   Oreochromis alcalica- Alkaline tilapia   Oreochromis aurea- Blue tilapia   Oreochromis macrochir- Longfin tilapia   Oreochromis mossambicus- Mozambique tilapia   Oreochromis niloticus niloticus- Nile tilapia   Oreochromis urolepis urolepis- Rufigi tilapia   Oreochromis urolepis hornorum- Wami tilapia Sarotherodon W. P. E. S. Rüppell, 1852   Sarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus... Euryhaline organisms are able to adapt to a wide range of salinities. ...


Diet

The bumblebee cichlid, Pseudotropheus crabro, is specialised in feeding on parasites from the catfish Bagrus meridionalis
The bumblebee cichlid, Pseudotropheus crabro, is specialised in feeding on parasites from the catfish Bagrus meridionalis[22]

Cichlids are astonishingly diverse in terms of diet. Many are primarily herbivores feeding on algae (e.g. Petrochromis) and plants (e.g. Etroplus suratensis) and small animals, particularly invertebrates, are only a small part of their diet. Some cichlids are detritivores and eat all types of organic material; among these species are the tilapiines of the genera Oreochromis, Sarotherodon, and Tilapia. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (812x542, 152 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of freshwater aquarium fish species Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (812x542, 152 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of freshwater aquarium fish species Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Binomial name Pseudotropheus crabro (Ribbink & Lewis, 1982) The bumblebee cichlid, Pseudotropheus crabro, is a freshwater fish of the cichlid family. ... Binomial name Bagrus meridionalis Günther, 1894 The kampango or kampoyo, Bagrus meridionalis, is a large, territorial and predatory catfish endemic to Lake Malawi, occurring from the lower reaches of rivers to the deepest habitable parts of the lake. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Species Petrochromis is a small genus of seven cichlid species endemic to Lake Tanganyika in east Africa. ... u fuck in ua ... A dung beetle rolling a ball of dung Detritivores (also known as saprophages, detrivores or detritus feeders) are organisms that recycle detritus (decomposing organic material), returning it into the food chain. ... The Tilapiini is a tribe within the family Cichlidae commonly known as tilapiine cichlids and generally held to contain the diverse and economically important genera Oreochromis, Sarotherodon, and Tilapia as well as number of smaller genera, specifically Danakilia, Iranocichla, Pelmatochromis, Pterochromis, Steatocranus, and Tristamella. ... Genera and species Oreochromis A. Günther,1889   Oreochromis alcalica- Alkaline tilapia   Oreochromis aurea- Blue tilapia   Oreochromis macrochir- Longfin tilapia   Oreochromis mossambicus- Mozambique tilapia   Oreochromis niloticus niloticus- Nile tilapia   Oreochromis urolepis urolepis- Rufigi tilapia   Oreochromis urolepis hornorum- Wami tilapia Sarotherodon W. P. E. S. Rüppell, 1852   Sarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus... Genera and species Oreochromis A. Günther,1889   Oreochromis alcalica- Alkaline tilapia   Oreochromis aurea- Blue tilapia   Oreochromis macrochir- Longfin tilapia   Oreochromis mossambicus- Mozambique tilapia   Oreochromis niloticus niloticus- Nile tilapia   Oreochromis urolepis urolepis- Rufigi tilapia   Oreochromis urolepis hornorum- Wami tilapia Sarotherodon W. P. E. S. Rüppell, 1852   Sarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus... Species See text. ...


Other cichlids are predatory and eat little if any plant matter. These include generalists that catch a variety of small animals including other fishes and insect larvae (e.g. Pterophyllum), as well as variety of specialists. Trematocranus is a specialised snail-eater, while Pungu maclareni feeds on sponges. A number of cichlids feed on other fish, either whole or in part. Crenicichla are stealth-predators that lunge at small fish that pass by their hiding places, while Rhamphochromis are open water pursuit predators that chase down their prey.[23] Paedophagous cichlids such as the Caprichromis species eat other species' eggs or young (in some cases ramming the heads of mouthbrooding species to force them to disgorge their young).[24][25][22][26] Among the more unusual feeding strategies are those of Corematodus spp., Docimodus evelynae, Plecodus straeleni and all species of Perissodus , which feed on scales and fins of other fishes, a behaviour known as lepidophagy[27][28][29] along with the death mimicing behaviour of Nimbochromis and Parachromis species, which lay motionless, luring small fish to their side prior to ambush.[30][31] This tigers sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators A carnivore (IPA: ), meaning meat eater (Latin carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour), is an animal that eats a diet consisting mainly of meat, whether it comes from live animals... Binomial name (Pellegrin, 1903) Pterophyllum leopoldi (Gosse, 1963) Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823) Pterophyllum is a small genus of freshwater fish from the family Cichlidae known to most aquarists as angelfish. ... This article is about the animal. ... The sponge, in the phylum Porifera, is a very primitive and specialized animal. ... Crenicichla are elongated (compressed) cichlids found in South and Central America. ... Rhamphochromis is a genus of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Malawi in East Africa. ... Paedophagy literally means the consumption of children. It is a term used to describe the feeding behaviour of fish, or other animals, whose diet is partially, or primarily the eggs or larvae of other animals. ... Caprichromis is a small genus of cichlid fish which currently contains two species. ... Species Corematodus shiranus Corematodus taeniatus Corematodus is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... Docimodus is a small genus of cichlid fish endemic to east Africa. ... Binomial name Poll, 1948 Plecodus straeleni is a species of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Perissodus is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Lepidophagy is a specialised feeding behaviour in fish that involves eating of scales of other fish. ... Species Nimbochromis is a small genus of five cichlid species endemic to Lake Malawi in east Africa. ... Binomial name Parachromis managuense (Günther, 1867) The Manguense Cichlid (Parachromis managuense) is a cichlid fish. ...


Scientists believe it is this wide adaptability of feeding styles that has helped cichlids to inhabit such a wide range of habitats. It is largely the pharyngeal teeth (teeth in the throat) that allows the cichlids so many 'niche' feeding behaviours, i.e. the jaws may be used to hold or pick food, while the pharyngeal teeth are used to crush what was harvested.


Reproduction

A substrate brooding female managuense cichlid, Parachromis managuense, guards a clutch of eggs in the aquarium.
A substrate brooding female managuense cichlid, Parachromis managuense, guards a clutch of eggs in the aquarium.

Download high resolution version (686x620, 143 KB) Picture of a female managuense cichlid guarding a clutch of eggs in an aquarium File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (686x620, 143 KB) Picture of a female managuense cichlid guarding a clutch of eggs in an aquarium File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Parachromis managuensis (Günther, 1867) The Managuense cichlid, Parachromis managuensis, is a cichlid native to the Atlantic coasts of Honduras and Costa Rica in Central America: the name means from Managua. It is a food fish and is also found in the aquarium trade where it is known...

Brood care

All species show some form of parental care for both eggs and larvae, often extended to free-swimming young until they are several weeks or months old. Species of this family have highly organized breeding activities.[12] In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ...


Parental care falls into one of four categories:[32]Substrate or open brooders, secretive cave brooders (also known as guarding speleophils[33]), and at least two types of mouthbrooding, ovophile mouthbrooding and larvophile mouthbrooding.[34] Mouthbrooders are several species of fish that chactisticly care for their ofspring, either eggs or juveniles, by holding them for extended periods of time in the mouth of one or both parents. ...


Open or substrate brooding cichlids lay their eggs in the open on rocks, leaves or logs. Examples of open brooding cichlids include Pterophyllum, Symphysodon spp and Anomalochromis thomasi. In general, brooding biparental substrate brooding cichlids usually engage in differing roles with regard to protection and raising of the fry. Most commonly, the male parent patrols the pair's territory and repels intruders, while females more intensively tend the brood, fanning water over the eggs, removing infertile eggs and leading the school of fry while foraging. Despite this, both sexes are able to perform the full range of parenting behaviours.[34] Secretive cave spawning cichlids lay their eggs in caves, crevices, holes or discarded mollusc shells (see also: shell brooding cichlids), frequently attaching the eggs to the roof of the chamber. Examples include Pelvicachromis spp., Archocentrus spp and Apistogramma spp.[32] Communication between free-swimming fry and parents of both open and cave spawning cichlids has been observed for a number of cichlids in captivity and in the wild.[34] Frequently this communication is based on body movements, such as shaking and pelvic fin flicking.[34] In addition, parental substrate brooding cichlids assist in finding food resources for their fry. Parental behaviours such as leaf-turning, and fin-digging have been observed for a number of neotropical cichlid species.[34] Binomial name (Pellegrin, 1903) Pterophyllum leopoldi (Gosse, 1963) Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823) Pterophyllum is a small genus of freshwater fish from the family Cichlidae known to most aquarists as angelfish. ... Species Symphysodon aequifasciatus Symphysodon discus Symphysodon tarzoo Discus (Symphysodon spp. ... Binomial name Anomalochromis thomasi (Boulenger, 1916) Anomalochromis thomasi is a species of fish in the family Cichlidae, the only species in the genus Anomalochromis. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Pelvicachromis pulcher The Kribensis, Krib, or Purple Chichlid is a popular aquarium fish of the cichlid family. ... Binomial name (Günther, 1867) The Convict cichlid (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) is a species of fish from the family Cichlidae native to Central America[1] also known as the zebra cichlid. ... Apistogramma is the common genus name for more than a hundred species of dwarf cichlids found in tropical areas of the Amazon basin and Venezuela. ...


Communal parental care, where multiple monogamous pairs care for a mixed school of young have also been observed for a number of cichlid species including: Amphilophus citrinellus, Etroplus suratensis and Tilapia rendalli.[35][36][37] Binomial name Amphilophus citrinellus (Günther, 1864) Amphilophus citrinellus is a large cichlid fish endemic to Costa Rica and Nicaragua in Central America. ... Binomial name (Boulenger, 1896) The redbreast tilapia (Tilapia rendalli) is a species of fish in the Cichlidae family. ...

A female Cyphotilapia frontosa mouthbrooding fry which can be seen looking out her mouth
A female Cyphotilapia frontosa mouthbrooding fry which can be seen looking out her mouth

Ovophile mouthbrooders incubate their eggs in their mouths as soon as they are laid, and frequently continue to brood free-swimming fry in their mouths for several weeks. Examples of ovophile mouthbrooding cichlids include many of the cichlids endemic to the Rift Valley lakes (Lake Malawi, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria) in east Africa eg: Maylandia, Pseudotropheus and Tropheus along with some south american cichlids such as Geophagus steindachneri. Larvophile mouthbrooding species lay the eggs in the open, or in a cave and upon hatching take the larvae into the mouth. Examples include some variants of Geophagus altifrons, some Aequidens, Gymnogeophagus and Satanoperca species.[3][32] Regardless of whether eggs or larvae are subject to mouthbrooding, the vast majority of mouthbrooding cichlids are maternal mouthbrooders, that is the female mouthbroods the young. In the eretmodine cichlids (genera Spathodus, Eretmodus and Tanganicodus), some Sarotherodon species, Chromidotilapia guntheri and some Aequidens species, however, mouthbrooding is practiced by both the male and the female.[3][38][34] Paternal mouthbrooding, though rare, is also known to occur in the family eg. Sarotherodon melanotheron.[39] This method is common and appears to have evolved independently in several groups of African cichlids.[12] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 444 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (569 × 768 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 444 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (569 × 768 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Binomial name Cyphotilapia frontosa Boulenger, 1906 Cyphotilapia frontosa is a fish native to Lake Tanganyika in central Africa. ... African Rift Valley. ... Lake Malawi (also known as Lake Nyasa, Lake Nyassa, Lake Niassa, and Niassa in Mozambique), is the most southerly lake in the Great African Rift Valley system. ... Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Victoria (disambiguation). ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... The genus Maylandia contains around 15 species of cichlids from Lake Malawi in Eastern Africa. ... Pseudotropheus is a genus of rock dwelling (Mbuna) cichlids found in Lake Malawi. ... Tropheus is a small genus of six species of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Geophagus altifrons (Heckel, 1840) The Eartheater Cichlid (Geophagus altifrons) is a freshwater fish native to South America, particularly in the Amazon Forest. ... Binomial name Aequidens rivulatus (Günther, 1860) The Green Terror (Aequidens rivulatus) is a colorful freshwater fish in the cichlid family. ... Species See text. ... Species See text. ... Species Spathodus is a small genus of two cichlid species endemic to Lake Tanganyika in east Africa. ... Eretmodus is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Species Tanganicodus irsacae Tanganicodus is a monotypic cichlid genus whose single representative, Tanganicodus irsacae, is endemic to Lake Tanganyika in east Africa. ... Genera and species Oreochromis A. Günther,1889   Oreochromis alcalica- Alkaline tilapia   Oreochromis aurea- Blue tilapia   Oreochromis macrochir- Longfin tilapia   Oreochromis mossambicus- Mozambique tilapia   Oreochromis niloticus niloticus- Nile tilapia   Oreochromis urolepis urolepis- Rufigi tilapia   Oreochromis urolepis hornorum- Wami tilapia Sarotherodon W. P. E. S. Rüppell, 1852   Sarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus... Binomial name Aequidens rivulatus (Günther, 1860) The Green Terror (Aequidens rivulatus) is a colorful freshwater fish in the cichlid family. ...


Several cichlids, including discus (Symphysodon spp.), some Amphilophus species, Etroplus and Uaru species are noted to feed their young with a skin secretion from mucous glands.[3][32] Species Symphysodon aequifasciatus - Blue discus Symphysodon discus - Red discus Discus are freshwater perciform fish, peculiar cichlids native to the Amazon River basin. ... Species Amphilophus is a genus of cichlid fishes from Central America. ... Species Etroplus canarensis Etroplus maculatus Etroplus suratensis Etroplus is a small genus of cichlids with only three species. ... Species Uaru amphiacanthoides Uaru fernandezyepezi Uaru is a small genus of cichlids with two described species and one undescribed species. ... Secretion is the process of segregating, elaborating, and releasing chemicals from a cell, or a secreted chemical substance or amount of substance. ...


Mating system

Cichlids are either monogamous or polygamous in their mating system.[3] The mating system of any given cichlid species is not consistently associated with the type of brood care the species employs. For example, although most monogamous cichlids are not mouthbrooding cichlids, Chromidotilapia, Gymnogeophagus, Spathodus and Tanganicodus are all monogamous mouthbrooders. In contrast, numerous open or cave spawning cichlids are polygamous, examples include Apistogramma, Lamprologus, Nannacara and Pelvicachromis.[3][40] In monogamy (Greek: monos = single/only and gamos = marriage) a person has only one spouse at a time (as opposed to polygamy). ... Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ... Species Chromidotilapia is a genus of cichlid fishes from west Africa. ... Species See text. ... Species Spathodus is a small genus of two cichlid species endemic to Lake Tanganyika in east Africa. ... Species Tanganicodus irsacae Tanganicodus is a monotypic cichlid genus whose single representative, Tanganicodus irsacae, is endemic to Lake Tanganyika in east Africa. ... Apistogramma is the common genus name for more than a hundred species of dwarf cichlids found in tropical areas of the Amazon basin and Venezuela. ... Species See text. ... Nannacara is a genus of small freshwater cichlid fish endemic to South America. ... Species See text. ...

Lamprologus ocellatus, a shell-dwelling cichlid, guarding fry
Lamprologus ocellatus, a shell-dwelling cichlid, guarding fry

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 484 pixelsFull resolution (890 × 538 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Chris Needham Lamprologus ocellatus (Gold form) with fry. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 484 pixelsFull resolution (890 × 538 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Chris Needham Lamprologus ocellatus (Gold form) with fry. ... Lamprologus ocellatus is a type of shell dweller from Lake Tanganyika. ... Genera Altolamprologus - A few varieties Lamprologus Lepidiolamprologus - May be invalid Neolamprologus Telmatochromis Pseudotropheus - P. lanisticola Shell dwellers are a group of cichlids from Lake Tanganyika with one definite example from Lake Malawi. ...

Endangered cichlids

According to the 2007 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources red list 156 cichlid species are currently listed as vulnerable, 40 species are listed as endangered, while 69 species are listed as critically endangered. Six species, Haplochromis ishmaeli, Haplochromis lividus, Haplochromis perrieri, Paretroplus menarambo, Platytaeniodus degeni and Yssichromis sp. nov. 'argens' are extinct in the wild, while at least 39 species, most from the genus Haplochromis, have become extinct since the early 1990s.[41] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Haplochromis is the largest genus of fish in the family Cichlidae, many of which are endemic to Lake Victoria in East Africa. ...


Lake Victoria

Because of the introduced Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and water hyacinth, deforestation causing siltation of water, and overfishing, many species of Lake Victoria cichlids have been wiped out or drastically reduced in the wild. By around 1980, fisheries of the lake yielded only 1 percent cichlids from all the catch, a drastic decline from 80 percent in the earlier years.[42] Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Nile perch (Lates niloticus) is a species of freshwater fish in family Centropomidae of order Perciformes. ... Species Seven species, including: - Anchored Water Hyacinth E. crassipes - Common Water Hyacinth - Variableleaf Water Hyacinth - Brazilian Water Hyacinth The seven species of water hyacinths comprise the genus Eichhornia of free-floating perennial aquatic plants native to tropical South America. ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Victoria (disambiguation). ...

Haplochromis latifasciata is critically endangered in the wild
Haplochromis latifasciata is critically endangered in the wild[43]

As many as three hundred species or about two-thirds of the endemic cichlids, especially the ones that feed in the open bottom of the lake, became endangered or extinct. Some surviving cichlids, however, have adapted to the new threats by becoming smaller or hybridising with other species.[42] Thankfully, the myriad of satellite lakes surrounding Lake Victoria have not been affected, and harbor an array of similar species. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 628 × 394 pixelsFull resolution (628 × 394 pixel, file size: 216 KB, MIME type: image/png) Photo: Dr. Jessica Drake Astatotilapia latifasciata New version without watermark, used with permission under CC2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 628 × 394 pixelsFull resolution (628 × 394 pixel, file size: 216 KB, MIME type: image/png) Photo: Dr. Jessica Drake Astatotilapia latifasciata New version without watermark, used with permission under CC2. ... Binomial name Regan, 1929 Synonyms Astatotilapia latifasciata (Regan, 1929) Haplochromis latifasciata is a species of fish in the Cichlidae family. ...

Cichlids as food and game fish

Although cichlids are mostly small and medium-sized fishes, a substantial number of species are notable as food and game fishes. With few thick rib bones and tasty flesh, artisan fishing of cichlids is not uncommon in Central America and South America, as well as areas surrounding the African rift lakes.[42] The most important food cichlids, however, are the tilapiines of North Africa. Fast growing, tolerant of stocking density, and highly adaptable, tilapiine species have been introduced and farmed extensively in many parts of Asia and are increasingly common in other parts of the world. Production of farmed tilapia, at about 1.5 million tonnes annually with an estimated value of US$1.8 billion,[44] is about equal to that of salmon and trout. Unlike carnivorous salmon and trout, however, tilapia are mostly omnivorous and can feed on algae or any plant-based food. This reduces the cost of tilapia farming greatly and makes tilapia the ideal "aquatic chickens" of the trade.[42] Artisan fishing is a term sometimes used to describe small scale fishing practises, particularly using traditional techniques such as rod and tackle, arrows and harpoons, throw nets and drag nets, etc. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Rift Valley lakes are a group of lakes formed in the Great Rift Valley which runs from south-western Asia through the whole eastern side of the African continent from north to south, with branches into Central Africa. ... The Tilapiini is a tribe within the family Cichlidae commonly known as tilapiine cichlids and generally held to contain the diverse and economically important genera Oreochromis, Sarotherodon, and Tilapia as well as number of smaller genera, specifically Danakilia, Iranocichla, Pelmatochromis, Pterochromis, Steatocranus, and Tristamella. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


In addition to being food fish, many large cichlids also make good game fish. The strong, hard-fighting peacock bass (Cichla species) of South America is one of the most popular sportfish. It was intentionally released in many waters around the world. In Florida, this fish generates millions of hours of fishing and anglers' spendings of more than US$8 million a year.[45] Other cichlids preferred by anglers include the oscar, Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus), and jaguar guapote (Parachromis managuensis).[45] Binomial name Cichla orinocensis The Peacock Bass (Cichla orinocensis), also commonly known as the Peacock Cichlid, is a freshwater fish native to South America (where it it is known as the pavon), and introduced to Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia deliberately by anglers as a popular game fish. ... Cichla is a genus of fifteen describedspecies, (and according to Kullander & Ferreira 2006, approximately 5 to 15 additional undescribed species) of Central American fish from the family Cichlidae. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Sport fishing is a popular attraction in Cabo San Lucas Sport fishing is a term (often used interchangeably with game fishing) that describes recreational fishing where the primary reward is the challenge of finding and catching the fish rather than the culinary or financial value of the fishs flesh. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Binomial name Astronotus ocellatus Agassiz, 1831 The Oscar (Astronotus ocellatus) is a large species of cichlid. ... Binomial name Cichlasoma urophthalmus Günther, 1862 The Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus, is a member of the Cichlidae family of fish. ... Binomial name Parachromis managuensis (Günther, 1867) Parachromis managuensis, is a cichlid native to the Atlantic coasts of Honduras and Costa Rica in Central America: the scientific name means from Managua. It is a food fish and is also found in the aquarium trade where it is variously known as...


Cichlids as aquarium fish

Although not particularly hardy, the discus, Symphysodon spp., has been popular among aquarium enthusiasts.
Although not particularly hardy, the discus, Symphysodon spp., has been popular among aquarium enthusiasts.

Since 1945, cichlids have become increasingly popular as aquarium fish[34][3][32][46][47][48][49] Cichlids are ideally suited as aquarium fish as many are small to medium-sized, easy to feed with a range of prepared fish foods, breed readily, and practice brood care, in captivity.[32] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1162x1066, 183 KB) Blue discus, Symphysodon aequifasciatus (a species of cichlid). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1162x1066, 183 KB) Blue discus, Symphysodon aequifasciatus (a species of cichlid). ... Species Symphysodon aequifasciatus - Blue discus Symphysodon discus - Red discus Discus are freshwater perciform fish, peculiar cichlids native to the Amazon River basin. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The most commonly encountered species in retail aquariums is Pterophyllum scalare from the Amazon River basin in tropical South America, known in the trade as the "angelfish" . Other popular or readily available species of cichlids include the oscar (Astronotus ocellatus), convict cichlid (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) and discus (Symphysodon spp.).[3] Binomial name (Pellegrin, 1903) Pterophyllum leopoldi (Gosse, 1963) Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823) Pterophyllum is a small genus of freshwater fish from the family Cichlidae known to most aquarists as angelfish. ... This article is about the river. ... Binomial name Pterophyllum altum (Pellegrin, 1903) Pterophyllum leopoldi (Gosse, 1963) Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823) Freshwater angelfish are cichlids that originate around the Amazon River basin with a striking, elongated vertical body shape and long extended dorsal and anal fins. ... Binomial name Astronotus ocellatus Agassiz, 1831 The Oscar (Astronotus ocellatus) is a large species of cichlid. ... Binomial name (Günther, 1867) The Convict cichlid (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) is a species of fish from the family Cichlidae native to Central America[1] also known as the zebra cichlid. ... Species Symphysodon aequifasciatus Symphysodon discus Symphysodon tarzoo Discus (Symphysodon spp. ...


Species of cichlid can be kept in aquariums with other fish, however, many cichlids are predatory towards smaller fish.[32] Conversely, some cichlids, such as Apistogramma or Julidochromis spp., can be timid in the aquarium. In such cases the use of dither fish is recommended.[3] “Aquaria” redirects here. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Apistogramma is the common genus name for more than a hundred species of dwarf cichlids found in tropical areas of the Amazon basin and Venezuela. ... Species See text. ... The term dither fish refers to an arbitrary group of aquarium fish used by cichlid keeping aquarists to reduce innate timidity in some species of cichlids (Barlow, 1967). ...


Hybrid cichlids and selective breeding

The "red Texas" cichlid is not a Texas cichlid (Herichthys cyanoguttatus) but an intergeneric hybrid of Herichthys and Amphilophus parents.
The "red Texas" cichlid is not a Texas cichlid (Herichthys cyanoguttatus) but an intergeneric hybrid of Herichthys and Amphilophus parents.

Some cichlids have been found to hybridise with closely related species quite readily, both in the wild and under artificial conditions.[50] This is not particularly unusual, having been observed among other groups of fishes, such as European cyprinids.[51] What is unusual is the extent to which cichlid hybrids have been put to commercial use, in particular as food fish and as aquarium fish.[5][52] The red strain of tilapia hybrid, for example, is often preferred in aquaculture as they have faster growth rates. Tilapia hybridisation is also used to produce all-male populations to control stock density and prohibit reproduction in ponds.[5] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixel Image in higher resolution (1444 × 1000 pixel, file size: 448 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cichlid Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixel Image in higher resolution (1444 × 1000 pixel, file size: 448 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cichlid Metadata This... Binomial name (Baird & Girard, 1854) The Texas cichlid (Herichthys cyanoguttatus, formerly Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum) is a freshwater fish of the cichlid family. ... Species Herichthys is a small genus of cichlid fishes from Central America. ... Species Amphilophus is a genus of cichlid fishes from Central America. ... Genera (many, see text) The family Cyprinidae, named after the Greek word for goldfish, consists of the carps and minnows. ... Genera Oreochromis (about 30 species) Sarotherodon (over 10 species) Tilapia (about 40 species) and see text Tilapia is the common name for nearly 100 species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi General Agribusiness · Agriculture Agricultural science · Agronomy Animal husbandry Challenges of industrial farming Extensive farming Factory farming · Free range Green Revolution History of agriculture Industrial agriculture Industrial agriculture (animals) Industrial agriculture (crops) Intensive farming · Organic farming Permaculture Sustainable agriculture Zero...


The most ubiquitous aquarium hybrid is perhaps the blood parrot cichlid which is a cross of several species especially those from genus Amphilophus. With a beak-shaped mouth, an abnormal spine, and an occasionally missing caudal fin (known as the "love heart" parrot cichlid), the fish has caused controversy among aquarium enthusiasts. Some has called blood parrot cichlid "the Frankenstein monster of the fish world."[53] Another notable hybrid, the flowerhorn cichlid, was very popular in some parts of Asia from 2001 until late 2003 and is believed to bring good luck to its owner.[54] The popularity of the flowerhorn cichlid declined in 2004,[55] resulting in many flowerhorn cichlids being released into the rivers and canals of Malaysia and Singapore where they pose a threat to endemic animal communities.[56] Blood parrot cichilds The Blood parrot (also known as bloody parrot and blood parrotfish; no binomial nomenclature) is a hybrid cichlid. ... Species Amphilophus is a genus of cichlid fishes from Central America. ... A flowerhorn Flowerhorn, also called Luohan, is a breed of Cichlid. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...

A leucistic long-finned form of A. ocellatus

Numerous cichlid species have also been the subject of selective breeding programmes to develop new ornamental strains for the aquarium trade. The most intensive selective breeding programs have involved angelfish and discus and many mutations that effect both colouration and finnage are known.[3][57][58] Many other cichlids have been selecively bred for albino, leucistic and xanthistic pigment mutations including oscars, convicts and Pelvicachromis pulcher.[3][32] Both dominant and recessively inherited pigment mutations have been observed for cichlids.[9] In convict cichlids, for example, a leucistic colouration is recessively inherited,[59] while in Oreochromis niloticus niloticus red colouration is caused by an dominantly inherited mutation.[60] Image File history File linksMetadata Long_finned_oscar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Long_finned_oscar. ... Leucism is characterized by reduced pigmentation, resulting in an individual with white or brighter patches of fur, plumage or skin than in the typical representative of the species. ... Binomial name Astronotus ocellatus Agassiz, 1831 The Oscar (Astronotus ocellatus) is a large species of cichlid. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Binomial name (Pellegrin, 1903) Pterophyllum leopoldi (Gosse, 1963) Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823) Pterophyllum is a small genus of freshwater fish from the family Cichlidae known to most aquarists as angelfish. ... Species Symphysodon aequifasciatus Symphysodon discus Symphysodon tarzoo Discus (Symphysodon spp. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... Albinism is a genetic condition resulting in a lack of pigmentation in the eyes, skin and hair. ... Leucism is characterized by reduced pigmentation, resulting in an individual with white or brighter patches of fur, plumage or skin than in the typical representative of the species. ... Xanthochromism (also called xanthochroism or xanthism) is a term that may be applied to birds, fish and other animals whose colouration is unusually yellow through an excess of yellow pigment, or possibly a loss of darker pigments that allows yellow pigment to be unusually dominant. ... Binomial name Astronotus ocellatus Agassiz, 1831 The Oscar (Astronotus ocellatus) is a large species of cichlid. ... Binomial name Pelvicachromis pulcher The Kribensis, Krib, or Purple Chichlid is a popular aquarium fish of the cichlid family. ... Binomial name (Günther, 1867) The Convict cichlid (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) is a species of fish from the family Cichlidae native to Central America[1] also known as the zebra cichlid. ... Leucism is characterized by reduced pigmentation, resulting in an individual with white or brighter patches of fur, plumage or skin than in the typical representative of the species. ... In genetics, the term recessive gene refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). ... It has been suggested that dominant allele be merged into this article or section. ...


These efforts at selectively breeding may, however, have unintended consequences. For example, some selectively bred strains of Mikrogeophagus ramirezi have health and fertility problems.[61] Similarly, the inbreeding involved in selective breeding programmes can cause severe physical abnormalies such as the notched phenotype in angelfish.[62] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Mikrogeophagus ramirezi (Myers & Harry, 1948)[1] Synonyms Apistogramma ramirezi Microgeophagus ramirezi Papiliochromis ramirezi Papilochromis ramirezi[2][3] Mikrogeophagus ramirezi is a species of freshwater fish endemic to the Orinoco River basin, in the savannahs of Venezuela and Colombia in South America. ... It has been suggested that inbreeding depression be merged into this article or section. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... Binomial name (Pellegrin, 1903) Pterophyllum leopoldi (Gosse, 1963) Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823) Pterophyllum is a small genus of freshwater fish from the family Cichlidae known to most aquarists as angelfish. ...


Genera

As of 2006, there were some 220 genera: [1]

  • Paratilapia Bleeker, 1868
  • Paretroplus Bleeker, 1868
  • Pelmatochromis Steindachner 1894
  • Pelvicachromis Thys van den Audenaerde 1968
  • Perissodus Boulenger 1898
  • Petenia Günther, 1862
  • Petrochromis Boulenger 1898
  • Petrotilapia Trewavas 1935
  • Pharyngochromis Greenwood 1979
  • Placidochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989
  • Platytaeniodus Boulenger 1906
  • Plecodus Boulenger 1898
  • Prognathochromis Greenwood 1980
  • Protomelas Eccles & Trewavas 1989
  • Psammochromis Greenwood 1980
  • Pseudocrenilabrus Fowler 1934
  • Pseudosimochromis Nelissen 1977
  • Pseudotropheus Regan 1922
  • Pterochromis Trewavas 1973
  • Pterophyllum Heckel 1840
  • Ptychochromis Steindachner 1880
  • Ptychochromoides Kiener & Mauge 1966
  • Ptyochromis Greenwood 1980
  • Pundamilia Seehausen & Lippitsch 1998
  • Pungu Trewavas 1972
  • Pyxichromis Greenwood 1980
  • Reganochromis Whitley 1929
  • Retroculus Eigenmann & Bray 1894
  • Rhamphochromis Regan 1922
  • Rocio Schmitter-Soto, 2007
  • Sargochromis Regan 1920
  • Sarotherodon Rppell 1852
  • Satanoperca Günther, 1862
  • Schubotzia Boulenger 1914
  • Schwetzochromis Poll 1948
  • Sciaenochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989
  • Serranochromis Regan 1920
  • Simochromis Boulenger 1898
  • Spathodus Boulenger 1900
  • Steatocranus Boulenger 1899
  • Stigmatochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989
  • Stomatepia Trewavas 1962
  • Symphysodon Heckel 1840
  • Taeniacara Myers 1935
  • Taeniochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989
  • Taeniolethrinops Eccles & Trewavas 1989
  • Tahuantinsuyoa Kullander 1991
  • Tangachromis Poll 1981
  • Tanganicodus Poll 1950
  • Teleocichla Kullander 1988
  • Teleogramma Boulenger 1899
  • Telmatochromis Boulenger 1898
  • Theraps Günther, 1862
  • Thoracochromis Greenwood 1979
  • Thorichthys Meek 1904
  • Thysochromis Daget 1988
  • Tilapia Smith, 1840 See also: Tilapiine cichlids
  • Tomocichla Regan 1908
  • Tramitichromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989
  • Trematocara Boulenger 1899
  • Trematocranus Trewavas 1935
  • Triglachromis Poll & Thys van den Audenaerde 1974
  • Tristramella Trewavas 1942
  • Tridontochromis Greenwood 1980
  • Tropheops Trewavas 1984
  • Tropheus Boulenger 1898
  • Tylochromis Regan 1920
  • Tyrannochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989
  • Uaru Heckel 1840
  • Variabilichromis Colombe & Allgayer 1985
  • Vieja Fernandez-Yepez 1969
  • Xenochromis Boulenger 1899
  • Xenotilapia Boulenger 1899
  • Xystichromis Greenwood 1980
  • Yissochromis Greenwood 1980

Species Acarichthys heckelii (Müller & Troschel, 1849) Acarichthys is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Carl H. Eigenmann (March 9, 1863 - April 24, 1927) was an ichthyologist who, along with his wife Rosa Smith Eigenmann, described many of the fishes of North America and South America for the first time. ... Species Acaronia nassa Acaronia vultuosa Acaronia is a small genus of cichlids with two species. ... Dr George S. Myers 1905-1985 spent most of his career at Stanford University, where he was one of the leading American Ichthyologists during the first half of the twentieth century. ... Binomial name Aequidens rivulatus (Günther, 1860) The Green Terror (Aequidens rivulatus) is a colorful freshwater fish in the cichlid family. ... Binomial name Greenwood, 1966 Allochromis welcommei is a species of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Alticorpus macrocleithrum Alticorpus mentale Alticorpus pectinatum Alticorpus peterdaviesi Alticorpus profundicola Alticorpus is a small genus of cichlids containing just five species. ... Species Altolamprologus calvus Altolamprologus compressiceps Altolamprologus is a small genus of cichlids endemic to Lake Tanganyika, east Africa, with only two species. ... Species Amphilophus is a genus of cichlid fishes from Central America. ... Louis Agassiz After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Stanford President David Starr Jordan wrote, Somebody—Dr. Angell, perhaps—remarked that Agassiz was great in the abstract but not in the concrete. ... Binomial name Anomalochromis thomasi (Boulenger, 1916) Anomalochromis thomasi is a species of fish in the family Cichlidae, the only species in the genus Anomalochromis. ... Apistogramma is the common genus name for more than a hundred species of dwarf cichlids found in tropical areas of the Amazon basin and Venezuela. ... Charles Tate Regan (February 1878 - 13 January 1943) was a British ichthyologist, working mainly around the beginning of the 20th century. ... Species Apistogrammoides pucallpaensis Meinken, 1965 Apistogrammoides is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Archocentrus is a small genus of cichlid fishes from Central America. ... Theodore Nicholas Gill (1837 - 1914) was an American ichthyologist. ... Species Aristochromis christyi Aristochromis is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Dr. Ethelwynn Trewavas (November 5, 1900-August 16, 1993) was a respected ichthyologist from the British Museum of Natural History. ... Astatoreochromis is a small genus of cichlid fish endemic to riverine habitats in east Africa. ... Jacques Pellegrin (12 June 1873 - 12 August 1944) was a French zoologist. ... Astatotilapia is a small genus of cichlid fish endemic to east Africa. ... Astronotus Swainson, 1839 Astronotus is genus of fish from the family Cichlidae. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Species Aulonocranus dewindti Boulenger, 1899 Aulonocranus is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Species Australoheros is a genus of cichlids with only four named species but also containing six still undescribed species. ... Species Baileychromis centropomoides Bailey & Stewart, 1977 Baileychromis is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Bathybates is a small genus of predatory cichlid fish. ... George Boulenger. ... Benitochromis is a small genus of cichlid fish endemic to riverine and lake habitats in west Africa. ... Species Benthochromis is a small genus of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika in east Africa. ... Species Biotodoma cupido Biotodoma wavrini Biotodoma is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... Species Biotoecus dicentrarchus Biotoecus opercularis Biotoecus is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... Species Boulengerochromis microlepis (Boulenger, 1899) Boulengerochromis is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Buccochromis is a small genus of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Malawi in east Africa. ... Bujurquina is a genus of cichlid fish endemic to South America. ... Species Callochromis macrops Callochromis melanostigma Callochromis pleurospilus Callochromis stappersii Callochromis is a genus of cichlids, including the species and . ... Caprichromis is a small genus of cichlid fish which currently contains two species. ... Species Caquetaia is a small genus of cichlid fishes from Central America. ... Species Cardiopharynx schoutedeni Cardiopharynx is a monotypic cichlid genus. ... Species See text Chaetobranchopsis is a small genus of cichlid fishes from South America. ... Franz Steindachner (November 11, 1834 - December 10, 1919) was an Austrian zoologist. ... Species Chaetobranchus flavescens Chaetobranchus semifasciatus Chaetobranchus is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... Johann Jakob Heckel (January 23, 1790 - March 1, 1857) was an Austrian taxidermist, zoologist, and ichthyologist. ... Species Chalinochromis brichardi Chalinochromis popelini Chalinochromis Poll, 1974 is genus of fish from the family Cichlidae. ... Species See text Champsochromis is a small genus of cichlid fishes endemic to Lake Malawi in east Africa. ... Cheilochromis is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Species See text Chetia is a small genus of cichlid fishes endemic to riverine habitats in east Africa. ... Chilochromis is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Chilotilapia is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Species Chromidotilapia is a genus of cichlid fishes from west Africa. ... Cichla is a genus of fifteen describedspecies, (and according to Kullander & Ferreira 2006, approximately 5 to 15 additional undescribed species) of Central American fish from the family Cichlidae. ... Cichlasoma is a genus of fish in the cichlid family. ... Binomial name Cleithracara maronii (Steindachner, 1881) Synonyms Aequidens maronii Acara maronii The keyhole cichlid, Cleithracara maronii, is a cichlid native to tropical South America, the only species in the genus Cleithracara. ... Copadichromis is a genus of cichlid fishes endemic to Lake Malawi in Eastern Africa. ... Species Corematodus shiranus Corematodus taeniatus Corematodus is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... Species Crenicara is a small genus of cichlid fishes endemic to South America. ... Crenicichla are elongated (compressed) cichlids found in South and Central America. ... Species Ctenochromis benthicola Ctenochromis horei Ctenochromis polli Ctenochromis is a small genus of cichlids with only three species. ... Species see text Ctenopharynx is a small genus of three species of cichlid fish endemic to East Africa. ... Cunningtonia is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Cyathochromis is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Cyathopharynx is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Species see text Cyclopharynx is a small genus of two species of cichlid fish. ... Cynotilapia is a genus of fishes from the family Cichlidae. ... Species Cyphotilapia frontosa Cyphotilapia gibberosa Cyphotilapia is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... Species Cyprichromis coloratus Cyprichromis leptosoma Cyprichromis microlepidotus Cyprichromis pavo Cyprichromis zonatus Cyprichromis is a genus of cichlids with five known species. ... Cyrtocara is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Danakilia is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Species Dicrossus filamentosus Dicrossus maculatus Dicrossus is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... Species see text Dimidiochromis is a small genus of four species of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Malawi in east Africa. ... Species see text Diplotaxodon is a small genus of seven deep-water species of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Malawi in east Africa. ... Divandu is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Docimodus is a small genus of cichlid fish endemic to east Africa. ... Eclectochromis is a small genus of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Malawi in east Africa. ... Binomial name Ectodus descampsii (Castelnau, 1861) Ectodus descampsii is a cichlid fish, the only member of its genus Ectodus. ... Enterochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Eretmodus is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Etia is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Species Etroplus canarensis Etroplus maculatus Etroplus suratensis Etroplus is a small genus of cichlids with only three species. ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Leopold Chretien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769 - May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist, He was born at Montbéliard (then Mömpelgard in Württemberg) under the name of Johann Leopold Nicolaus Friedrich Kuefer, and was the son of a retired officer... Exochochromis is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... Species Fossorochromis is a monotypic genus of cichlid endemic to Lake Malawi in east Africa. ... Genyochromis is a monotypic genus of cichlid fish. ... ... Gephyrochromis is a small genus of cichlid fish. ... Species Gnathochromis is a small genus of sand sifting cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika in east Africa. ... Species Gobiocichla ethelwynnae Gobiocichla wonderi Gobiocichla is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... Binomial name Grammatotria lemairii (Boulenger, 1899) Grammatotria lemairii is a species of fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. ... Species Greenwoodochromis bellcrossi Greenwoodochromis christyi Greenwoodochromis is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... Species See text. ... Species See text. ... Haplochromis is the largest genus of fish in the family Cichlidae, many of which are endemic to Lake Victoria in East Africa. ... Haplotaxodon is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Harpagochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Binomial name Hemibates stenosoma (Boulenger, 1901) Hemibates stenosoma is a species of fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. ... Hemichromis is a genus of fish from the family Cichlidae, representing 9 formally described species and at least 4 undescribed species, known in the aquarium trade as Jewel cichlids. ... Binomial name H. urotaenia (Regan, 1922) Hemitaeniochromis urotaenia is a species of fish endemic to Lake Malawi in East Africa. ... Hemitilapia is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Herichthys is a small genus of cichlid fishes from Central America. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name {{{binomial}}} Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} {{{subdivision_ranks}}} [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The genus Heros includes 5-10 fish species in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Herotilapia multispinosa Günther 1867 The rainbow cichlid (Herotilapia multispinosa) is a tropical freshwater Central American fish of the cichlid family. ... Binomial name Heterochromis multidens (Pellegrin, 1900) Heterochromis multidens is a monotypic species of fish from the family Cichlidae in the subfamily Heterochromidinae. ... Binomial name Hoplarchus psittacus (Heckel, 1840) Hoplarchus psittacus is a species of fish endemic to the blackwater rivers in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela, South America including the Rio Negro, Jamari, Preto da Eva, Urubu rivers and upper Orinoco drainages. ... Johann Jakob Kaup (April 10, 1803 - July 4, 1873) was a German naturalist. ... Binomial name Hoplotilapia retrodens (Hilgendorf, 1888) Hoplotilapia retrodens is a species of fish endemic to Lake Victoria in East Africa. ... Species Hypselecara coryphaenoides Hypselecara temporalis Hypselecara is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... Species Hypsophrys nicaraguensis, Günther, 1864 Hypsophrys is a monotypic cichlid genus. ... Louis Agassiz After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Stanford President David Starr Jordan wrote, Somebody—Dr. Angell, perhaps—remarked that Agassiz was great in the abstract but not in the concrete. ... Binomial name Interochromis loocki (Poll, 1949[2]) Interochromis loocki is a species of fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. ... Species See text. ... Species Iranocichla hormuzensis (Coad, 1982) Iranocichla is a monotypic genus of mouthbrooding cichlid fish with a single species, Iranocichla hormuzensis. ... Species See text. ... Species See text. ... Ernst Ahl (1898 – 1943) was a German zoologist. ... Binomial name Labidochromis caeruleus Fryer, 1956 The name Electric Yellow Cichlid is generally accepted to mean Labidochromis caeruleus. ... Laetacara is a small genus of four species of fish, endemic to soft, acidic freshwater habitats in South America. ... Species See text. ... Species Lepidiolamprologus is a small genus of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika in east Africa. ... Lestradea is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Lethrinops is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Lichnochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Limbochromis cavalliensis Limbochromis robertsi Limbochromis is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Limnotilapia is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Lipochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Lithochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Lobochilotes is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Macropleurodus is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... The genus Maylandia contains around 15 species of cichlids from Lake Malawi in Eastern Africa. ... Metriaclima (type species: Tilapia zebra, Boulenger 1899) is genus of African cichlid containing many of the species traditionally included in the genus Pseudotropheus. ... Mbipia is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Melanochromis is a genus of fish from the family Cichlidae endemic to Lake Malawi. ... Mesonauta is a small genus of six species of fish, endemic to soft, acidic freshwater habitats in South America. ... Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther. ... Species See text. ... Myaka is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Mylochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Naevochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Nandopsis is a small genus of cichlid fishes from Central America. ... Nannacara is a genus of small freshwater cichlid fish endemic to South America. ... Species Nanochromis consortus Nanochromis dimidiatus Nanochromis minor Nanochromis nudiceps Nanochromis parilus Nanochromis sabinae Nanochromis splendens Nanochromis squamiceps Nanochromis transvestitus Nanochromis wickleri Nanochromis is a genus of cichlids containing ten species. ... Binomial name Neetroplus nematopus Günther, 1867 The poor mans tropheus, Neetroplus nematopus, is a species of fish in the family Cichlidae, the only species in the genus Neetroplus. ... Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther. ... Neochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species See text. ... Species Nimbochromis is a small genus of five cichlid species endemic to Lake Malawi in east Africa. ... Nyassachromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Ophthalmotilapia is a small genus of four cichlid species endemic to Lake Tanganyika in east Africa. ... Genera and species Oreochromis A. Günther,1889   Oreochromis alcalica- Alkaline tilapia   Oreochromis aurea- Blue tilapia   Oreochromis macrochir- Longfin tilapia   Oreochromis mossambicus- Mozambique tilapia   Oreochromis niloticus niloticus- Nile tilapia   Oreochromis urolepis urolepis- Rufigi tilapia   Oreochromis urolepis hornorum- Wami tilapia Sarotherodon W. P. E. S. Rüppell, 1852   Sarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus... Orthochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Otopharynx is a genus of cichlid fishes endemic to Lake Malawi in east Africa. ... Oxylapia is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Pallidochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Binomial name Parachromis managuense (Günther, 1867) The Manguense Cichlid (Parachromis managuense) is a cichlid fish. ... Species Paracyprichromis brieni Paracyprichromis nigripinnis Paracyprichromis is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... Paralabidochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Paraneetroplus bulleri Paraneetroplus gibbiceps Paraneetroplus nebuliferus Paraneetroplus is a small genus of cichlids with only three species. ... Species Paratilapia polleni Paratilapia toddi Paratilapia is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... Pieter Bleeker (1819 - 1878) was a Dutch medical doctor and ichthyologist, famous for his work on the fishes of East Asia. ... Paretroplus is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species See text. ... Perissodus is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Petenia splendida Petenia is a monotypic cichlid genus. ... Species Petrochromis is a small genus of seven cichlid species endemic to Lake Tanganyika in east Africa. ... Petrotilapia is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species see text. ... Platytaeniodus is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Plecodus is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Prognathochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Protomelas is a cichlid genus endemic to Lake Malawi in Eastern Africa. ... Species Pseudocrenilabrus is a small genus of three cichlid species endemic to riverine habitats in east Africa. ... Pseudosimochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Pseudotropheus is a genus of rock dwelling (Mbuna) cichlids found in Lake Malawi. ... Binomial name (Pellegrin, 1903) Pterophyllum leopoldi (Gosse, 1963) Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823) Pterophyllum is a small genus of freshwater fish from the family Cichlidae known to most aquarists as angelfish. ... Ptychochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Ptychochromoides is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Ptyochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Pundamilia is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Binomial name (Trewavas, 1962) The pungu (Pungu maclareni) is a species of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Pyxichromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Binomial name Reganochromis calliurus (Boulenger, 1901[2]) Reganochromis calliurus is a species of fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. ... Rhamphochromis is a genus of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Malawi in East Africa. ... Genera and species Oreochromis A. Günther,1889   Oreochromis alcalica- Alkaline tilapia   Oreochromis aurea- Blue tilapia   Oreochromis macrochir- Longfin tilapia   Oreochromis mossambicus- Mozambique tilapia   Oreochromis niloticus niloticus- Nile tilapia   Oreochromis urolepis urolepis- Rufigi tilapia   Oreochromis urolepis hornorum- Wami tilapia Sarotherodon W. P. E. S. Rüppell, 1852   Sarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus... Species See text. ... Species See text. ... Serranochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Simochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Spathodus is a small genus of two cichlid species endemic to Lake Tanganyika in east Africa. ... Species See text. ... Stigmatochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Stomatepia is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Symphysodon aequifasciatus - Blue discus Symphysodon discus - Red discus Discus are freshwater perciform fish, peculiar cichlids native to the Amazon River basin. ... Taeniochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Taeniolethrinops cyrtonotus Taeniolethrinops furcicauda Taeniolethrinops laticeps Taeniolethrinops praeorbitalis Taeniolethrinops is a small genus of cichlids with only four species. ... Species Tahuantinsuyoa chipi Tahuantinsuyoa macantzatza Tahuantinsuyoa is a small genus of cichlids with only two species. ... Tangachromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Tanganicodus irsacae Tanganicodus is a monotypic cichlid genus whose single representative, Tanganicodus irsacae, is endemic to Lake Tanganyika in east Africa. ... Teleocichla is a small genus of cichlid fish endemic to South America. ... Species Teleogramma brichardi Teleogramma depressum Teleogramma gracile Teleogramma monogramma Teleogramma is a small genus of cichlids with only four species. ... Species Telmatochromis is a small genus of seven cichlid species endemic to Lake Tanganyika in east Africa. ... Species Theraps coeruleus Theraps irregularis Theraps lentiginosus Theraps wesseli Theraps is a small genus of cichlids with only four species. ... Species Thoracochromis albolabris Thoracochromis brauschi Thoracochromis buysi Thoracochromis callichromus Thoracochromis is a small genus of cichlids with only four species. ... Binomial name Thorichthys meeki (Brind, 1918) The Firemouth Cichlid is one of the typical and most commonly seen (in pet stores) of the Cichlasoma-type South American cichlids. ... Albert Stewart Meek (1871–1943) was a British bird collector and naturalist. ... Species See text. ... Genera Oreochromis (about 30 species) Sarotherodon (over 10 species) Tilapia (about 40 species) and see text Tilapia is the common name for nearly 100 species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. ... Tramitichromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Trematocara is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Trematocranus is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Triglachromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Tristramella is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Tropheops is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Tropheus is a small genus of six species of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. ... Tylochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Tyrannochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Uaru amphiacanthoides Uaru fernandezyepezi Uaru is a small genus of cichlids with two described species and one undescribed species. ... Variabilichromis (Colombe & Allgayer, 1985) is a monotypic genus of fish in the family Cichlidae which occurs in Lake Tanganyika, of the rift lakes in Eastern Africa. ... Vieja is a genus of fish from the family Cichlidae. ... Xenochromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ... Species Xenotilapia is a genus of 17 cichlid formally described species and at least 6 undescribed species, endemic to Lake Tanganyika in east Africa. ... Xystichromis is a genus of fish in the Cichlidae family. ...

Images of cichlids

Main gallery: Cichlid images

See also

Families many, see text The Perciformes, also called the Percomorphi or Acanthopteri, include about 40% of all fish and are the largest order of vertebrates. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi General Agribusiness · Agriculture Agricultural science · Agronomy Animal husbandry Challenges of industrial farming Extensive farming Factory farming · Free range Green Revolution History of agriculture Industrial agriculture Industrial agriculture (animals) Industrial agriculture (crops) Intensive farming · Organic farming Permaculture Sustainable agriculture Zero... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Cichlidae". FishBase. Ed. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly. Nov 2006 version. N.p.: FishBase, 2006.
  2. ^ a b Kullander, S.O. (1998). "A phylogeny and classification of the South American Cichlidae (Teleostei: Perciformes)", in L.R. Malabarba, R.E. Reis, R.P. Vari, Z.M. Lucena and C.A.S. Lucena (eds.): Phylogeny and classification of neotropical fishes. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, pp. 461-498. ISBN 978-8574300351. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Loiselle, P.V. (1994). The Cichlid Aquarium. Tetra Press. ISBN 1-56465-146-0. 
  4. ^ Helfman G., Collette B., & Facey D. (1997). The Diversity of Fishes. Blackwell Publishing, Inc., pp. 256-257. ISBN 0-86542-256-7. 
  5. ^ a b c Chapman, F. A. (1992). "Culture of Hybrid Tilapia: A Reference Profile" (PDF). Circular 1051. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
  6. ^ Reid, G. M. (December 1990). "Captive breeding for the conservation of cichlid fishes" (fee required). Journal of Fish Biology 37: pp. 157-166. DOI:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1990.tb05031.x. 
  7. ^ Salzburger W., Mack T., Verheyen E., Meyer A. (2005). "Out of Tanganyika: Genesis, explosive speciation, key-innovations and phylogeography of the haplochromine cichlid fishes" (PDF). BMC Evolutionary Biology 5. DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-5-17. 
  8. ^ Snoeks, J. (ed.) (2004). The cichlid diversity of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa: identification, distribution and taxonomy. Cichlid Press. ISBN 0-9668255-8-6. 
  9. ^ a b Kornfield, Irv; Smith, Peter (November 2000). "African Cichlid Fishes: Model Systems for Evolutionary Biology". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31: pp. 163-196. DOI:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.31.1.163. 
  10. ^ Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. Fact sheet for Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852). Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. Retrieved on 2006-10-20.
  11. ^ a b Stiassny, M.L.J.; Jensen, J.S. (1987). "Labroid intrarelationships revisited: morphological complexity, key innovations, and the study of comparative diversity". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 151: pp. 269-319. 
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