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Encyclopedia > Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero

Cicero around age 60
from an ancient marble bust
Born January 3, 106 BC
Arpinum, Italy
Died December 7, 43 BC
Formia, Italy
Occupation Politician, lawyer, orator and philosopher
Nationality Ancient Roman
Subjects politics, law, philosophy, oratory
Literary movement Golden Age Latin
Notable work(s) Politics: Pro Quinctio
Philosophy: De Inventione

Marcus Tullius Cicero (Classical Latin pronounced [ˈkikeroː], usually pronounced /ˈsɪsəroʊ/ in English; January 3, 106 BCDecember 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, and philosopher. Cicero is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.[1][2] Marcus Tullius Cicero was an orator and statesman of Ancient Rome, and is generally considered the greatest Latin prose stylist. ... Scanned from a book dated 1900. ... Arpinum was an ancient Roman town in southern Latium, now Arpino. ... Formia is a small town/city on the Mediterranean Coast of Italy. ... This article is about work. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Look up orator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Oratory is the art of eloquent speech. ... ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... The De Inventione is a handbook for orators that M. Tullius Cicero composed when he was still a young man. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Middle Platonism refers to the development of certain philosophical doctrines associated with Plato during the first and second centuries A.D. One of the outstanding thinkers of Middle Platonism was Philo Judeaus (Philo the Jew) who synthesized Platos philosophy with Jewish scripture largely through allegorical interpretation of the latter. ... Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early third century BC. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... There are two famous persons named Pliny: Pliny the Elder, an ancient Roman nobleman, scientist and historian, author of Naturalis Historia, Plinys Natural History. Pliny the Younger, an ancient Roman statesman, orator, and writer, a great-nephew of Pliny the Elder. ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 111 BC 110 BC 109 BC 108 BC 107 BC - 106 BC - 105 BC 104 BC... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... A political theorist is someone who engages in political theory. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ...


Cicero is generally perceived to be one of the most versatile minds of ancient Rome. He introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary, distinguishing himself as a linguist, translator, and philosopher. An impressive orator and successful lawyer, Cicero probably thought his political career his most important achievement. Today, he is appreciated primarily for his humanism and philosophical and political writings. His voluminous correspondence, much of it addressed to his friend Atticus, has been especially influential, introducing the art of refined letter writing to European culture. Cornelius Nepos, the 1st-century BC biographer of Atticus, remarked that Cicero's letters to Atticus contained such a wealth of detail "concerning the inclinations of leading men, the faults of the generals, and the revolutions in the government" that their reader had little need for a history of the period.[3] Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... The following is a list of linguists, those who study linguistics. ... Titus Pomponius Atticus (110 BC/109 BC – 32 BC). ... Cornelius Nepos (c. ...


During the chaotic latter half of the first century BC, marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. However, his career as a statesman was marked by inconsistencies and a tendency to shift his position in response to changes in the political climate. His indecision may be attributed to his sensitive and impressionable personality; he was prone to overreaction in the face of political and private change. "Would that he had been able to endure prosperity with greater self-control and adversity with more fortitude!" wrote C. Asinius Pollio, a contemporary Roman statesman and historian.[4][5] After 30 BC, the Republic was unified under leadership of Octavian. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Gaius Asinius Pollio ( 76/75 BC-AD 5) was a Roman orator, poet and historian. ...

Contents

Early life

Childhood and family

Cicero was born January 3, 106 BC, in Arpinum (modern-day Arpino), a hill town 100 kilometres (70 miles) south of Rome. The Arpinians received Roman citizenship in 188 BC, but had started to speak Latin rather than their native Volscian before they were enfranchised by the Romans.[6] The assimilation of nearby Italian communities into Roman society, which took place during the Second and First Centuries, made Cicero's future as a Roman statesman, orator and writer possible. Although a great master of Latin rhetoric and composition, Cicero was not "Roman" in the traditional sense; he was quite self-conscious of this for his entire life. is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 111 BC 110 BC 109 BC 108 BC 107 BC - 106 BC - 105 BC 104 BC... Arpinum was an ancient Roman town in southern Latium, now Arpino. ... Volscian was a Sabellic Italic language, which was spoken by the Volsci and closely related to Oscan and Umbrian, but also to Latin, more distantly. ...


During this period in Roman history, if one was to be considered "cultured", it was necessary to be able to speak both Latin and Greek. The Roman upper class often preferred Greek to Latin in private correspondence, recognizing its more refined and precise expressions, and its greater subtlety and nuance. Knowledge about Greek culture and literature was extremely influential for upper-class Roman society. When crossing the Rubicon in 49 B.C., one of the most symbolic and infamous events in Roman history, Caesar is said to have quoted the Athenian playwright Menander.[7] Greek was already being taught in Arpinum before the city was allied with Rome, which made assimilation into Roman society relatively seamless for the local elite.[8] Cicero, like most of his contemporaries, was also educated in the teachings of the ancient Greek rhetoricians, and most prominent teachers of oratory of the time were themselves Greek.[9] Cicero used his knowledge of Greek to translate many of the theoretical concepts of Greek philosophy into Latin, thus translating Greek philosophical works for a larger audience. He was so diligent in his studies of Greek culture and language as a youth that he was jokingly called the "little Greek boy" by his provincial family and friends. But it was precisely this obsession that tied him to the traditional Roman elite.[10] Presumed course of the Rubicon For other uses, see Rubicon (disambiguation). ... Bust of Menander Menander (342–291 BC) (Greek ), Greek dramatist, the chief representative of the New Comedy, was born in Athens. ...


Cicero's family belonged to the local gentry, domi nobiles, but had no familial ties with the Roman senatorial class. Cicero was only distantly related to one notable person born in Arpinium, Gaius Marius.[11] Marius led the populares faction during a civil war against the optimates of Lucius Cornelius Sulla in the 80s BC. Cicero received little political benefit from this connection. In fact, it may have hindered his political aims, as the Marian faction was ultimately defeated and anyone connected to the Marian regime was viewed as a potential troublemaker.[12] The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ... Populares (Favoring the people, singular popularis) were aristocratic leaders in the late Roman Republic who tended to use the peoples assemblies in an effort to break the stranglehold of the nobiles and optimates on political power. ... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ... Optimates (Good Men) were the aristocratic faction of the later Roman Republic. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... In the Roman Republic, the contest for power intensifies. ...


Cicero's father was a well-to-do equestrian (knight) with good connections in Rome. Though he was a semi-invalid who could not enter public life, he compensated for this by studying extensively. Although little is known about Cicero's mother, Helvia, it was common for the wives of important Roman citizens to be responsible for the management of the household. Cicero's brother Quintus wrote in a letter that she was a thrifty housewife.[13] An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ...


Cicero's cognomen, personal surname, is Latin for chickpea. Romans often chose down-to-earth personal surnames. Plutarch explains that the name was originally given to one of Cicero's ancestors who had a cleft in the tip of his nose resembling a chickpea. Plutarch adds that Cicero was urged to change this deprecatory name when he entered politics, but refused, saying that he would make Cicero more glorious than Scaurus ("Swollen-ankled") and Catulus ("Puppy").[14] The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ... Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


Studies

The Young Cicero Reading, 1464 fresco, now at the Wallace Collection.
The Young Cicero Reading, 1464 fresco, now at the Wallace Collection.

According to Plutarch, Cicero was an extremely talented student, whose learning attracted attention from all over Rome,[15] affording him the opportunity to study Roman law under Quintus Mucius Scaevola.[16] In the same way, years later, a young Marcus Caelius Rufus and other young lawyers would study under Cicero; an association of the sort was considered a great honour to both teacher and pupil. He also had the support of his family's patrons, Marcus Aemilius Scaurus and Lucius Licinius Crassus. The latter was a model to Cicero both as an orator and as a statesman. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (985x748, 155 KB) Marcus Tullius Cicero Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (985x748, 155 KB) Marcus Tullius Cicero Source: http://www. ... The Wallace Collection across Manchester Square gardens The Wallace Collection is a museum in London. ... Quintus Mucius Scaevola Augur (c. ... Marcus Caelius Rufus (82 BCE - 48 BCE) was a Roman orator and politician. ... Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (born ca. ... Lucius Licinius Crassus (140 BC-91 BC) was a Roman consul. ...


Cicero's fellow students with Scaevola were Gaius Marius Minor, Servius Sulpicius Rufus (who became a famous lawyer, one of the few whom Cicero considered superior to himself in legal matters), and Titus Pomponius. The latter two became Cicero's friends for life, and Pomponius (who received the cognomen "Atticus" for his philhellenism) would become Cicero's chief emotional support and adviser. "You are a second brother to me, an 'alter ego' to whom I can tell everything," Cicero wrote in one of his letters to Atticus.[17] Servius Sulpicius Rufus (c. ... Titus Pomponius Atticus (110 BC/109 BC – 32 BC). ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ...


In his youth, Cicero tried his hand at poetry, although his main interests lay elsewhere. His poetic works include translations of Homer and the Phaenomena of Aratus, which later influenced Virgil to use that poem in the Georgics. This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... Aratus (Greek Aratos) (ca. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Georgics Book III, Shepherd with Flocks, Vatican The Georgics, published in 29 BC, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. ...


In the late 90's and early 80's BC Cicero fell in love with philosophy, which was to have a great role in his life. He would eventually introduce Greek philosophy to the Romans and create a philosophical vocabulary for it in Latin. The first philosopher he met was the Epicurean philosopher Phaedrus, when he was visiting Rome ca. 91 BC. His fellow student at Scaevola's, Titus Pomponius, accompanied him. Titus Pomponius (Atticus), unlike Cicero, would remain an Epicurean for the rest of his life. Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c340-c270 BC), founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. ... Phaedrus (Greek: ) was an Epicurean philosopher, and head of the Epicurean school in Athens from around 75 BC to his death in 70 BC. He was a contemporary of Cicero, who became acquainted with him in his youth at Rome[1]. During his residence in Athens (80 BC) Cicero renewed...


In 87 BC, Philo of Larissa, the head of the Academy that was founded by Plato in Athens about 300 years earlier, arrived in Rome. Cicero, "inspired by an extraordinary zeal for philosophy",[18] sat enthusiastically at his feet and absorbed Plato's philosophy, even calling Plato his god. He most admired Plato's moral and political seriousness, but he also respected his breadth of imagination. Cicero nonetheless rejected Plato's theory of Ideas. PHILO OF LARISSA, Greek philosopher of the first half of the ist century B.C. During the Mithradatk wars he left Athens and took up his residence in Rome. ... For other uses, see Academy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


Shortly thereafter, Cicero met Diodotus, an exponent of Stoicism. Stoicism had already been introduced to Roman society during the previous generation, and it maintained popular appeal among the Romans. Cicero did not completely accept stoicism's austere philosophy, but he did adopt a modified stoicism prevalent during the time. Diodotus the Stoic became Cicero's protégé and lived in his house until his death. Diodotus demonstrated a truly Stoic attitude when he continued to study and teach despite losing his sight.[18] Diodotus, (Greek: ), was a Stoic philosopher, who flourished in the 1st century BC, and was a friend of Cicero. ... Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early third century BC. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed...


Public service

Early career

Cicero's childhood dream was "Always to be best and far to excel the others," a line taken from Homer's Iliad.[19] Cicero pursued dignitas (position) and auctoritas (authority), symbolized by the purple-bordered toga praetexta and the Roman lictors' rod. There was just one path to these: public civil service along the steps of Cursus honorum. However, in 90 BC he was too young to apply to any of the offices of Cursus honorum except to acquire the preliminary experience in warfare that a career in civil service demanded. In 90 BC–88 BC, Cicero served both Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo and Lucius Cornelius Sulla as they campaigned in the Social War, though he had no taste for military life. Cicero was first and foremost an intellectual. Several years later he would write to his friend, Titus Pomponius Atticus who was collecting marble statues for Cicero's villas: "Why do you send me a statue of Mars? You know I am a pacifist!"[20] This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Roman clad in toga The toga was a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honours) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, often referred to as Strabo or Pompey Strabo in English, was a Roman from the rural province of Picenum. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Combatants Roman Republic Italian allies of the Marsi, Samnites, Marrucini, Vestini, Paeligni, Frentani, Picentes Praetutii, Hirpini Commanders Publius Rutilius Lupus , Gaius Marius, Pompeius Strabo, Lucius Julius Caesar, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Titus Didius, Lucius Porcius Cato Quintus Poppaedius Silo, Gaius Papius Mutilus, Herius Asinius, Publius Vettius Scato, Publius Praesenteius, Gaius Vidacilius... Titus Pomponius Atticus (110 BC/109 BC – 32 BC). ...


Cicero started his career as a lawyer around 83-81 BC. His first major case of which a written record is still extant was his 80 BC defense of Sextus Roscius on the charge of parricide.[21] Taking this case was a courageous move for Cicero; parricide and matricide were considered appalling crimes, and the people whom Cicero accused of the murder — the most notorious being Chrysogonus — were favorites of Sulla. At this time it would have been easy for Sulla to have Cicero murdered, as Cicero was barely known in the Roman courts. Sextus Roscius was an ancinet Roman who was defended by the Cicero after he was accused of murder by Chrysongonus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Patricide. ... Matricide is the act of killing ones mother. ... Lucius Cornelius Chrysogonus (died 80 BC) was a Greek freedman of Lucius Cornelius Sulla whom Sulla put in charge of the proscriptions of 82 BC. Shortly afterwards Sulla had him executed by being thrown from the Tarpeian Rock after he was accused of corruption by Marcus Tullius Cicero during the... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ...


His arguments were divided into three parts: in the first, he defended Roscius and attempted to prove he did not commit the murder; in the second, he attacked those who likely committed the crime — one being a relative of Roscius — and stated how the crime benefitted them more than Roscius; in the third, he attacked Chrysogonus, stating Roscius' father was murdered to obtain his estate at a cheap price. On the strength of this case, Roscius was acquitted.


Cicero's successful defense was an indirect challenge to the dictator Sulla. In 79 BC, Cicero left for Greece, Asia Minor and Rhodes, perhaps due to the potential wrath of Sulla. Accompanying him were his brother Quintus, his cousin Lucius, and probably Servius Sulpicius Rufus.[22] Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Servius Sulpicius Rufus (c. ...


Cicero travelled to Athens, where he again met Atticus, who had fled war-torn Italy to Athens in the 80s. Atticus had become an honorary citizen of Athens and introduced Cicero to some significant Athenians. In Athens, Cicero visited the sacred sites of the philosophers. The most important of them was the Academy of Plato, where he conversed with the present head of the Academy, Antiochus. Because Cicero's philosophical stance was very similar to that of the New Academy as represented by Philo of Larissa, he felt that Antiochus had moved too far away from his predecessor.[23] He was also initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries, which made a strong impression on him, and consulted the oracle at Delphi. But first and foremost he consulted different rhetoricians in order to learn a less exhausting style of speaking. His chief instructor was the rhetorician Apollonius Molon of Rhodes. He instructed Cicero in a more expansive and less intense (and less strenuous on the throat) form of oratory that would define Cicero's individual style in years to come. Titus Pomponius Atticus (110 BC/109 BC – 32 BC). ... For other uses, see Academy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... PHILO OF LARISSA, Greek philosopher of the first half of the ist century B.C. During the Mithradatk wars he left Athens and took up his residence in Rome. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Apollonius Molon (sometimes called simply Molon), Greek rhetorician, who flourished about 70 BC. He was a native of Alabanda, a pupil of Menecles, and settled at Rhodes. ...


Entry into politics

Marcus Tullius Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero

After his return to Rome, Cicero's reputation rose very quickly, assisting his elevation to office as a quaestor in 75 BC (the next step on the cursus honorum). Quaestors, 20 of whom were elected annually, dealt with the financial administration at Rome or assisted in financial matters as propraetor or proconsul (both governors) in one of the provinces of Rome. Cicero served as quaestor in western Sicily in 75 BC and demonstrated honesty and integrity in his dealings with the inhabitants. As a result, the grateful Sicilians became his clients, and he was asked by them to prosecute Gaius Verres, a governor of Sicily, who had badly plundered Sicily. Image File history File links Cicero. ... Image File history File links Cicero. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 80 BC 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC - 75 BC - 74 BC 73 BC 72... In ancient Roman society, a client (Latin, cliens) was a plebeian who was sponsored by a patron benefactor (patronus, a predecessor to the Italian padrino, godfather). ... Gaius Verres (c. ...


During his stay in Sicily he discovered, hidden by thick bushes and undergrowth, the tomb of Archimedes of Syracuse, on whose gravestone was carved Archimedes' favourite discovery in geometry: that the ratio of the volume of a sphere to that of the smallest right circular cylinder in which it fits is 2:3.[24][25] For other uses, see Archimedes (disambiguation) Archimedes of Syracuse (circa 287 BC - 212 BC), was a Greek mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, physicist and engineer. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mathematical concept. ... For other uses, see Sphere (disambiguation). ... A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ...


The prosecution of Gaius Verres in 70 BC was a great forensic success for Cicero. Verres' defense counsel was Rome's greatest lawyer and orator in those days, Quintus Hortensius. Verres was convicted, and he fled into exile. Upon the conclusion of this case, Cicero came to be considered the greatest orator in Rome, surpassing Hortensius. Relations between Hortensius and Cicero remained friendly despite this rivalry. Gaius Verres (c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 75 BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68... Quintus Hortensius (114 - 50 BC), surnamed Hortalus, was a Roman orator and advocate. ...


Oratory was considered a great art in ancient Rome and an important tool for disseminating knowledge and promoting oneself in elections. Oratory was important because there was only one "newspaper" in Rome, created in 130 BC, Acta Diurna (Daily Resolutions), which was published by the Senate and of limited circulation. Acta Diurna (lat: Daily Acts sometimes translated as Daily Public Records) were daily Roman official notices. ...


Despite his great success as an advocate, Cicero lacked reputable ancestry: he was neither noble nor patrician. A further hindrance was that the last memorable "new man" to have been elected consulate without consular ancestors had been the politically radical and militarily innovative Gaius Marius — a distant relative of Cicero's who also came from Arpinum. Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... The term novus homo (literally, new man in Latin), referred in ancient Roman times to a person who was the first of his family to serve in the Roman Senate, or, less generally, the first to be elected as consul. ... So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ...


Cicero grew up in a time of civil unrest and war. Sulla’s victory in the first of many civil wars led to a new constitutional framework that undermined libertas (liberty), the fundamental value of the Roman Republic. Nonetheless, Sulla’s reforms strengthened the position of the equestrian class, contributing to that class’s growing political power. Cicero was both an Italian eques and a novus homo, but more importantly he was a constitutionalist, meaning he did not wish to side with the populares faction and embark on a campaign of "seditious" reform. His social class and loyalty to the Republic ensured he would "command the support and confidence of the people as well as the Italian middle classes." This appeal was undercut by his lack of social standing and a reliable and viable power base, as the equites, his primary base of support, did not hold much power. The optimates faction never truly accepted Cicero, despite his outstanding talents and vision for the security of the Republic. This undermined his efforts to reform the Republic while preserving the constitution. Nevertheless, he was able to successfully ascend the Roman cursus honorum, holding each magistracy at or near the youngest possible age: quaestor in 75 (age 31), curule aedile in 69 (age 37), praetor in 66 (age 40), and finally consul at age 43. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ... Libertas is Latin for freedom. In Roman mythology, Libertas was the goddess of freedom. ... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... The term novus homo (literally, new man in Latin), referred in ancient Roman times to a person who was the first of his family to serve in the Roman Senate, or, less generally, the first to be elected as consul. ... Populares (Favoring the people, singular popularis) were aristocratic leaders in the late Roman Republic who tended to use the peoples assemblies in an effort to break the stranglehold of the nobiles and optimates on political power. ... Optimates (Good Men) were the aristocratic faction of the later Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honours) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Aedile was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected...


Consul

Cicero Denounces Catiline, fresco by Cesare Maccari, 1882-1888.
Cicero Denounces Catiline, fresco by Cesare Maccari, 1882-1888.

Cicero was elected Consul for the year 63 BC, defeating patrician candidate Lucius Sergius Catiline. During his year in office he thwarted a conspiracy to overthrow the Roman Republic, led by Catiline. Cicero procured a Senatus Consultum de Re Publica Defendenda (a declaration of martial law, also called the Senatus Consultum Ultimum), and he drove Catiline from the city with four vehement speeches which came to be known as the Catiline Orations. The Orations listed Catiline and his followers' debaucheries, and denounced Catiline's senatorial sympathizers as roguish and dissolute debtors, clinging to Catiline as a final and desperate hope. Cicero demanded Catiline and his followers to leave the city. At the conclusion of his first speech, Catiline burst from the Temple of Jupiter Stator, where the Senate had convened, and made his way to Etruria. In his following speeches Cicero did not directly address Catiline but instead addressed the Senate. By these speeches Cicero wanted to prepare the Senate for the worst possible case; he also delivered more evidence against Catiline. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (962x600, 100 KB)Painting by Cesare Maccari (1840-1919), Cicero Denounces Catiline. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (962x600, 100 KB)Painting by Cesare Maccari (1840-1919), Cicero Denounces Catiline. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... Lucius Sergius Catilina (108 BC–62 BC), known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic, and in particular the power of the aristocratic Senate. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Lucius Sergius Catilina (108 BC–62 BC), known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic. ... A Senatus consultum ultimum (Ultimate decree of the Senate), or more properly, senatus consultum de re publica defendenda (Decree of the Senate on defending the Republic) was a decree of the Roman Senate during the late Roman Republic passed in times of emergency. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... In 63 BC Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BC), orator, statesman and patriot, attained the rank of consul and in that capacity exposed to the Roman Senate the plot of Lucius Sergius Catilina (approx. ... The Temple of Jupiter Stator (Jupiter the Stayer) was in the area of the Roman Forum. ...


Catiline fled and left behind his followers to start the revolution from within while Catiline assaulted the city with an army recruited from among Sulla’s veterans in Etruria. Many peasant farmers who were racked by debt also supported Catiline in the countryside. These five parties had attempted to involve the Allobroges, a tribe of Transalpine Gaul, in their plot, but Cicero, working with the Gauls, was able to seize letters which incriminated the five conspirators and forced them to confess their crimes in front of the Senate.[26] Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ... A map of Gaul in the 1st century BC, showing the relative position of the Allobroges tribe. ... Transalpine Gaul was a Roman province whose name was chosen to distinguish it from Cisalpine Gaul. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


The Senate then deliberated upon the conspirators' punishment. As it was the dominant advisory body to the various legislative assemblies rather than a judicial body, there were limits to its power; however, martial law was in effect, and it was feared that simple house arrest or exile — the standard options — would not remove the threat to the state. At first most in the Senate spoke for the "extreme penalty"; many were then swayed by Julius Caesar, who decried the precedent it would set and argued in favor of life imprisonment in various Italian towns. Cato then rose in defence of the death penalty and all the Senate finally agreed on the matter. Cicero had the conspirators taken to the Tullianum, the notorious Roman prison, where they were strangled. Cicero himself accompanied the former consul Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, one of the conspirators, to the Tullianum. After the executions had been carried out, Cicero announced the deaths by the formulaic expression Vixerunt ("they have lived," which was meant to ward off ill fortune by avoiding the direct mention of death). A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... The Mamertine Prison (also referred to as the Tullianum) was a prison (Carcer) located in the Forum Romanum in Ancient Rome. ... Publius Cornelius Lentulus, nicknamed Sura, (d. ...


Cicero received the honorific "Pater Patriae" for his efforts to suppress the conspiracy, but lived thereafter in fear of trial or exile for having put Roman citizens to death without trial. He also received the first public thanksgiving for a civic accomplishment; previously this had been a purely military honor. Cicero's four Catiline Orations remain outstanding examples of his rhetorical style. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In 63 BC Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BC), orator, statesman and patriot, attained the rank of consul and in that capacity exposed to the Roman Senate the plot of Lucius Sergius Catilina (approx. ...


Civil war

Exile and return

Gaius Julius Caesar.
Gaius Julius Caesar.

In 61 BC Julius Caesar invited Cicero to be the fourth member of his existing partnership with Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus, an assembly that would eventually be called the First Triumvirate. Cicero refused the invitation because he suspected it would undermine the Republic.[27] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 331 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1450 pixel, file size: 175 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Büste des Gaius Iulius Caesar Beschreibung: Die Büste von Gaius Julius Caesar im Archäologischen Nationalmuseum, Napoli Fotografiert von Andreas Wahra im... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 331 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1450 pixel, file size: 175 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Büste des Gaius Iulius Caesar Beschreibung: Die Büste von Gaius Julius Caesar im Archäologischen Nationalmuseum, Napoli Fotografiert von Andreas Wahra im... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the Roman General. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 58 BC Publius Clodius Pulcher, the tribune of the plebs, introduced a law threatening exile to anyone who executed a Roman citizen without a trial. Cicero, having just executed members of the Catiline conspiracy without formal trial, and having had a public falling-out with Clodius, was clearly the intended target of the law. Cicero argued that the senatus consultum ultimum indemnified him from punishment, and he attempted to gain the support of the senators and consuls, especially of Pompey. When help was not forthcoming, he went into exile. He arrived at Thessalonica, Greece on May 23, 58 BC.[28] The day Cicero left Italy, Clodius proposed another bill which forbade Cicero approaching within 400 miles of Italy and confiscated his property. The bill was passed forthwith, and Cicero's villa on the Palatine was destroyed by Clodius' supporters, as were his villas in Tusculum and Formiae.[29][30] Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55... Publius Clodius Pulcher (born around 92 BC, died January 18, 52 BC), was a Roman politician, chiefly remembered for his feuds with Titus Annius Milo and Marcus Tullius Cicero and introducing the grain dole. ... Ancient Roman Official. ... A Senatus consultum ultimum (Ultimate decree of the Senate), or more properly, senatus consultum de re publica defendenda (Decree of the Senate on defending the Republic) was a decree of the Roman Senate during the late Roman Republic passed in times of emergency. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... See Palatine Hill for geography of Rome. ... Tusculum, an ancient city of Latium, situated in a commanding position on the north edge of the outer crater ring of the Alban volcano, 18 km (11 miles) north-east of the modern Frascati. ...


Cicero's exile caused him to fall into depression. He wrote to Atticus: "Your pleas have prevented me from committing suicide. But what is there to live for? Don't blame me for complaining. My afflictions surpass any you ever heard of earlier". In another letter to Atticus, Cicero suggested that the Senate was jealous of him, and this was why they declined to recall him from exile. In a later letter to his brother Quintus, he named several factors he believed contributed to his exile: "the defection of Pompey, the hostility of the senators and judges, the timidity of equestrians, the armed bands of Clodius." Atticus borrowed 25,000 sestertii for Cicero's cause and, with Cicero's wife Terentia, attempted to recall him from exile.[31] Titus Pomponius Atticus (110 BC/109 BC – 32 BC). ... Quintus Tullius Cicero was the younger brother of Marcus Tullius Cicero. ... The sestertius was an ancient Roman coin. ... Terentia Varrones (lived 1st century BC) was the wife of the renowned orator Marcus Tullius Cicero. ...


Cicero returned from exile on August 5, 57 BC, and landed in Brundisium (modern Brindisi).[32] He was greeted by a cheering crowd, and, to his delight, his beloved daughter Tullia. Elated, he returned to Rome, where some time later the Senate passed a resolution restoring his property and ordered reparations to be paid for damages done to him.[33] Brundisium (Gr. ... Brindisi is an ancient city in the Italian region of Puglia, the capital of the province of Brindisi. ... Tullia Ciceronis, Tullia or Tulliola (affectionately known to her father) (5 August 79 BC or 78 BC - February 45 BC) was the only daughter and first child to Roman orator and politician Marcus Tullius Cicero from his first marriage to Terentia Varrones. ...


During the 50s BC Cicero supported Milo, who at the time was Clodius' chief opponent. Clodius typically drew his political support from armed mobs and political violence, and he was slain by Milo’s gladiators on the Via Appia in 52 BC.[34] Clodius' relatives brought charges of murder against Milo, who appealed to Cicero for advocacy. Cicero took the case, and his speech Pro Milone came to be considered by some as his crowning masterpiece. Titus Annius Milo Papianus was a Roman political agitator, the son of C. Papius Celsus, but adopted by his mothers father, T. Annius Luscus. ... For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... Remains of the Appian Way in Rome, Italy The Appian Way (Latin: Via Appia) is a famous road built by the Romans. ... Interim cum sciret Clodius - neque enim erat difficile scire - iter sollemne, legitimum, necessarium ante diem xiii. ...


In Pro Milone, Cicero argued that Milo had no reason to kill Clodius - indeed, Cicero proposed, Milo had everything to gain from Clodius being alive. Furthermore, he asserted that Milo did not expect to encounter Clodius on the Via Appia. The prosecution pointed out that the few living witnesses to the murder were Milo's slaves, and that by subsequently freeing them, Milo had cynically ensured no witness would testify against him. Though Cicero suggested that the slaves' valiant defence of Milo was cause enough for their emancipation, he ultimately lost the case. After the trial, Milo went into exile and continued to live in Massilia until he returned to stir up trouble in the Civil War. Marseilles redirects here. ... After 30 BC, the Republic was unified under leadership of Octavian. ...


The struggle between Pompey and Julius Caesar grew more intense in 50 BC. Cicero, rather forced to pick sides, chose to favour Pompey, but at the same time he prudently avoided openly alienating Caesar. When Caesar invaded Italy in 49 BC, Cicero fled Rome. Caesar, seeking the legitimacy that endorsement by a senior senator would provide, courted Cicero's favour, but even so Cicero slipped out of Italy and in June traveled to Dyrrachium (Epidamnos), Illyria, where Pompey's staff was situated.[35] Cicero traveled with the Pompeian forces to Pharsalus in 48 BC, though he was quickly losing faith in the competence and righteousness of the Pompeian lot. He quarrelled with many of the commanders, including a son of Pompey himself. Eventually, he even provoked the hostility of his fellow senator Cato, who told him that he would have been of more use to the cause of the optimates if he had stayed in Rome. In Cicero's own words: "I came to regret my action in joining the army of the optimates not so much for the risk of my own safety as for the appalling situation which confronted me on arrival. To begin with, our forces were too small and had poor morale. Secondly, with the exception of the commander-in-chief and a handful of others, everyone was greedy to profit from the war itself and their conversation was so bloodthirsty that I shuddered at the prospect of victory. In a word everything was wrong except the cause we were fighting for."[36] After Caesar's victory at Pharsalus, Cicero returned to Rome only very cautiously. Caesar pardoned him and Cicero tried to adjust to the situation and maintain his political work, hoping that Caesar might revive the Republic and its institutions. For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47... Consuls: Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus, Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior. ... The Greek city of Epidamnos (Strabo Geography vi. ... Farsala (Greek: Φάρσαλα), ancient times: Pharsalus is one of the largest cities in the prefecture and is also a municipality as well as a province. ... Consuls: Gaius Julius Caesar, Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. ... Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ...


In a letter to Varro on c. April 20, 46 BC, Cicero outlined his strategy under Caesar's dictatorship: "I advise you to do what I am advising myself – avoid being seen even if we cannot avoid being talked about. If our voices are no longer heard in the Senate and in the Forum, let us follow the example of the ancient sages and serve our country through our writings concentrating on questions of ethics and constitutional law".[37] Marcus Terentius Varro ([[116 BC]–27 BC), also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman scholar and writer, who the Romans came to call the most learned of all the Romans. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ...


Opposition to Mark Antony, and death

Cicero was taken completely by surprise when the Liberatores assassinated Caesar on the ides of March, 44 BC. Cicero was not included in the conspiracy, even though the conspirators were sure of his sympathy. Marcus Junius Brutus called out Cicero's name, asking him to "restore the Republic" when he lifted the bloodstained dagger after the assassination.[38] A letter Cicero wrote in February 43 BC to Trebonius, one of the conspirators, began, "How I could wish that you had invited me to that most glorious banquet on the Ides of March"![39] Cicero became a popular leader during the period of instability following the assassination. He had no respect for Mark Antony, who was scheming to take revenge upon Caesar's murderers. In exchange for amnesty for the assassins, he arranged for the Senate to agree not to outlaw Caesar as a tyrant, which allowed the Caesarians to have lawful support. Liberatores is the Latin name that the murderers of Caius Julius Caesar gave themselves. ... Vincenzo Camuccini, Mort de César, 1798. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Marcus Junius Brutus (85–42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC... Gaius Trebonius (died 43 BC) was a military commander and politician of the late Roman Republic, a trusted associate of Julius Caesar who later participated in his assassination. ... Vincenzo Camuccini, Mort de César, 1798. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ...


Cicero and Antony then became the two leading men in Rome; Cicero as spokesman for the Senate and Antony as consul, leader of the Caesarian faction, and unofficial executor of Caesar's public will. The two men had never been on friendly terms and their relationship worsened after Cicero made it clear that he felt Antony to be taking unfair liberties in interpreting Caesar's wishes and intentions. When Octavian, Caesar's heir and adopted son, arrived in Italy in April, Cicero formed a plan to play him against Antony. In September he began attacking Antony in a series of speeches he called the Philippics, in honour of his inspiration – Demosthenes. Praising Octavian to the skies, he labelled him a "god-sent child" and said that the young man only desired honour and would not make the same mistake as his adoptive father. Meanwhile, his attacks on Antony, whom he called a "sheep", rallied the Senate in firm opposition to Antony. During this time, Cicero's popularity as a public figure was unrivalled and according to the historian Appian, he "had the [most] power any popular leader could possibly have".[40] Cicero heavily fined the supporters of Antony for petty charges and had volunteers forge arms for the supporters of the Republic. According to Appian, although the story is not supported by others, this policy was perceived by Antony's supporters to be so insulting that they prepared to march on Rome to arrest Cicero. Cicero fled the city and the plan was abandoned. May refer to the persons: Augustus, Roman Emperor Pope John XIII nigger Category: ... A philippic is a fiery, damning speech delivered to condemn a particular political actor. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, DÄ“mosthénÄ“s) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... Appian (c. ...


Cicero supported Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus as governor of Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina) and urged the Senate to name Antony an enemy of the state. One tribune, a certain Salvius, delayed these proceedings and was "reviled", as Appian put it, by Cicero and his party. The speech of Lucius Piso, Caesar's father-in-law, delayed proceedings against Antony. Antony was later declared an enemy of the state when he refused to lift the siege of Mutina, which was in the hands of Decimus Brutus. Cicero described his position in a letter to Cassius, one of Caesar's assassins, that same September: "I am pleased that you like my motion in the Senate and the speech accompanying it. Antony is a madman; corrupt and much worse than Caesar whom you declared the worst of evil men when you killed him. Antony wants to start a bloodbath".[41] Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (died 43 BC) was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC and one of Julius Caesars assassins. ... Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus was a statesman of ancient Rome and the father-in-law of Gaius Julius Caesar. ... Enemy of the State is a 1998 film written by David Marconi, directed by Tony Scott, and starring Will Smith, Gene Hackman, Jon Voight, Lisa Bonet and Regina King. ... Modena is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Caius Cassius Longinus featured on a denarius (42 BC). ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ...


Cicero’s plan to drive out Antony failed, however. After the successive battles of Forum Gallorum and Mutina, Antony and Octavian reconciled and allied with Lepidus to form the Second Triumvirate. Immediately after legislating their alliance into official existence for a five-year term with consular imperium, the Triumvirate began proscribing their enemies and potential rivals. Cicero and his younger brother Quintus Tullius Cicero, formerly one of Caesar's legati, and all of their contacts and supporters were numbered among the enemies of the state[citation needed] though, reportedly, Octavian argued for two days against Cicero being added to the list.[42] Forum Gallorum was a village in northern Italy where a battle was fought on April 14, 43 BC, between the forces of Marc Antony and the legions of the Republic under the overall command of Gaius Vibius Pansa, aided by Aulus Hirtius and the untested Octavian (the future Augustus). ... The Battle of Mutina was fought on April 21, 43 BC between the forces of Marc Antony and the forces of Aulus Hirtius who was providing aid to one of Caesars assassins, Decimus Brutus. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS),[1] d. ... For other uses, see Second Triumvirate (disambiguation). ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. ... Quintus Tullius Cicero was the younger brother of Marcus Tullius Cicero. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ...


Among the proscribed, Cicero was one of the most viciously and doggedly hunted. Other victims included the tribune Salvius, who, after siding with Antony, moved his support directly and fully to Cicero. Cicero was viewed with sympathy by a large segment of the public and many people refused to report that they had seen him. He was eventually caught leaving his villa in Formiae in a litter going to the seaside from where he hoped to embark on a ship to Macedonia.[43] When the assassins arrived his own slaves said they had not seen him, but he was given away by Philologus, a freed slave of his brother Quintus Cicero.[43] Formia is a small town/city on the Mediterranean Coast of Italy. ... Quintus Tullius Cicero was the younger brother of Marcus Tullius Cicero. ...


Cicero's last words were said to have been "there is nothing proper about what you are doing, soldier, but do try to kill me properly". He was decapitated by his pursuers on December 7, 43 BC at Formia. His head and hands were displayed on the Rostra in the Forum Romanum according to the tradition of Marius and Sulla, both of whom had displayed the heads of their enemies in the Forum. He was the only victim of the Triumvirate's proscriptions to be so displayed. According to Cassius Dio[44] (in a story often mistakenly attributed to Plutarch), Antony's wife Fulvia took Cicero's head, pulled out his tongue, and jabbed it repeatedly with her hairpin in final revenge against Cicero's power of speech.[45] is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC... Formia is a small town/city on the Mediterranean Coast of Italy. ... The Rostra can be seen in the middle left of the photo. ... The Roman Forum (Forum Romanum) was a central area of ancient Rome in which commerce, business, trading and the administration of justice took place. ... So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Fulvia (77 BC - 40 BC) was a Roman woman who lived in the first century BC. Fulvia (as she is known by the ancient sources) was born with the name Fulvia Flacca Bambula and is also known as Fulvia Bambaliae. ...


Cicero's son, Marcus Tullius Cicero Minor, during his year as a consul in 30 BC, avenged his father's death somewhat when he announced to the Senate Mark Antony's naval defeat at Actium in 31 BC by Octavian and his capable commander-in-chief Agrippa. In the same meeting the Senate voted to prohibit all future Antonius descendants from using the name Marcus. Marcus Tullius Cicero Minor (Minor Latin for ‘the younger’) or Cicero the Younger (born 65 BC) was the second child and only son to Rome’s most famous orator, consul and senator Marcus Tullius Cicero from his first marriage to Terentia Varrones. ... Actium (mod. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. ...


Later on, Octavian came upon one of his grandsons reading a book by Cicero. The boy tried to conceal it, fearing his grandfather's reaction. Octavian (now called Augustus) took the book from him, read a part of it, and then handed the volume back, saying: "He was a learned man, dear child, a learned man who loved his country".[46]


Personal life

Marriages

Cicero married Terentia probably at the age of 27, in 79 BC. The marriage, which was a marriage of convenience, was harmonious for some 30 years. Terentia was of patrician background and a wealthy heiress, both important concerns for the ambitious young man that Cicero was at this time. One of her sisters, or a cousin, had been chosen to become a Vestal Virgin – a very great honour. Terentia was a strong-willed woman and (citing Plutarch) "she took more interest in her husband's political career than she allowed him to take in household affairs".[47] She did not share Cicero's intellectual interests nor his agnosticism. Cicero laments to Terentia in a letter written during his exile in Greece that "neither the gods whom you have worshipped with such a devotion nor the men that I have ever served, have shown the slightest sign of gratitude toward us".[48] She was a pious and probably a rather down-to-earth person. Terentia Varrones (lived 1st century BC) was the wife of the renowned orator Marcus Tullius Cicero. ... Image of a Roman Vestal Virgin In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins (sacerdos Vestalis), were the virgin holy priestesses of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. ...


In the 40s Cicero's letters to Terentia became shorter and colder. He complained to his friends that Terentia had betrayed him but did not specify in which sense. Perhaps the marriage simply could not outlast the strain of the political upheaval in Rome, Cicero's involvement in it, and various other disputes between the two. The divorce appears to have taken place in 45. The divorce enabled Terentia to protect her finances, as it would have made her a woman sui iuris,[49] and thus would also have kept more money in Terentia's accounts for later inheritance by their two children, Tullia Ciceronis and Marcus Tullius Cicero Minor. Sui iuris, usually spelled sui juris in civil law, is a Latin phrase that literally means “of one’s own right” but is now usually understood as of a peculiar nature. // In civil law the phrase sui juris indicates legal competence, the capacity to manage one’s own affairs (Black... Tullia Ciceronis, Tullia or Tulliola (affectionately known to her father) (5 August 79 BC or 78 BC - February 45 BC) was the only daughter and first child to Roman orator and politician Marcus Tullius Cicero from his first marriage to Terentia Varrones. ... Marcus Tullius Cicero Minor (Minor Latin for ‘the younger’) or Cicero the Younger (born 65 BC) was the second child and only son to Rome’s most famous orator, consul and senator Marcus Tullius Cicero from his first marriage to Terentia Varrones. ...


In late 46 BC Cicero married a young girl, Publilia, who had been his ward. It is thought that Cicero needed her money, particularly after having to repay the dowry of Terentia, who came from a wealthy family.[50] This marriage did not last long. Shortly after the marriage had taken place Cicero's daughter, Tullia, died. Publilia had been jealous of her and was so unsympathetic over her death that Cicero divorced her. Several friends of his, among them Caerellia, a woman who shared Cicero's interest in philosophy, tried to mend the break but he remained adamant.[51] Look up ward in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Tullia and Marcus

It is commonly known that Cicero held great love for his daughter Tullia, although his marriage to Terentia was one of convenience. He describes her in a letter to his brother Quintus: "How affectionate, how modest, how clever! The express image of my face, my speech, my very soul."[52] When she suddenly became ill in February 45 BC and died after having seemingly recovered from giving birth to a son in January, Cicero was stunned. "I have lost the one thing that bound me to life" he wrote to Atticus.[51] Tullia Ciceronis, Tullia or Tulliola (affectionately known to her father) (5 August 79 BC or 78 BC - February 45 BC) was the only daughter and first child to Roman orator and politician Marcus Tullius Cicero from his first marriage to Terentia Varrones. ... Terentia Varrones (lived 1st century BC) was the wife of the renowned orator Marcus Tullius Cicero. ...


Atticus told him to come for a visit during the first weeks of his bereavement, so that he could comfort him when his pain was at its greatest. In Atticus' large library, Cicero read everything that the Greek philosophers had written about overcoming grief, "but my sorrow defeats all consolation."[53] Caesar and Brutus sent him letters of condolence. So did his old friend and colleague, the lawyer Servius Sulpicius Rufus. He sent an exquisite letter that posterity has much admired, full of subtle, melancholy reflection on the transiency of all things.[54][55] For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Marcus Junius Brutus Marcus Junius Brutus (85 BC – 42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Servius Sulpicius Rufus (c. ...


After a while, he withdrew from all company to complete solitude in his newly acquired villa in Astura. It was in a lonely spot, but not far from Neapolis (modern Naples). For several months he just walked in the woods, crying. "I plunge into the dense wild wood early in the day and stay there until evening", he wrote to Atticus.[56] Later he decided to write a book for himself on overcoming grief. This book, Consolatio, was highly appreciated in antiquity (and made an immense impression on St. Augustine), but is unfortunately lost.[57] A few fragments have survived, among them the poignant: "I have always fought against Fortune, and beaten her. Even in exile I played the man. But now I yield, and throw up my hand."[58] He also planned to erect a small temple to the memory of Tullia, "his incomparable daughter." But he dropped this plan after a year, for reasons unknown.[59] Torre Astura, formerly an island, is now a peninsula, on the coast of Latium, Italy, 7 M. S.E. of Antium, at the S.E. extremity of the Bay of Antium. ... Alternate uses: See Naples (disambiguation) Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα-Πόλις, latinised in Neapolis) is the largest town in southern Italy, capital of Campania region. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Augustine is the name of two important Saints: Augustine of Hippo (354-430) -- philosopher and theologian, author of The City of God, Confessions Augustine of Canterbury (d. ...


Cicero hoped that his son Marcus would become a philosopher like him, but that was wishful thinking. Marcus himself wished for a military career. He joined the army of Pompey in 49 BC and after Pompey's defeat at Pharsalus 48 BC, he was pardoned by Caesar. Cicero sent him to Athens to study as a disciple of the peripatetic philosopher Kratippos in 48 BC, but he used this absence from "his father's vigilant eye" to "eat, drink and be merry."[60] Marcus Tullius Cicero Minor (Minor Latin for ‘the younger’) or Cicero the Younger (born 65 BC) was the second child and only son to Rome’s most famous orator, consul and senator Marcus Tullius Cicero from his first marriage to Terentia Varrones. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Farsala (Greek: Φάρσαλα), ancient times: Pharsalus is one of the largest cities in the prefecture and is also a municipality as well as a province. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Peripatetic means wandering. The Peripatetics were a school of philosophy in ancient Greece. ...


After his father's murder he joined the army of the Liberatores but was later pardoned by Augustus. Augustus' bad conscience for having put Cicero on the proscription list during the Second Triumvirate led him to aid considerably Marcus Minor's career. He became an augur, and was nominated consul in 30 BC together with Augustus, and later appointed proconsul of Syria and the province of Asia.[61] Liberatores is the Latin name that the murderers of Caius Julius Caesar gave themselves. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. ... For other uses, see Second Triumvirate (disambiguation). ... The Augur was a priest or official in ancient Rome. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Political and social thought

Cicero’s vision for the Republic was not simply the maintenance of the status quo. Nor was it a straightforward desire to revitalise what many, such as Sallust, term the ‘moral degradation’ of the republican system. Cicero envisioned a Rome ruled by a selfless nobility of successful individuals determining the fate of the nation via consensus in the Senate. Cicero’s country and equestrian background resulted in a broader outlook, not marred by self-interest to the same extent as the patricians of Rome. This article is about the English rock band. ... Gaius Sallustius Crispus, simply known as Sallust, (86-34 BC). ...


Cicero aspired to a republican system dominated by a ruling aristocratic class of men, “who so conducted themselves as to win for their policy the approval of all good men.” Further, he sought a concordia ordinum, an alliance between the senators and the equites. This ‘harmony between the social classes,’ which he later developed into a consensus omnium bonorum to include tota Italia (all citizens of Italy), demonstrated Cicero’s foresight as a statesman. He understood that fundamental change to the organization and the distribution of power within the Republic was required to secure its future. Cicero believed ‘the best men’ would institute large-scale reforms which were contrary to their interests as the ruling oligarchy. Cicero believed that only "some sort of free state" would engender stability and justice.[62] Look up Oligarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Links with the equestrian class, combined with his status as a novus homo meant that Cicero was isolated from the optimates. Thus, it is not surprising that Cicero envisioned a "selfless nobility of successful individuals" rather than the patrician-dominated system. The fact remains that those who sat in the Senate had appropriated huge profits by exploiting the provinces. Repeatedly, the oligarchy had proved to be short-sighted, reactionary and "operating with restricted and outmoded institutions that could no longer cope with the vast territories containing multifarious populations that was Rome at this point of its history." The repeated failings of the oligarchy were not only due to the leading patricians like Crassus and Hortensius, but also to the influx of conservative equites into the Senate’s ranks.


The combination of the Roman governing system, presently used by the oligarchy to selfishly maximize economic exploitation, and the introduction of the business minded equites, only resulted in an increase of the plundering of resources within the Empire. The large-scale extortion destabilized the political system further, which was continuously under pressure by both foreign wars and from the populares. Moreover, this period of Roman history was marked by constant in-fighting between the senators and the equites over political power and control of the courts. The problem arose because Sulla originally enfranchised the equites, but then these privileges were soon removed after he stepped down from office. Cicero, as an eques, naturally backed their claims to participate in the legal process; moreover, the constant conflict was incompatible with his vision of a concordia ordinum. The conflict between the two classes showed no signs of short-term resolution. The ruling class for over a century had showed nothing of ‘selfless service’ to the Republic and through their actions only undermined its stability, contributing to the creation of a society ripe for revolution.


The establishment of individual power bases both within Rome and in the provinces undermined Cicero’s guiding principle of a free state, and thus the Roman Republic itself. This factionalised the Senate into cliques, which constantly engaged each other for political advantage. These cliques were the optimates, led by such figures as Cato, and in later years Pompey, and the populares, led by such men as Julius Caesar and Crassus. It is important to note that although the optimates were generally republicans there were instances of leaders of the optimates with distinctly dictatorial ways. Caesar, Crassus and Pompey were at one time the head of the First Triumvirate, which directly conflicted with the republican model as it did not comply with the system of holding a consulship for one year only. Cicero’s vision for the Republic could not succeed if the populares maintained their position of power. Cicero did not envisage widespread reform, but a return to the "golden age" of the Republic. Despite Cicero’s attempts to court Pompey over to the republican side, he failed to secure either Pompey’s genuine support or peace for Rome. For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (c. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


After the civil war, Cicero recognised that the end of the Republic was almost certain. He stated that "the Republic, the Senate, the law courts are mere ciphers and that not one of us has any constitutional position at all." The civil war had destroyed the Republic. It wreaked destruction and decimated resources throughout the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar’s victory had been absolute. Caesar’s assassination failed to reinstate the Republic, despite further attacks on the Romans’ freedom by "Caesar’s own henchman, Mark Antony." His death only highlighted the stability of ‘one man rule’ by the ensuing chaos and further civil wars that broke out with Caesar’s murderers, Brutus and Cassius, and finally between his own supporters, Mark Antony and Octavian. Brutus is a Roman cognomen used by several politicians of the Junii family, especially in the Roman Republic. ... Cassius may refer to: Cassius, http://www. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ...


Cicero remained the "Republic's last true friend" as he spoke out for his ideals and of the libertas (freedom) the Romans enjoyed for centuries. Cicero’s vision had some fundamental flaws. It harked back to a ‘golden age’ that may never have existed. Cicero's idea of the concordia ordinum was too idealistic. Also, Roman institutions had failed to keep pace with Rome's enormous expansion. The Republic had reached such a state of disrepair that regardless of Cicero’s talents and passion, Rome lacked "persons loyal to [the Republic] to trust with armies." Cicero lacked the political power, nor had he any military skill or resources, to command true power to enforce his ideal. To enforce republican values and institutions was ipso facto contrary to republican values. He also failed to a certain extent to recognize the real power structures that operated in Rome.[citation needed]


Works

Cicero was declared a “righteous pagan” by the early Catholic Church, and therefore many of his works were deemed worthy of preservation. Saint Augustine and others quoted liberally from his works “On The Republic” and “On The Laws,” and it is due to this that we are able to recreate much of the work from the surviving fragments. Cicero also articulated an early, abstract conceptualisation of rights, based on ancient law and custom. Augustinus redirects here. ...


Books

Of Cicero's books, six on rhetoric have survived, as well as parts of eight on philosophy.


Speeches

Of his speeches, eighty-eight were recorded, but only fifty-eight survive. Some of the items below are more than one speech.

Judicial speeches

Several of Cicero's speeches are printed, in English translation, in the Penguin Classics edition Murder Trials. These speeches are included: Quintus Roscius Gallus (ca. ... Gaius Verres (c. ... In Verremis a series of speeches made by Marcus Tullius Cicero, // Background to the Case Main article: Gaius Verres Gaius Verres was the Governor of Sicily in the latter half of the 70s BC, Courtroom politics Verres was able to secure the services of the finest orator of his day... Gaius Verres (c. ... Pro Tullio is one of the most famous speeches of Cicero. ... Tullius was a Roman nomen. ... Aulus Caecina, son of Aulus Caecina who was defended by Cicero (69 BC) in a speech still extant, took the side of Pompey in the civil wars, and published a violent tirade against Caesar, for which he was banished. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Gaius Rabirius was a senator of ancient Rome who was defended (63 BC) by Cicero in a speech still extant. ... Lucius Licinius Murena, Roman consul, was the son of Lucius Licinius Murena who was defeated by Mithradates in Asia in 81 BC He was for several years legate of Lucius Licinius Lucullus in the third Mithradatic War. ... Marcus Tullius Ciceros oration in the defense of Archias Licinius, a poet accused of not being a Roman citizen. ... Aulus Licinius Archias (fl. ... At least seven notable Romans were named Lucius Valerius Flaccus. ... Publius Vatinius was a Roman consul (47BC) and poet. ... Pro Caelio is one of the most famous surviving speeches by the Roman orator, Cicero. ... Marcus Caelius Rufus (82 BCE - 48 BCE) was a Roman orator and politician. ... Gaius Rabirius Postumus, defended by Cicero (54 BC) in the extant speech Pro Rabirio Postumo, when charged with extortion in Egypt and complicity with Aulus Gabinius. ... Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. ...

  • In defence of Sextus Roscius of Ameria (This is the basis for Steven Saylor's novel Roman Blood.)
  • In defence of Aulus Cluentius Habitus
  • In defence of Gaius Rabirius"
  • Note on the speeches in defence of Caelius and Milo
  • In defence of King Deiotarus
Political speeches
Early career (before exile)
Mid career (after exile)
  • (57 BC) Post Reditum in Quirites (To the Citizens after his recall from exile)
  • (57 BC) Post Reditum in Senatu (To the Senate after his recall from exile)
  • (57 BC) De Domo Sua (On his House)
  • (57 BC) De Haruspicum Responsis (On the Responses of the Haruspices)
  • (56 BC) De Provinciis Consularibus (On the Consular Provinces)
  • (55 BC) In Pisonem (Against Piso)
Late career

(The Pro Marcello, Pro Ligario, and Pro Rege Deiotaro are collectively known as "The Caesarian speeches"). Steven Saylor (born March 23, 1956) is an American writer of historical novels. ... Steven Saylor (born March 23, 1956) is an American writer of historical novels. ... De Imperio Cn. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Agrarian laws (from the Latin ager, meaning land) were laws among the Romans regulating the division of the public lands, or ager publicus. ... Rullus, Publius Servilius, Roman tribune of the people in 64 BC, well known as the proposer of one of the most far-reaching agrarian laws brought forward in Roman history. ... In 63 BC Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC), orator, statesman and patriot, attained the rank of consul and in that capacity exposed to the Roman Senate the plot of Lucius Sergius Catilina (approx. ... In 63 BC Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BC), orator, statesman and patriot, attained the rank of consul and in that capacity exposed to the Roman Senate the plot of Lucius Sergius Catilina (approx. ... Lucius Sergius Catilina (108 BC–62 BC), known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cicero. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... The bronze sheeps liver of Piacenza, with Etruscan inscriptions A haruspex was a sort of augur in the Roman religion who practiced divination, by inspecting the entrails of sacrificed animals, especially the livers of sacrificed sheep. ... The Piso family of ancient Rome was a prominent plebeian branch of the gens Calpurnia, with at least 50 prominent Romans known. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49... Interim cum sciret Clodius - neque enim erat difficile scire - iter sollemne, legitimum, necessarium ante diem xiii. ... Titus Annius Milo Papianus was a Roman political agitator, the son of C. Papius Celsus, but adopted by his mothers father, T. Annius Luscus. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikisource. ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus, was a member of the plebeian gens Claudia of the branch cognomitated Marcellus and a Roman politician. ... Quintus Ligarius was a Roman soldier, circa 50 BC. He was accused of treason for having opposed Julius Caesar in a war in Africa, but was defended so eloquently by Cicero that he was pardoned and allowed to return to Rome. ... Deiotarus was a tetrarch of Galatia (Gallo-Graecia) in Asia Minor, and a faithful ally of the Romans. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... A philippic is a fiery, damning speech delivered to condemn a particular political actor. ... A philippic is a fiery, damning speech delivered to condemn a particular political actor. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ...


Philosophy

Rhetoric
  • (84 BC) De Inventione (About the composition of arguments)
  • (55 BC) De Oratore (About oratory)
  • (54 BC) De Partitionibus Oratoriae (About the subdivisions of oratory)
  • (52 BC) De Optimo Genere Oratorum (About the Best Kind of Orators)
  • (46 BC) Paradoxa Stoicorum (Stoic Paradoxes)
  • (46 BC) Brutus (For Brutus, a short history of Roman oratory dedicated to Marcus Junius Brutus)
  • (46 BC) Orator ad M. Brutum (About the Orator, also dedicated to Brutus)
  • (45 BC) De Fato (On Fate)
  • (44 BC) Topica (Topics of argumentation)
  • (?? BC) Rhetorica ad Herennium (traditionally attributed to Cicero, but currently disputed)
Other philosophical works
  • (51 BC) De Re Publica (On the Republic)
  • (45 BC) Hortensius (Hortensius)
  • (45 BC) Lucullus or Academica Priora (The Prior Academics)
  • (45 BC) Academica Posteriora (The Later Academics)
  • (45 BC) Consolatio (Consolation) How to console oneself at the death of a loved person
  • (45 BC) De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum (About the Ends of Goods and Evils) - a book on ethics.[2] Source of Lorem ipsum
  • (45 BC) Tusculanae Quaestiones (Questions debated at Tusculum)
  • (45 BC) De Natura Deorum (On the Nature of the Gods)
  • (45 BC) De Divinatione (On Divination)
  • (44 BC) Cato Maior de Senectute (Cato the Elder On Old Age)
  • (44 BC) Laelius de Amicitia (Laelius On Friendship)
  • (44 BC) De Officiis (On duties)
  • (?? BC) De Legibus (On the Laws)
  • (?? BC) De Consulatu Suo (On his ((Cicero's)) consulship - epic poem, only parts survive)
  • (?? BC) De temporibus suis (His Life and Times- epic poem, only parts survive)
  • (?? BC) Commentariolum Petitionis (Handbook of Candidacy)[3] (attributed to Cicero, but probably written by his brother Quintus)

Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 89 BC 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC - 84 BC - 83 BC 82 BC 81... The De Inventione is a handbook for orators that M. Tullius Cicero composed when he was still a young man. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52... De Oratore (The orator) is a discourse on rhetoric written by Cicero in 55 BC. It contains the first known description of the method of loci, a mnemonic technique. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49... Brutus (Cicero) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Rhetorica ad Herennium is the oldest surviving Latin book on rhetoric. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48... De re publica is a work by Cicero, written in six books 54-51 BC, in the format of a Socratic dialogue, that is to say: Scipio Africanus Minor (who had died a few decades before Cicero was born) takes the role of wise old man, that is an obligatory... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC... Using lorem ipsum to focus attention on graphic elements in a website design proposal. ... Also known as the Tusculan Disputations, written about the greatness of Rome etc. ... According to the second Borel-Cantelli lemma, given enough time, a chimpanzee like this one typing at random will almost surely type out a copy of one of Shakespeares plays. ... Ciceros De Divinatione (Latin, Concerning Divination) is a philosophical treatise in two books written in 45 BC . ... On Old Age was an essay written by Cicero in 44 BC on the subject of aging and death. ... Laelius de Amicitia Liber by Marcus Tullius Cicero Introduction The date of its composition belongs within the year 44 B.C., but the month cannot be fixed with absolute certainty. ... Laelius de Amicitia Liber by Marcus Tullius Cicero Introduction The date of its composition belongs within the year 44 B.C., but the month cannot be fixed with absolute certainty. ... De Officiis (On Duties or On Obligations) is an essay by Marcus Tullius Cicero divided into three books, where Cicero explains his view on the best way to live. ... In the first century B.C. the conservative senator Cicero wrote a work bearing the same name as Plato’s famous dialogue, The Laws. ... Commentariolum Petitionis was written by Ciceros brother Quintus as a guide to speaking and oratory. ...

Letters

More than 800 letters by Cicero to others exist, and over 100 letters from others to him.

  • (68 BC-43 BC) Epistulae ad Atticum (Letters to Atticus)
  • (59 BC-54 BC) Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem (Letters to his brother Quintus)
  • (43 BC) Epistulae ad Brutum (Letters to Brutus)
  • (43 BC) Epistulae ad Familiares (Letters to his friends)

Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC...

In popular culture

Appearances in modern fiction, listed in order of publication

Facsimile of the first page of Julius Caesar from the First Folio, published in 1623 Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed written in 1599. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ides of March is an epistolatory novel by Thornton Wilder. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Titlepage of Aphra Behns Love-Letters (1684) An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. ... Image:Thorntonwilderteeth. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Janet Miriam Holland Taylor Caldwell (September 7, 1900–August 30, 1985) was an Anglo-American novelist and prolific author of popular fiction, also known by the pen names Marcus Holland and Max Reiner, and by her married name of J. Miriam Reback. ... Masters of Rome is a series of historical fiction novels by author Colleen McCullough (b. ... Colleen McCullough (born 1 June 1937) is an internationally acclaimed Australian author. ... The Grass Crown is the second historical novel in Colleen McCulloughs Masters of Rome series. ... Roma Sub Rosa is a series of mystery novels by Steven Saylor set in, and populated by noteworthy denizens of, Ancient Rome. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Steven Saylor (born March 23, 1956) is an American writer of historical novels. ... Robert Olen Butler Jr. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Imperium, a 2006 novel by Robert Harris. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Harris is an English TV reporter and author, born in 1957 in the city of Nottingham. ...

Appearances in film and television

  • Imperium: Augustus, a British-Italian film (2003), also shown as Augustus The First Emperor in some countries, where Cicero (played by Gottfried John) appears in several vignettes.
  • In the 2005 ABC miniseries Empire, Cicero (played by Michael Byrne) appears as a supporter of Octavius. This portrayal deviates sharply from history, as Cicero survives the civil war to witness Octavius assume the title of princeps.
  • The HBO/BBC2 TV series Rome features Marcus Tullius Cicero prominently and is played by David Bamber. The portrayal broadly adheres to the historical record, reflecting Cicero's political indecision and continued switching of allegiances between the various factions in Rome's civil war. A disparity occurs in his assassination, which occurs in an orchard rather than on the road to the sea. The TV series also depicts Cicero's assassination at the hands of the fictionalized Titus Pullo, though the historical Titus Pullo was not Cicero's actual killer.

Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gottfried John with his wife 2004 Gottfried John (born August 29, 1942 in Berlin) is a German actor. ... Empire is a six part miniseries filmed in 2005. ... Michael Byrne was born in Kilkenny, Ireland in 1761. ... HBO (Home Box Office) is a premium cable television network with headquarters in New York City. ... BBC Two (or BBC2 as it was formerly styled) was the second UK television station to be aired by the BBC. History The channel was scheduled to begin at 7:20pm on April 20, 1964 and show an evening of light entertainment, starting with the comedy show The Alberts and... Rome is a historical drama television series co-created by Bruno Heller, John Milius, and William J. MacDonald and primarily written by Heller. ... Marcus Tullius Cicero is a historical figure who features as a character in the HBO/BBC2 original television series, Rome, played by David Bamber. ... David Bamber as Marcus Tullius Cicero in the television series Rome. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... Titus Pullo is a fictional character from the HBO/BBC original television series Rome, played by Ray Stevenson. ... The Historical Pullo Titus Pullo (given as T. Pulfio in some translations) was one of the two soldiers of the 11th Legion (Legio XI prior to its demobilization and subsequent remobilization by Caesar Augustus - see also here) mentioned in the personal writings of Julius Caesar. ...

See also

Titus Pomponius Atticus (110 BC/109 BC – 32 BC). ... Pomponia Caecilia Attica (born around 51 BC) was the daughter of Ciceros friend and knight Titus Pomponius Atticus. ... Quintus Tullius Cicero was the younger brother of Marcus Tullius Cicero. ... Marcus Tullius Tiro (c. ... Tullia Ciceronis, Tullia or Tulliola (affectionately known to her father) (5 August 79 BC or 78 BC - February 45 BC) was the only daughter and first child to Roman orator and politician Marcus Tullius Cicero from his first marriage to Terentia Varrones. ... Using lorem ipsum to focus attention on graphic elements in a website design proposal. ...

Further reading

  • Francis A. Yates (1974). The Art of Memory, University of Chicago Press, 448 pages, Reprint: ISBN 0-226-95001-8
  • Taylor Caldwell (1965), A Pillar of Iron, Doubleday & Company, Reprint: ISBN 0-385-05303-7

Dame Frances Amelia Yates (1899-1981) was a noted British historian. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The Art of Memory is a 1966 non-fiction book by British historian Frances A. Yates. ... Janet Miriam Holland Taylor Caldwell (September 7, 1900–August 30, 1985) was an Anglo-American novelist and prolific author of popular fiction, also known by the pen names Marcus Holland and Max Reiner, and by her married name of J. Miriam Reback. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero, a portrait (1975) p.303
  2. ^ Haskell, H.J.: This was Cicero (1964)p.300-301
  3. ^ Cornelius Nepos, Atticus 16, trans. John Selby Watson.
  4. ^ Haskell, H.J.:"This was Cicero" (1964) p.296
  5. ^ Castren and Pietilä-Castren: "Antiikin käsikirja" /"Handbook of antiquity" (2000) p.237
  6. ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero, a portrait (1975) p.1
  7. ^ Plutarch: "Lives" p.874
  8. ^ Rawson, E.:"Cicero, a portrait" (1975) p.7.
  9. ^ Rawson, E.:"Cicero, a portrait" (1975) p.8
  10. ^ Everitt, A.:"Cicero: The Life and Times of Rome's Greatest Politician" (2001) p.35
  11. ^ Rawson, E. "Cicero, a portrait" (1975) p.2-3
  12. ^ Rawson, E.:"Cicero, a portrait"(1975) p.17
  13. ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero, a portrait (1975) p.5-6; Cicero, Ad Familiares 16.26.2 (Quintus to Cicero)
  14. ^ Plutarch, Cicero 1.3–5
  15. ^ Plutarch, Cicero 2.2
  16. ^ Plutarch, Cicero 3.2
  17. ^ Rawson, Elizabeth: "Cicero, a portrait" (1975) p. 14-15
  18. ^ a b Rawson:"Cicero, a portrait" (1975) p.18
  19. ^ Everitt, A.: "Cicero, a turbulent life" (2001) p.43
  20. ^ Cicero: Samtliga brev (Collected letters) in Swedish translation by G.Sjögren 1963
  21. ^ Rawson, E.: "Cicero, a portrait" (1975) p.22
  22. ^ Haskell, H.J.: "This was Cicero" (1940) p.83
  23. ^ Rawson, E.:"Cicero, a portrait" (1975) p.27.
  24. ^ Haskell, J.J.: This was Cicero (1964) p.108.
  25. ^ Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, Book V, Sections 64-66 excerpt
  26. ^ Cicero, In Catilinam 3.2; Sallust, Bellum Catilinae 40-45; Plutarch, Cicero 18.4
  27. ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero, 1984 106
  28. ^ Haskell, H.J.: This was Cicero, 1964 200
  29. ^ Haskell, H.J.: This was Cicero, 1964 p.201
  30. ^ Plutarch. Cicero 32
  31. ^ Haskell, H.J.: This was Cicero, 1964, p.201-202. See also Garcea, A.: Cicerone in esilio. L’epistolario e le passioni, Hildesheim: Olms. 2005
  32. ^ Cicero, Samtliga brev/Collected letters (in a Swedish translation)
  33. ^ Haskell. H.J.: This was Cicero, p.204
  34. ^ Rawson, Elizabeth: "Cicero, A portrait" (1975)p.329
  35. ^ Everitt, Anthony: Cicero pp. 215.
  36. ^ Everitt, Anthony: Cicero: A turbulent life. p.208
  37. ^ Cicero, Ad Familiares 9.2
  38. ^ Cicero, Second Philippic Against Antony
  39. ^ Cicero, Ad Familiares 10.28
  40. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 4.19
  41. ^ Cicero, Ad Familiares 12.2
  42. ^ Plutarch, Cicero 46.3–5
  43. ^ a b Haskell, H.J.: This was Cicero (1964) p.293
  44. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 47.8.4
  45. ^ Everitt, A.: Cicero, A turbulent life (2001)
  46. ^ Plutarch, Cicero, 49.5
  47. ^ Rawson, E.: "Cicero, a portrait" (1975) p.25
  48. ^ Haskell, H.J.:"This was Cicero"(1964)p.96
  49. ^ Ulpian, Digest 50.16.195.
  50. ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero p.225
  51. ^ a b Haskell, H.J.:"This was Cicero" (1964) p.249
  52. ^ Haskell H.J.: This was Cicero, p.95
  53. ^ Cicero, Letters to Atticus, 12.14. Rawson, E.: Cicero p. 225
  54. ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero p.226
  55. ^ Cicero, Samtliga brev/Collected letters
  56. ^ Haskell, H.J.: This was Cicero, p.250
  57. ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero, p.225-227
  58. ^ Haskell, H.J.: This was Cicero p.251
  59. ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero, p.250
  60. ^ Haskell, H.J.: This was Cicero (1964) p.103- 104
  61. ^ Paavo Castren & L. Pietilä-Castren: Antiikin käsikirja/Encyclopedia of the Ancient World
  62. ^ James Leigh Strachan-Davidson. Rome. 1894, p. 427

Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...

References

  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Cicero’s letters to Atticus, Vol, I, II, IV, VI, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain, 1965
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Latin extracts of Cicero on Himself, translated by Charles Gordon Cooper , University of Queensland Press, Brisbane, 1963
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Selected Political Speeches, Penguin Books Ltd, Great Britain, 1969
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Selected Works, Penguin Books Ltd, Great Britain, 1971
  • Everitt, Anthony 2001, Cicero: the life and times of Rome's greatest politician, Random House, hardback, 359 pages, ISBN 0-375-50746-9
  • Cowell, Cicero and the Roman Republic, Penguin Books Ltd, Great Britain, 1973
  • Haskell, H.J.: (1946) This was Cicero, Fawcett publications, Inc. Greenwich, Conn. USA
  • Gibbon, Edward. (1793). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire., The Modern Library (2003), ISBN 0375758119. Edited, Abridged, and with a Critical Foreword by Hans-Friedrich Mueller.
  • Gruen, Erich, The last Generation of the Roman Republic, University of California Press, USA, 1974
  • March, Duane A., "Cicero and the 'Gang of Five'," Classical World, volume 82 (1989) 225-234
  • Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, Penguin Books Ltd, Great Britain, 1972
  • Rawson, Elizabeth (1975) Cicero, A portrait, Allen Lane, London ISBN 0-7139-0864-5
  • Rawson, Elizabeth, Cicero, Penguin Books Ltd, Great Britain, 1975
  • Scullard, H. H. From the Gracchi to Nero, University Paperbacks, Great Britain, 1968
  • Smith, R. E., Cicero the Statesman, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain, 1966
  • Strachan-Davidson, J. L., Cicero and the Fall of the Roman Republic, University of Oxford Press, London, 1936
  • Taylor, H. (1918). Cicero: A sketch of his life and works. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co.

// Random House is a publishing house based in New York City. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... James Leigh Strachan-Davidson (1843-1916) was an English classical scholar, born at Penrith. ...

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Preceded by
Lucius Julius Caesar and Gaius Marcius Figulus
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Gaius Antonius Hybrida
63 BC
Succeeded by
Decimus Junius Silanus and Lucius Licinius Murena
Persondata
NAME Cicero
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Marcus Tullius Cicero
SHORT DESCRIPTION Roman statesman, philospher
DATE OF BIRTH January 3, 106 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH Arpinum, Italy
DATE OF DEATH December 7, 43 BC
PLACE OF DEATH Formia, Italy

John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Sir Thomas North (1535? - 1601?), English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North, was born about 1535. ... Jacques Amyot (October 30, 1513 - February 6, 1593), French writer, was born of poor parents, at Melun. ... Philemon Holland (1552 - 1637) was an English translator. ... Arthur Hugh Clough (January 1, 1819 – November 13, 1861) was an English poet, and the brother of Anne Jemima Clough. ... In Ancient Rome, several men of the Julii Caesares family were named Lucius Julius Caesar. ... This list of Republican Roman Consuls is based on the Varronian chronology, which intercalates four dictator years and has other peculiarities. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Gaius Antonius Hybrida (lived 1st century BC) was an Ancient Rome politician. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... Decimus (Junius) Silanus may refer to: Decimus Junius Silanus (Consul 62 BC), married to Servilia Caepionis Decimus Silanus, the senator who had an affair with Vipsania Julia Decimus Junius Silanus Torquatus (died 64), consul in 53. ... Lucius Licinius Murena, Roman consul, was the son of Lucius Licinius Murena who was defeated by Mithradates in Asia in 81 BC He was for several years legate of Lucius Licinius Lucullus in the third Mithradatic War. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 111 BC 110 BC 109 BC 108 BC 107 BC - 106 BC - 105 BC 104 BC... Arpinum was an ancient Roman town in southern Latium, now Arpino. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC... Formia is a small town/city on the Mediterranean Coast of Italy. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cicero [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] (6856 words)
Cicero was proud of this too, claiming that he had singlehandedly saved the commonwealth; many of his contemporaries and many later commentators have suggested that he exaggerated the magnitude of his success.
Cicero was a witness to the murder, though he was not a part of the conspiracy.
Augustine later adopted Cicero's definition of a commonwealth and used it in his argument that Christianity was not responsible for the destruction of Rome by the barbarians.
Cicero - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3731 words)
Cicero himself accompanied the former consul Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, one of the conspirators, to the Tullianum.
Cicero and his younger brother Quintus Tullius Cicero, formerly one of Caesar's legates, and all of their contacts and supporters were numbered among the enemies of the state (though reportedly Octavian fought against Cicero being added to the list for two days).
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