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Encyclopedia > Cicada
Cicadas
Annual cicada, Tibicen linnei
Annual cicada, Tibicen linnei
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha
Infraorder: Cicadomorpha
Superfamily: Cicadoidea
Family: Cicadidae
Westwood, 1840
Subfamilies

Cicadettinae
Cicadinae
Tettigadinae
Tibiceninae
See also article text. Cicada may refer to: Cicada, the insect family Cicadidae and sometimes related families Cicada (genus), a specific genus of cicadas Cicada (restaurant), the Los Angeles restaurant Cicada (band), the electronic music band Cicada (album), the 2006 debut album by Cicada Cicada (mythology) When Cicadas Cry an anime series Cicada (horse... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x821, 346 KB) Other versions of this file none File links The following pages link to this file: Cicada Tibicen ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Suborders Archaeorrhyncha Clypeorrhyncha Prosorrhyncha Sternorrhyncha Hemiptera is a large, cosmopolitan order of insects, comprising some 67,500 known species in three suborders. ... Infraorders Cicadomorpha Fulgoromorpha The Auchenorrhyncha is the suborder of the Hemiptera which contains most of the familiar members of what was traditionally called the Homoptera - groups such as cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, planthoppers, and spittlebugs. ... Superfamilies Cercopoidea Cicadoidea Membracoidea The Cicadomorpha is the infraorder of the Hemiptera which contains the cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, and spittlebugs. ... John Obadiah Westwood (22 December 1805 - 2 January 1893) was a British entomologist and archaeologist also noted for his artistic talents. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Tribes Burbungini Cicadini Cyclochilini Dundubiini Gaeanini Jassopsaltriini Lyristini Moganniini Platypleurini Pomponiini Tamasini Thophini The Cicadiinae are a subfamily of cicadas, containing the translucent cicadas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

A Cicada is an insect of the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha, in the superfamily Cicadoidea, with large eyes wide apart on the head and usually transparent, well-veined wings. There are about 2,500 species of cicada around the globe, and many remain unclassified. Cicadas live in temperate to tropical climates where they are among the most widely recognized of all insects, mainly due to their large size and remarkable acoustic talents. Cicadas are sometimes colloquially called "locusts",[1] although they are unrelated to true locusts, which are a kind of grasshopper. They are also known as "jar flies". Cicadas are related to leafhoppers and spittlebugs. In parts of the southern Appalachian Mountains in the United States they are known as "dry flies" because of the dry shell they leave behind. Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Suborders Archaeorrhyncha Clypeorrhyncha Prosorrhyncha Sternorrhyncha Hemiptera is a large, cosmopolitan order of insects, comprising some 67,500 known species in three suborders. ... Infraorders Cicadomorpha Fulgoromorpha The Auchenorrhyncha is the suborder of the Hemiptera which contains most of the familiar members of what was traditionally called the Homoptera - groups such as cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, planthoppers, and spittlebugs. ... Desert locust Nymph of Locust Schistocera americana with distinct wing-rudiments Locust nymph from the Philippines Egyptian grasshopper Anacridium aegyptum Locust from the 1915 Locust Plague For other uses, see Locust (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Grasshopper (disambiguation). ... genera: many hundreds including: Graminella Graphocephala Homalodisca Idiocerus Leafhopper is a common name applied to any species from the family Cicadellidae. ... Families Aphrophoridae Cercopidae Clastopteridae Epipygidae Machaerotidae The froghoppers, or the superfamily Cercopoidea, are a group of Hemipteran insects, in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha. ...


Cicadas do not bite or sting, are benign to humans, and are not considered a pest. Many people around the world regularly eat cicadas: the female is prized as it is meatier. Cicadas have been (or are still) eaten in Ancient Greece, China, Malaysia, Burma, Australia, Latin America and the Congo. Cicadas are employed in the traditional medicines of China[citation needed] Carpet beetle larvae damaging a specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in an entomological collection A pest is an organism which has characteristics that are regarded as injurious or unwanted. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


The name is a direct derivation of the Latin cicada. (In classical Greek it was called a tettix, and in modern Greek tzitzikas.) For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Taxonomy

Cicadas are arranged into two families: Tettigarctidae (q.v.) and Cicadidae. There are two extant species of Tettigarctidae, one in southern Australia, and the other in Tasmania. The family Cicadidae is subdivided into the subfamilies Tettigadinae, Cicadinae and Cicadettinae, and they occur on all continents except Antarctica. Species Tettigarcta crinita Distant, 1883 Tettigarcta tomentosa White, 1845 The family Tettigarctidae, also known as the hairy cicadas is a small relictual family of primitive cicadas, containing a single genus with two extant species, one in southern Australia (Tettigarcta crinita), and the other in Tasmania (Tettigarcta tomentosa). ... In biology, extant taxon is commonly used in discussions of living and fossil species. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product...

17-year cicada, or magicicada
17-year cicada, or magicicada

The largest cicadas are in the genera Pomponia and Tacua. There are some 200 species in 38 genera in Australia, about 450 in Africa, about 100 in the Palaearctic and exactly one species in England, the New Forest cicada, Melampsalta montana, widely distributed throughout Europe. There are about 150 species in South Africa. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2229x1458, 1489 KB) Reason for deletion request: The periodical cicada (Magicicada septendecim) Plate 7 from Insects, their way and means of living, R. E. Snodgrass. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2229x1458, 1489 KB) Reason for deletion request: The periodical cicada (Magicicada septendecim) Plate 7 from Insects, their way and means of living, R. E. Snodgrass. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Pomponia is a genus of cicada, a family of insects. ... Tacua speciosa is a genus of cicada, a family of insects. ... The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see New Forest (disambiguation). ...


Most of the North American species are in the genus Tibicen - the annual or dog-day cicadas (so named because they emerge in late July and August [1] ). The best-known North American genus is Magicicada, however. These periodical cicadas have an extremely long life cycle of 13 to 17 years and emerge in large numbers.[1] Another American species is the Apache cicada, Diceroprocta apache. [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name {{{binomial}}} Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} Species Tibicen canicularis Tibicen chloromera Tibicen pruinosa [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The tibicen genus of cicadas is the most prevalent in the United States. ... Dog Days or dog days of summer are typically the hottest and most humid times of the year. ... For other uses, see Cicada (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ...


Thirty-eight species from five genera populate New Zealand, and all are endemic to New Zealand and the surrounding islands (Norfolk Island, New Caledonia). In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ...


There are several kinds of cicadas in Japan. They sing at all times of day and night.[citation needed]


Description

Diemeniana frenchi, an Australian species
Diemeniana frenchi, an Australian species

The adult insect, sometimes called an imago, is usually 2 to 5 cm (1 to 2 inches) long, although some tropical species can reach 15 cm (6"), e.g. Pomponia imperatoria from Malaysia. Cicadas have prominent eyes set wide apart on the sides of the head, short antennae protruding between or in front of the eyes, and membranous front wings. Desert cicadas are also among the few insects known to cool themselves by sweating,[2] while many other cicadas can voluntarily raise their body temperatures as much as 22 °C above ambient temperature.[3] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1067x1600, 418 KB) Diemeniana frenchi has no common name and only a small distribution in Victoria and New South Wales in Australia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1067x1600, 418 KB) Diemeniana frenchi has no common name and only a small distribution in Victoria and New South Wales in Australia. ... The imago is the last stage of development of an insect, after the last ecdysis of an incomplete metamorphosis, or after emergence from pupation where the metamorphosis is complete. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... The forewing and hindwing of a bee. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Cicada song

Male cicadas have loud noisemakers called "timbals" on the sides of the abdominal base. Their "singing" is not the stridulation (where two structures are rubbed against one another) of many other familiar sound-producing insects like crickets: the timbals are regions of the exoskeleton that are modified to form a complex membrane with thin, membranous portions and thickened "ribs". Contracting the internal timbal muscles yields a pulse of sound as the timbals buckle inwards. As these muscles relax, the timbals return to their original position. The interior of the male abdomen is substantially hollow to amplify the resonance of the sound. A cicada rapidly vibrates these membranes, and enlarged chambers derived from the tracheae make its body serve as a resonance chamber, greatly amplifying the sound. They modulate their noise by wiggling their abdomens toward and away from the tree that they are on. Additionally, each species has its own distinctive song.[1] Timbal is a term for a vibrating membrane in the abdomen of a male cicada, which is responsible for the characteristic sound produced by the insect. ... For the human abdomen, see human abdomen. ... Stridulation is the act of producing sound by rubbing together certain body parts. ... Subfamilies See Taxonomy section Crickets, family Gryllidae (also known as true crickets), are insects somewhat related to grasshoppers and more closely related to katydids or bush crickets (family Tettigoniidae). ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... Many terrestrial arthropods have evolved a closed respiratory system composed of spiracles, tracheae, and tracheoles to transport metabolic gasses to and from tissue. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ...


Although only males produce the cicadas' distinctive sound, both sexes have tympana, which are membranous structures used to detect sounds and thus the cicadas' equivalent of ears. Adult cicadas have a sideways-ridged plate where the mouth is in normal insects. A hearing organ in insects, consisting of a membrane (tympanum) stretched across a frame backed by an air sac. ...


Some cicadas produce sounds louder than 106 dB (SPL) "at close range", among the loudest of all insect-produced sounds.[4] Conversely, some small species have songs so high in pitch that the noise is inaudible to humans[citation needed]. Species have different mating songs to ensure they attract the appropriate mate. The song intensity of the louder cicadas acts as an effective bird repellent.[citation needed] Males of many species tend to gather which creates a greater sound intensity and protects against avian predators.[citation needed] It can be difficult to determine which direction(s) cicada song is coming from, because the low pitch carries well and because it may, in fact, be coming from many directions at once, as cicadas in various trees all make noise at once. This article is about audible acoustic waves. ...


In addition to the mating song, many species also have a distinct distress call, usually a somewhat broken and erratic sound emitted when an individual is seized. A number of species also have a courtship song, which is often a quieter call and is produced after a female has been drawn by the calling song.


The song of the cicada is a favorite sound effect used by filmmakers and animators as a means of representing silence, pathos, and the great outdoors.[citation needed] Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies, video games, music, or other media. ... Director Herbert Brenon with actress Alla Nazimova on the set of War Brides, 1916 A director is a person who directs the making of a film. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... Look up Pathos in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Cicada song Image File history File links New_Zealand_cicada_song. ...

The sound of a cicada in Lower Hutt, New Zealand, recorded in mid-February 2006

Problems listening to the file? See media help. Lower Hutt is a city in the lower North Island of the country of New Zealand. ...

Life cycle

Cicada shell left behind in the south of France.
Time series photos of a Tibicen Dog Day Cicada moulting in Ohio USA.
Time series photos of a Tibicen Dog Day Cicada moulting in Ohio USA.

After mating, the female cuts slits into the bark of a twig, and into these she deposits her eggs. She may do so repeatedly, until she has laid several hundred eggs. When the eggs hatch, the newborn nymphs drop to the ground, where they burrow. Most cicadas go through a life cycle that lasts from two to five years. Some species have much longer life cycles, e.g. the Magicicada goes through a 17- or occasionally 13-year life cycle. These long life cycles are an adaptation to predators such as the cicada killer wasp and praying mantis, as a predator could not regularly fall into synchrony with the cicadas. Both 13 and 17 are prime numbers, so while a cicada with a 15-year life cycle could be preyed upon by a predator with a three- or five-year life cycle, the 13- and 17-year cycles allow them to stop the predators falling into step.[5] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 348 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 446 pixel, file size: 162 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cicada shell found in the South of France by Matt Aimonetti, http://flickr. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 348 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 446 pixel, file size: 162 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cicada shell found in the South of France by Matt Aimonetti, http://flickr. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name {{{binomial}}} Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} Species Tibicen canicularis Tibicen chloromera Tibicen pruinosa [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The tibicen genus of cicadas is the most prevalent in the United States. ... Species See text. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A praying mantis, or praying mantid, is the common name for an insect of the order Mantodea. ... In mathematics, a prime number, or prime for short, is a natural number greater than one and whose only distinct positive divisors are 1 and itself. ...


The insects spend most of the time that they are underground as nymphs at depths ranging from about 30 cm (1 ft) up to 2.5 m (about 8½ ft). The nymphs feed on root juice and have strong front legs for digging. Praying mantis nymphs, approximately 4mm long, clustered on a leaf In biology, a nymph is the immature form of some insect species, which undergoes incomplete metamorphosis (Hemimetabolism) before reaching its adult stage; unlike a larva, a nymphs overall form already resembles that of an adult. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ...


In the final nymphal instar, they construct an exit tunnel to the surface and emerge. They then moult (shed their skins), on a nearby plant for the last time and emerge as adults. The abandoned skins remain, still clinging to the bark of trees. An instar is a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each molt. ... Ecdysis is the molting of the cuticula in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). ...


Cicadas in Australia

Australian green grocer cicada.
Australian green grocer cicada.

Around 220 cicada species have been identified in Australia, many of which go by fanciful common names such as: Cherry Nose, Brown Baker, Red Eye (psaltoda moerens), Green Grocer/Green Monday[6], Yellow Monday, Whisky Drinker, Double Drummer (Thopha saccata), and Black Prince. The Australian green grocer, Cyclochila australasiae, is amongst the loudest insects in the world.[citation needed] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,816 × 2,112 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,816 × 2,112 pixels, file size: 2. ...


Being principally tropical insects, most Australian species are found in the northern states. However, cicadas occur in almost every part of Australia: the hot wet tropical north; Tasmanian snowfields; Victorian beaches and sand dunes such as Torquay and deserts. According to Max Moulds of the Australian Museum in Sydney: "the 'green grocer' is unusual in its ability to adapt perfectly to the urbanized environment."[citation needed] Cicada sounds are a defining quality of Melbourne, Sydney and Canberra during late spring and the summer months. Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... The Australian Museum is the oldest museum in Australia, centering on natural history and anthropology, with collections centering on vertebrate and invertebrate zoology, as well as minerology, palaeontology, and anthropology. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ...


Cicadas inhabit both native and exotic plants including tall trees, coastal mangroves, suburban lawns and desert shrubbery. The great variety of flora and climatic variation found in north-eastern Queensland results in its being the richest region for the spread of different species. The area of greatest species diversity is a 100 km (60 mi) wide region around Cairns. In some areas they are preyed on by the Cicada-hunter (Exeirus lateritius) which stings and stuns cicadas high in the trees, making them drop to the ground where the Cicada-hunter mounts and rides them, pushing with its hind-legs, sometimes over a distance of a hundred yards, till they can be shoved down into its burrow, where the numb Cicada is placed onto one of many shelves in a 'catacomb', to form the food-stock for the wasp grub that grows out of the egg deposited there [7]. Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... Cairns is a regional city located in far north Queensland, Australia. ...


Cicada and Symbol

In France, the Cicada use to represent the folklore of Provence and Mediterranean cities (in spite of some species live in Alsace or Paris Basin ) [8] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... As a modern administrative région of France, it is known as the ÃŽle de France As the territory at the political centre of the Kingdom of France, it is known as the ÃŽle de France. ...



Typical summer insect (at least in temperate countries), the cicada represents the insouciance since the antiquity, ant the fabulist Aesop make it a heroine of one of is fable: ““La Cigale et la Fourmie” (the Cicada and the Ant). Jean de La Fontaine take back this fable in is collection two millennium after in “Les fables de La Fontaine”. This Fable is so well-know and studied that it become a symbol of is literary genre [9] Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... In its strict sense a fable is a short story or folk tale embodying a moral, which may be expressed explicitly at the end as a maxim. ... Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ... For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ... Engraving by Étienne-Jehandier Desrochers Jean de La Fontaine (July 8, 1621 – April 13, 1695) was the most famous French fabulist and probably the most widely read French poet of the 17th century. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ...


Genera

  • Abagazara
  • Abricta
  • Abroma
  • Adeniana
  • Ahomana
  • Akamba
  • Amphipsalta
  • Arcystasia
  • Arfaka
  • Auta
  • Babras
  • Baeturia
  • Bavea
  • Beameria
  • Bijaurana
  • Birrima
  • Burbunga
  • Buyisa
  • Cacama
  • Calopsaltria
  • Calyria
  • Carineta
  • Chinaria
  • Chlorocysta
  • Chonosia
  • Cicadetta
  • Clidophleps
  • Coata
  • Conibosa
  • Cornuplura
  • Crassisternata
  • Cyclochila
  • Cystopsaltria
  • Cystosoma
  • Daza
  • Decebalus
  • Derotettix
  • Diceroprocta
  • Diemeniana
  • Dinarobia
  • Dorachosa
  • Dulderana
  • Durangona
  • Elachysoma
  • Euryphara
  • Fractuosella
  • Froggattoides
  • Gazuma
  • Graptotettix
  • Guaranisaria
  • Gudanga
  • Gymnotympana
  • Hemidictya
  • Henicotettix
  • Herrera
  • Hilaphura
  • Hovana
  • Huechys
  • Hylora
  • Imbabura
  • Inyamana
  • Iruana
  • Jacatra
  • Jafuna
  • Jassopsaltria
  • Jiraiya
  • Kanakia
  • Karenia
  • Katoa
  • Kikihia
  • Klapperichicen
  • Kobonga
  • Koranna
  • Kumanga
  • Lacetas
  • Lembeja
  • Lemuriana
  • Leptopsalta
  • Ligymolpa
  • Lisu
  • Luangwana
  • Lycurgus
  • Magicicada
  • Malagasia
  • Malgachialna
  • Malgotilia
  • Maoricicada
  • Mapondera
  • Mardalana
  • Masupha
  • Mauricia
  • Melampsalta
  • Mendozana
  • Monomatapa
  • Mouia
  • Muda
  • Musimoia
  • Musoda
  • Nablistes
  • Nelcynadana
  • Neocicada
  • Neomuda
  • Neoplatypedia
  • Nosola
  • Notopsalta
  • Novemcella
  • Okanagana
  • Okanagodes
  • Orapa
  • Oudeboschia
  • Owra
  • Pacarina
  • Paectira
  • Pagiphora
  • Paharia
  • Panka
  • Paragudanga
  • Paranistria
  • Parnisa
  • Parnkalla
  • Parvittya
  • Pauropsalta
  • Pinheya
  • Platypedia
  • Plautilia
  • Pomponia
  • Prasia
  • Procollina
  • Prosotettix
  • Prunasis
  • Psallodia
  • Psilotympana
  • Quesada
  • Quintilia
  • Rhinopsalta
  • Rhodopsalta
  • Sapantanga
  • Saticula
  • Scieroptera
  • Selymbria
  • Sinosena
  • Spoerryana
  • Stagina
  • Stellenboschia
  • Subpsaltr
  • Tacua
  • Taipinga
  • Takapsalta
  • Taphura
  • Tettigades
  • Tettigarcta
  • Tettigetta
  • Tettigomyia
  • Tettigotoma
  • Thaumastopsaltria
  • Tibicen
  • Tibicina
  • Tibicinoides
  • Toxopeusella
  • Trismarcha
  • Ueana
  • Urabunana
  • Venustria
  • Viettealna
  • Xosopsaltria
  • Xossarella
  • Zouga

Species See text. ... Species See text. ... Species See text. ... Species See text. ... Chief Kadungure Mapondera helped to lead the Shona people of Southern Africa against British colonial forces in the 1890s. ... Species See text. ... Pomponia is a genus of cicada, a family of insects. ... Species See text. ... Tacua speciosa is a genus of cicada, a family of insects. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name {{{binomial}}} Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} Species Tibicen canicularis Tibicen chloromera Tibicen pruinosa [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The tibicen genus of cicadas is the most prevalent in the United States. ...

Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Lorus Milne and Margery Milne, The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders (New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1992).
  2. ^ Hadley NF, Quinlan MC, Kennedy ML (1991). "Evaporative cooling in the desert cicada: thermal efficiency and water/metabolic costs". Journal of Experimental Biology 159: 269-283. 
  3. ^ Sanborn AF, Villet MH, Phillips PK (2003). "Hot-blooded singers: endothermy facilitates crepuscular signaling in African platypleurine cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Platypleura spp.)". Naturwissenschaften 90 (7): 305-8. PMID 12883772. 
  4. ^ "The Summer of Singing Cicadas". The writer does not explain what "close range" means.
  5. ^ Dawkins, Richard (1986). The Blind Watchmaker. Norton, 100. ISBN 0-393-31570-3. 
  6. ^ Earliest known usage in 1896[citation needed]
  7. ^ P. Tillyard, The Insects of Australia and New Zealand (Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1926) pp. 298-99.
  8. ^ http://www.notreprovence.fr/faune_cigale.html
  9. ^ http://www.la-grece.com/dotclear/index.php?2007/04/24/259-la-fontaine-fabuleusement-inspire-par-esope

Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... Cover illustration by the zoologist Desmond Morris The Blind Watchmaker is a 1986 book by Richard Dawkins in which he presents an explanation of, and argument for, the theory of evolution by means of natural selection. ... W. W. Norton & Company is an American book publishing company that has remained independent since its founding. ...

References

is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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