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Encyclopedia > Church of the Holy Sepulchre
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The Holy Sepulchre usually refers to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Image File history File links HY002563. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      An Ecumenical Council (also sometimes Oecumenical... The ruins of Korsun: the place where the Russian and Ukrainian church was born. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For the... Coptic history is part of History of Egypt that begins with the introduction of Christianity in Egypt in the 1st century AD during the Roman period, and covers the history of the Copts to the present day. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Churches trace their... This article should include material from Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and Patriarch Filaret (Mykhailo Denysenko). ... Judging from the New Testament account of the rise and expansion of the early church, during the first few centuries of Christianity, the most extensive dissemination of the gospel was not in the West but in the East. ...

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Essence-Energies distinction
Hesychasm (Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, stillness, rest, quiet, silence) is an eremitic tradition of prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and some other Eastern Churches of the Byzantine Rite, practised (Gk: hesychazo: to keep stillness) by the Hesychast (Gr. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Negative theology - also known as the Via Negativa (Latin for Negative Way) and Apophatic theology - is a theology that attempts to describe God by negation, to speak of God only in terms of what may not be said about God. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed addition to the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Miaphysitism (sometimes called henophysitism) is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Eastern Orthodox and... Theoria is contemplation or perception of beauty, esp. ... Phronema is a Greek term that is used in Eastern Orthodox theology to refer to mindset or outlook; it is the Orthodox mind. ... The Philokalia (Gk. ... Praxis is the customary use of knowledge or skills, distinct from theoretical knowledge. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... In Christianity, the Greek word hypostasis [1] is usually translated into Latin as natura and then into English as nature, although the specific Greek word for nature and substance is physis. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Energies of God are a central principle of theology in the Eastern Orthodox Church, understood by the orthodox Fathers of the Church, and most famously formulated by Gregory Palamas, against charges of heresy brought by Barlaam of Calabria. ...

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The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Latin: Sanctum Sepulchrum, French: Eglise du Saint Sépulcre), also called the Church of the Resurrection ( (Arabic,كنيسة القيامة Kinīsa al-Qiyāma, Greek: Ναός της Αναστάσεως, Naos tis Anastaseos; Armenian: Սուրբ Հարություն Surp Harutyun) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. The ground on which the church stands is venerated by most Christians as Golgotha[1], the Hill of Calvary, where the New Testament says that Jesus was crucified[2]. It is said to also contain the place where Jesus was buried (the sepulchre). The church has been an important pilgrimage destination since the 4th century. Today it serves as the headquarters of the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... The Old City of Jerusalem is an approximately one square kilometer area of the modern day Israeli city of Jerusalem. ... Calvary (Golgotha) was the hill outside Jerusalem on which Jesus was crucified. ... Golgotha redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... A sepulcher, or sepulchre, is a type of tomb or burial chamber. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...

Contents

History

Church of the Holy Sepulchre (1885). Other than some restoration work, it appears essentially the same today.
Church of the Holy Sepulchre (1885). Other than some restoration work, it appears essentially the same today.

Eusebius describes in his Life of Constantine [1] how the site of the Holy Sepulchre, originally a site of veneration for the Christian community in Jerusalem, had been covered with earth, upon which a temple of Venus had been built. Although Eusebius does not say as much, this was probably done as part of Hadrian's reconstruction of Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina in 135, following the destruction of the Jewish Revolt of 70 and Bar Kokhba's revolt of 132135. Emperor Constantine I ordered in about 325/326 that the site be uncovered, and instructed Saint Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem, to build a church on the site. Pilgrim of Bordeaux reports in 333: "There, at present, by the command of the Emperor Constantine, has been built a basilica, that is to say, a church of wondrous beauty" (page 594). Socrates Scholasticus (born c. 380), in his Ecclesiastical History, gives a full description of the discovery [2] (that was repeated later by Sozomen and by Theodoret) that emphasizes the role played in the excavations and construction by Constantine's mother Saint Helena, to whom is also credited the rediscovery of the True Cross. Helena had been directed by her son to build churches upon sites which commemorated the life of Jesus Christ, so the Church of the Holy Sepulchre commemorated the end of the life of Jesus, just as the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (also founded by Constantine and Helena) commemorated its beginning. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 422 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (485 × 689 pixel, file size: 290 KB, MIME type: image/png) Homiletic Review Published 1885 Funk & Wagnalls ; W.Briggs This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 422 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (485 × 689 pixel, file size: 290 KB, MIME type: image/png) Homiletic Review Published 1885 Funk & Wagnalls ; W.Briggs This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ... For other uses, see number 135. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... This article is about the year 70. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Commanders Hadrian Simon Bar Kokhba Strength  ?  ? Casualties Unknown 580,000 Jews (mass civilian casualties), 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed (per Cassius Dio). ... This article is about the year 132. ... For other uses, see number 135. ... For other uses, see Constantine I (disambiguation). ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Events September 14 - Discovery of the (alleged) True Cross by Vatican City, where St. ... Saint Macarius of Jerusalem was bishop of Jerusalem from 311/312 to shortly before 335, according to Sozomen. ... The Itinerarium Burdigalense (also known as the Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum) is the oldest known Itinerarium, written by an anonymous pilgrim from Burdigala (present-day Bordeaux). ... Socrates Scholasticus was a Greek Christian church historian; born at Constantinople c. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... Salminius Hermias Sozomen (c. ... Theodoret (393 – c. ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ... View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ...

The Edicule of the Holy Sepulchre (The Tomb of Christ) with the dome of the rotunda visible above.
The Edicule of the Holy Sepulchre (The Tomb of Christ) with the dome of the rotunda visible above.

Constantine's church was built beside the excavated hill of the Crucifixion, and was actually three connected churches built over the three different holy sites, including a great basilica (the Martyrium visited by the nun Egeria in the 380s), an enclosed colonnaded atrium (the Triportico) built around the traditional Rock of Calvary, and a rotunda, called the Anastasis ("Resurrection"), which contained the remains of the cave that Helena and Macarius had identified as the burial site of Jesus. The surrounding rock was cut away, and the Tomb was encased in a structure called the Kουβούκλιον (Kouvouklion; Greek: small compartment) or Edicule (Latin: aediculum, small building) in the center of the rotunda. The dome of the rotunda was completed by the end of the 4th century. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 1115 KB) óĦ Tomb of Jesus in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre Taken with Nikon D100, Jerusalem 03/2005 by Wayne McLean ( jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Church of the Holy Sepulchre ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 1115 KB) óĦ Tomb of Jesus in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre Taken with Nikon D100, Jerusalem 03/2005 by Wayne McLean ( jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Church of the Holy Sepulchre ... Aedicula (diminutive of Latin aedis or aedes, a temple or house), a small house or temple,--a household shrine holding small altars or the statues of the Lares and Penates. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... The famous Rotunda church in Thessaloniki, Greece. ... St. ... The name Egeria may refer to— in Roman mythology, the wife of Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome. ... Enormous colonnade of the Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg. ... Looking up inside the 32-story atrium of the Shanghai Grand Hyatt, part of the Jin Mao Building. ... The famous Rotunda church in Thessaloniki, Greece. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... In Mosta, Malta, the Rotunda of Santa Marija Assunta is covered by a saucer dome. ...


This building was damaged by fire in 614 when the Persians under Khosrau II invaded Jerusalem and captured the Cross. In 630, Emperor Heraclius marched triumphantly into Jerusalem and restored the True Cross to the rebuilt Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Under the Muslims it remained a Christian church. The early Muslim rulers protected the city's Christian sites, prohibiting their destruction and their use as living quarters, but after a riot in 966, when the doors and roof were burnt, the original building was completely destroyed on October 18, 1009 by the so-called "mad" Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who hacked out the Church's foundations down to bedrock. The Edicule and the east and west walls and the roof of the cut-rock tomb it encased were destroyed or damaged (contemporary accounts vary), but the north and south walls were likely protected by rubble from further damage. Events The Persian Empire under general Shahrbaraz captures and sacks Jerusalem; the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is damaged by fire and the True Cross is captured. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Khosrau II (sometimes called Parvez, the ever Victorious), King of Persia, son of Hormizd IV of Persia (579–590), grandson of Khosrau I of Persia (531–579). ... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... For the Patriarch of Jerusalem, see Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Events April 14 or April 30 - Mieszko I, first duke of Poland, baptised a Christian Births Fujiwara no Michinaga, Japanese regent Deaths King Dubh I of Scotland Categories: 966 ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 14: First known mention of Lithuania, in the annals of the monastery of Quedlinburg. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Tāriqu l-Ḥakīm, called bi Amr al-Lāh (Arabic الحاكم بأمر الله Ruler by Gods Command), was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ...


European reaction was far-reaching, and often irrational. For example, Clunaic monk Raoul Glaber blamed the Jews, with the result that Jews were expelled from Limoges and other French towns. Ultimately, this destruction provided an impetus to the later Crusades. The abbey today The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny) was founded on 2 September 909 by the Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Auvergne, William I, who placed it under the immediate authority of Pope Sergius III. The Abbey and its constellation of dependencies soon came to exemplify... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... Rodulfus Glaber or Ralph Glaber (985–1047) was a monk and chronicler of the years around 1000 and is one of the chief sources for the history of France in that period. ... This article is about the French commune. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...

Main Entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
Main Entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

A series of small chapels was erected on the site by Constantine IX Monomachos in 1048 under stringent conditions imposed by the caliphate. The rebuilt sites were taken by the knights of the First Crusade on July 15, 1099. The First Crusade was envisioned as an armed pilgrimage, and no crusader could consider his journey complete unless he had prayed as a pilgrim at the Holy Sepulchre. Crusader chief Godfrey of Bouillon, who became the first crusader monarch of Jerusalem, decided not to use the title "king" during his lifetime, and declared himself Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri, "Protector (or Defender) of the Holy Sepulchre." The chronicler William of Tyre reports on the reconstruction in the mid-12th century, when the crusaders began to renovate the church in a Romanesque style and added a bell tower. These renovations unified the holy sites and were completed during the reign of Queen Melisende in 1149. The church became the seat of the first Latin Patriarchs, and was also the site of the kingdom's scriptorium. The church was lost to Saladin, along with the rest of the city, in 1187, although the treaty established after the Third Crusade allowed for Christian pilgrims to visit the site. Emperor Frederick II regained the city and the church by treaty in the 13th century, while he himself was under a ban of excommunication, leading to the curious result of the holiest church in Christianity being laid under interdict. Both city and church were captured by the Khwarezmians in 1244. Main entrance Church of the Holy Sepulchre Taken with Nikon D100, Jerusalem Easter Sunday 27/03/2005 by Wayne McLean (jgritz) Let me know if you want to use it, and credit by Wayne McLean (Jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Church of the Holy Sepulchre... Main entrance Church of the Holy Sepulchre Taken with Nikon D100, Jerusalem Easter Sunday 27/03/2005 by Wayne McLean (jgritz) Let me know if you want to use it, and credit by Wayne McLean (Jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Church of the Holy Sepulchre... Mosaic of Constantine IX and Empress Zoe Constantine IX Monomachus (c. ... Events The city of Oslo is founded by Harald Hardråde of Norway. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... Godfrey of Bouillon, from a tapestry painted in 1420 Godfrey of Bouillon (c. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... William of Tyre (c. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Melisende (1105 – September 11, 1161) was Queen of Jerusalem from 1131 to 1153. ... Events Castle of Carimate destroyed. ... The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title given to the Latin Rite Roman Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem. ... A Scriptorium was a room or building, usually within a Christian monastery where, during medieval times, manuscripts were written. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... For other meanings see Interdict The word interdict usually refers to an ecclesiastical penalty in the Roman Catholic Church. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as... This article is about the year 1244. ...


The Franciscan friars renovated it further in 1555, as it had been neglected despite increased numbers of pilgrims. A fire severely damaged the structure again in 1808, causing the dome of the Rotonda to collapse and smashing the Edicule's exterior decoration. The Rotunda and the Edicule's exterior were rebuilt in 18091810 by architect Komminos of Mytilene in the then current Ottoman Baroque style. The fire did not reach the interior of the Edicule, and the marble decoration of the Tomb dates mainly to the 1555 restoration. The current dome dates from 1870. Extensive modern renovations began in 1959, including a restoration of the dome from 19941997. The cladding of red marble applied to the Edicule by Komminos has deteriorated badly and is detaching from the underlying structure; since 1947 it has been held in place with an exterior scaffolding of iron girders installed by the British Mandate. No plans have been agreed upon for its renovation. The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Mytilene (Greek: Μυτιλήνη - Mytilíni, Turkish: Midilli), also Mytilini, is the capital city of Lesbos (formerly known as Lesbos but the modern name is Mytilene), a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, and the Lesbos Prefecture as well. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ...


Status quo

Since the renovation of 1555, control of the church oscillated between the Franciscans and the Orthodox, depending on which community could obtain a favorable firman from the Sublime Porte at a particular time, often through outright bribery, and violent clashes were not uncommon. In 1767, weary of the squabbling, the Porte issued a firman that divided the church among the claimants. This was confirmed in 1852 with another firman that made the arrangement permanent, establishing a status quo of territorial division among the communities. Firman refers to a royal mandate or decree issued from a sovereign in Western Asian countries such as Iran under the Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi or the Ottoman rulers. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire often confusing the Sublime Porte and the High Porte. ... This article is about the English rock band. ...

The immovable ladder. Detail from photograph of main entrance above, taken in 2005.
The immovable ladder. Detail from photograph of main entrance above, taken in 2005.
The ladder in 1892.

The primary custodians are the Greek Orthodox, the Armenian Apostolic and Catholic Churches. In the 19th century, the Coptic Orthodox, the Ethiopian Orthodox and the Syriac Orthodox acquired lesser responsibilities, which include shrines and other structures within and around the building. Times and places of worship for each community are strictly regulated in common areas. Image File history File links Holy_sepulchre_ladder. ... Image File history File links Holy_sepulchre_ladder. ... Image File history File links Holy_sepulchre_ladder_1890s. ... Image File history File links Holy_sepulchre_ladder_1890s. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ...


Establishment of the status quo did not halt the violence, which continues to break out every so often even in modern times. On a hot summer day in 2002, the Coptic monk who is stationed on the roof to express Coptic claims to the Ethiopian territory there moved his chair from its agreed spot into the shade. This was interpreted as a hostile move by the Ethiopians, and eleven were hospitalized after the resulting fracas.[3]


In another incident in 2004 during Orthodox celebrations of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, a door to the Franciscan chapel was left open. This was taken as a sign of disrespect by the Orthodox and a fistfight broke out. Some people were arrested, but no one was seriously injured.[4] Eastern Orthodox Icon of the Exaltation of the Cross In the Christian liturgical calendar, there are several different feasts known as Feasts of the Cross, all of which commemorate the cross used in the crucifixion of Jesus. ...


Under the status quo, no part of what is designated as common territory may be so much as rearranged without consent from all communities. This often leads to the neglect of badly needed repairs when the communities cannot come to an agreement among themselves about the final shape of a project. Just such a disagreement has delayed the renovation of the edicule, where the need is now dire but where also any change in the structure might result in a change to the status quo disagreeable to one or more of the communities.


A less grave sign of this state of affairs is located on a window ledge over the church's entrance. A wooden ladder was placed there sometime before 1852, when the status quo defined both the doors and the window ledges as common ground. The ladder remains there to this day, in almost exactly the same position it can be seen to occupy in century-old photographs and engravings.


None of the communities control the main entrance. In 1192, Saladin assigned responsibility for it to two neighboring Muslim families. The Joudeh were entrusted with the key, and the Nusseibeh, who had been the custodians of the church since the days of Caliph Omar in 637, retained the position of keeping the door. This arrangement has persisted into modern times. Twice each day, a Joudeh family member brings the key to the door, which is locked and unlocked by a Nusseibeh. Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... Nusseibeh Family (Arabic: ) is one of the oldest families in Jerusalem, The Nusseibeh family has long history and tight bonds with the Holy Land, Jerusalem, since the days their first forefathers arrived into Jerusalem in the 7th Century. ...


The Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre

Constantine set up The Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre to guard and maintain the Church [5]


Modern arrangement of the church

The Stone of the Anointing, believed to be the place where Jesus' body was prepared for burial. It is the 13th Station of the Cross.
Floor plan sketch.
Floor plan sketch.

The entrance to the church is through a single door in the south transept. This narrow way of access to such a large structure has proven to be hazardous at times. For example, when a fire broke out in 1840, dozens of pilgrims were trampled to death. In 1999 the communities agreed to install a new exit door in the church, but there was never any report of this door being completed. 13th Station of the Cross inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. ... 13th Station of the Cross inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. ... The 12th Station of the Cross - Jesus dies on the Cross. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1562x1434, 673 KB) Self made; An approximativ plan of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre File links The following pages link to this file: Church of the Holy Sepulchre ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1562x1434, 673 KB) Self made; An approximativ plan of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre File links The following pages link to this file: Church of the Holy Sepulchre ... Cathedral ground plan. ... This article is about the year. ...


Just inside the entrance is the Stone of Anointing, believed to be the spot where Jesus' body was prepared for burial. To the left, or west, is the Rotunda of the Anastasis beneath the larger of the church's two domes, in the center of which is the Edicule of the Holy Sepulchre itself. Under the status quo the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Armenian Apostolic Churches all have rights to the interior of the tomb, and all three communities celebrate the Divine Liturgy or Mass there daily. It is also used for other ceremonies on special occasions, such as the Holy Saturday ceremony of the Holy Fire celebrated by the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem. To its rear, within a chapel constructed of iron latticework upon a stone base semicircular in plan, lies the altar used by the Coptic Orthodox. Beyond that to the rear of the Rotunda is a very rough hewn chapel believed to be the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea in which the Syriac Orthodox celebrate their Liturgy on Sundays. To the right of the sepulchre on the southeastern side of the Rotunda is the Chapel of the Apparition which is reserved for Roman Catholic use. The famous Rotunda church in Thessaloniki, Greece. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Holy Saturday is the day before Easter in the Christian calendar. ... The Holy Fire (Greek Αγιο Φως, Holy Light) is believed by Orthodox Christians to be a miracle that occurs every year at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem on Holy Saturday, the day preceding Orthodox Easter. ... The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Mashrabiya screen on display in the British Museum Latticework is an ornamental framework consisting of a criss-crossed pattern of strips of building material, usually wood or metal but can be of any material. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ...

One of the altars at Calvary.
One of the altars at Calvary.

On the east side opposite the Rotunda is the Crusader structure housing the main altar of the Church, today the Greek Orthodox catholicon. The second, smaller dome sits directly over the center of the transept crossing of the choir where the compas, an omphalos once thought to be the center of the world, is situated. East of this is a large iconostasis demarcating the Greek Orthodox sanctuary before which is set the Patriarchal throne and a throne for visiting episcopal celebrants. On the south side of the altar via the ambulatory is a stairway climbing to the Chapel of Calvary, or Golgotha, believed to be the site of Jesus' crucifixion and the most lavishly decorated part of the church. The main altar there belongs to the Greek Orthodox, while the Roman Catholics have an altar to the side. Further to the east in the ambulatory are the stairs descending to the Chapel of St. Helena, belonging to the Armenians. From there, another set of stairs leads down to the Roman Catholic Chapel of the Invention of the Holy Cross, believed to be the place where the True Cross was found. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Summa grammaticalis quae vocatur Catholicon, or Catholicon, was completed March 7, 1286 by John Balbi (Johannes Januensis de Balbis) , of Genoa, a Dominican. ... Cathedral floor plan (crossing is shaded) A crossing, in ecclesiastical architecture, refers to the junction of the four arms of a cruciform (cross-shaped) church. ... The choir stalls in the quire of Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England The choir stalls at Buxheim Priory, by Ignaz Waibl See also: Choir (disambiguation) A quire (sometimes referred to as a choir) is an area of a church or cathedral, usually in the western part of the chancel between the... The Omphalos in Delphi An omphalos is a religious stone artifact in the ancient world. ... 17th-century iconostasis of Prophet Elias church, Yaroslavl. ... The ambulatory (Med. ... Golgotha redirects here. ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ...


Authenticity

As noted above, both Eusebius and Socrates Scholasticus record that the tomb of Jesus was originally a site of veneration for the Christian community in Jerusalem and its location remembered by that community even when the site was covered by Hadrian's temple. Eusebius in particular notes that the uncovering of the tomb "afforded to all who came to witness the sight, a clear and visible proof of the wonders of which that spot had once been the scene" (Life of Constantine, Chapter XXVIII [6]). Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Socrates Scholasticus was a Greek Christian church historian; born at Constantinople c. ...


Archaeologist Martin Biddle of Oxford University has theorized that this "clear and visible proof" might have been a graffito to the effect of "This is the Tomb of Christ", scratched in the rock by Christian pilgrims before the construction of the Roman temple. Similar ancient graffiti are still visible in the Catacombs of Rome, indicating the tombs of especially venerated saints. The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ... The word catacomb comes from Greek kata kumbas (L. ad catacumbas), near the low place and originally it meant a certain burial district in Rome. ...

Floor plan of the site in the 4th Century
Floor plan of the site in the 4th Century

In the nineteenth century, a number of scholars disputed the identification of the Church with the actual site of Jesus's crucifixion and burial,[citation needed] on the basis that the Church was inside the city walls, while early accounts (e.g., Hebrews 13:12) described these events as outside the walls. On the morning after his arrival in Jerusalem, General Gordon selected a rock-cut tomb in a cultivated area outside the walls as a more likely site for the burial of Jesus. This site is usually referred to as the Garden Tomb to distinguish it from the Holy Sepulchre, and it is still a popular pilgrimage site for those (usually Protestants) who doubt the authenticity of the Anastasis and/or do not have permission to hold services in the Church itself. Image File history File links Self Made vector drawing, Raster file performed with GIMP. File links The following pages link to this file: Church of the Holy Sepulchre Knights of the Holy Sepulchre ... Image File history File links Self Made vector drawing, Raster file performed with GIMP. File links The following pages link to this file: Church of the Holy Sepulchre Knights of the Holy Sepulchre ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... Chinese Gordon as Governor of Sudan Major-General Charles George Gordon, CB (28 January 1833 – 26 January 1885), known as Chinese Gordon, Gordon Pasha, and Gordon of Khartoum, was a British army officer and administrator. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


However, it has since been determined that the site was indeed outside the city walls at the time of the crucifixion. The Jerusalem city walls were expanded by Herod Agrippa in 4144, and only then enclosed the site of the Holy Sepulchre, at which time the surrounding garden mentioned in the Bible would have been built up as well. To quote the Israeli scholar Dan Bahat, former City Archaeologist of Jerusalem: This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... For alternate uses, see Number 44. ...

"We may not be absolutely certain that the site of the Holy Sepulchre Church is the site of Jesus' burial, but we have no other site that can lay a claim nearly as weighty, and we really have no reason to reject the authenticity of the site." (Bahat, 1986)

Influence

Plan of Santo Stefano in Bologna. (4) is the church of the Holy Sepulchre, inspired in the Anastasis.
Plan of Santo Stefano in Bologna. (4) is the church of the Holy Sepulchre, inspired in the Anastasis.

Since the 9th century, the construction of churches inspired in the Anastasis was extended across Europe[3]. One example is Santo Stefano in Bologna, Italy, an agglomeration of seven churches recreating shrines of Jerusalem. Image File history File links S._Stefano_(Bologna)_-_planimetria. ... Image File history File links S._Stefano_(Bologna)_-_planimetria. ... Santo Stefano, Bologna Santo Stefano is a church in the city of Bologna, Italy. ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ...


See also

There are several locations which people have claimed to be the tomb of Jesus: The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, accepted by most Christians and scholars as built on the ground (including the Hill of Calvary or Golgotha) on which Jesus was crucified and buried. ... // The shrine where Baháulláh is buried. ... The Knights and Ladies of the Holy Sepulchre walk in a procession at the First Annual Southeastern Eucharistic Congress in Charlotte, NC. The Catholic Order of the Holy Sepulchre (formally Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem) has a foundation myth that connects it with Godfrey of Bouillon or... Godfrey of Bouillon, from a tapestry painted in 1420 Godfrey of Bouillon (c. ... The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Temple Church. ... The Good Shepherd: Early Christian catacomb art Early Christian art and architecture is the art produced by Christians or under Christian patronage from about the year 200 to about the year 500. ... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... The art of the Crusades encompassed roughly two artistic periods in Europe, the Romanesque Period, and the Gothic period, the transition between the two occurring around the middle of the 12th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An image of the chevron-adorned entrance to the Talpiot Tomb, as it was unearthed in 1980. ...

Notes

References

  • Coüasnon, Charles (1974). The church of the holy sepulchre. 
  • Corbo, Virgilio C. (1981). Il Santo Sepolcro di Gerusalemme. The holy sepulchre in Jerusalem. Aspetti archeologici dalle origini al periodo crociata, 3 Vol.. 
  • Bahat, Dan (1986). "Does the Holy Sepulchre church mark the burial of Jesus?". Biblical Archaeology Review 12: 26–45. 
  • Biddle, Martin (1999). The Tomb of Christ. Phoenix Mill: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-1926-4. 
  • (1994) Beneath the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. London: Palestine Exploration Fund. 
  • Biddle, Martin; Avni, Gideon; Seligman, Jon & Winter, Tamar (text); Zabé, Michèl & Nalbandian, Garo (photos) (2000). The Church of the Holy Sepulchre. New York: Rizzoli. ISBN 0-8478-2282-6. 
  • Krüger, Jürgen (2000). Die Grabeskirche zu Jerusalem. Geschichte - Gestalt - Bedeutung. 
  • "Divvying up the Most Sacred Place by Chris Armstrong, Christianity Today, Week of July 29, 2002, retrieved February 28, 2006.
  • "Punch-up at tomb of Jesus" by Allyn Fisher-Ilan, The Guardian, September 28, 2004, retrieved February 28, 2006.

The Biblical Archaeology Review (illuminating archaeology and the Bible) is the organ of the non-denominational Bible Archaeology Society which has been combining the excitement of archaeology and the latest in Bible scholarship since 1974 [1]. The Societys founder and editor-in-chief is Hershel Shanks. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Church of the Holy Sepulchre

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Miscellaneous

Coordinates: 31°46′43″N, 35°13′46″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Church of the Holy Sepulcher (BiblePlaces.com) (825 words)
The Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem (Birzeit University) Commemorates the inauguration of the rotunda on January 2, 1997.
Church of the Holy Sepulcher (The New Jerusalem Mosaic, Hebrew University) Highlights the construction of the Byzantine church by the Emperor Constantine.
The Church of the Holy Sepulcher in the Crusader Period (The New Jerusalem Mosaic, Hebrew University) Tells of the rebuilding of the destroyed church by the Crusaders, the structure which is preserved in the present day building.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Holy Sepulchre (2555 words)
Holy Sepulchre refers to the tomb in which the Body of Jesus Christ was laid after His death upon the Cross.
Holy Sepulchre with the evident purpose of destroying the worship paid there to the Founder of Christianity, or of diverting the worship to pagan gods and goddesses, would tend to preserve the knowledge of the place rather than to destroy it.
Holy Sepulchre, separated by excavation from the mass of rock, and surmounted by a gilded dome, was in the centre of a rotunda 65 feet in diameter.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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