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Encyclopedia > Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland

Modern logo of the Kirk
Classification Protestant
Orientation Mainline
Polity Presbyterian
Founder John Knox
Origin 1560
Separated from Roman Catholic Church
Separations Scottish Episcopal Church (definitive separation 1689); Free Church of Scotland (separated 1843); incorporated the United Free Church of Scotland in 1900
Associations Action of Churches Together in Scotland; Churches Together in Britain and Ireland; Leuenberg Agreement World Alliance of Reformed Churches; Conference of European Churches; World Council of Churches
Geographical Area Scotland
Statistics
Congregations 1,200
Members 600,000

The Church of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. It is a Presbyterian church, decisively shaped by the Scottish Reformation. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Christian doctrine redirects here. ... In the United States, the mainline (also sometimes called mainstream) or mainline Protestant denominations are those Protestant denominations with a mix of moderate and liberal theologies. ... Ecclesiastical polity is the operational and governance structure of a church or Christian denomination. ... Presbyterian governance of a church is typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Logo of the Scottish Episcopal Church with the motto: Evangelical truth and Apostolic order. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Free Church of Scotland (1843-1900) was a Scottish denomination formed by the withdrawal of a large section of the established Church of Scotland in a schism known as the Disruption of 1843. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The United Free Church of Scotland (or ‘U.F. Church’) is a Scottish Presbyterian denomination formed in 1900 by the union of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (or U.P.) and the Free Church of Scotland, which in turn united with the Church of Scotland in 1929. ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Action of Churches Together in Scotland (ACTS) is an ecumenical grouping of churches and associated organisations founded in 1990. ... Churches Together in Britain and Ireland (CTBI) is an ecumenical organisation. ... Leuenberg Agreement (Concorde de Leuenberg) is an ecumenical document adopted in 1973 by major European Lutheran and Reformed churches. ... The World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) is a fellowship of more than 200 churches with roots in the 16th-century Reformation. ... The Conference of European Churches (CEC) was founded in 1959 to promote reconciliation, dialogue and friendship between the churches of Europe at a time of growing Cold War political tensions and divisions. ... The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... This article is about the country. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... The term national church is usually a reference to a church organization in Christianity that claims pastoral jurisdiction over a nation. ... This article is about the country. ... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ...


The Church of Scotland traces its roots back to the beginnings of Christianity in Scotland, but its identity is principally shaped by the Reformation of 1560. Its current membership is about 12% of the Scottish population - though according to the 2001 national census, 42% of the Scottish population claim some form of allegiance to it (see Religion in Scotland). The crozier of Saint Finan, an early medieval staff-head used by Gaelic clergymen. ... Scotland covers an area of 78,782km² or 30,341mi², giving it a population density of 64 people/km². Around 70% of the countrys population live in the Central Lowlands - a broad, fertile valley stretching in a northeast-southwest orientation between the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and including... Scotland, in common with the rest of the United Kingdom, is traditionally a Christian nation with around 70% claiming to be Christian. ...

Contents

Position in Scottish society

The 2001 Census:

Religion Percentage of Population
Church of Scotland 42%
No Religion 28%
Roman Catholic 16%
Other Christian 7%
No Answer 5%
Islam 0.8%
Buddhism 0.1%
Sikhism 0.1%
Judaism 0.1%
Hinduism 0.1%
Other Religions 0.5%

The Church of Scotland has around 1,400 active ministers, 1,200 congregations, and its official membership at approximately 600,000 comprises about 12% of the population of Scotland. However, in the 2001 national census, 42% of Scots identified themselves as ‘Church of Scotland’ by religion. The Church of Scotland Guild, historically the Kirk's women's movement, is still the largest voluntary organisation in Scotland. For other types of minister, see Minister In Christian churches, a minister is a man or woman who serves a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such persons can minister as a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain, Deacon or Elder. ... Logo of the Womans Guild The Church of Scotland Guild or simply The Guild (formerly know as the Womans Guild), is a movement within the Church of Scotland. ...


Although it is the national church, the Kirk is not a "state church", and in this, and other, regards is dissimilar to the Church of England (the established church in England). Under its constitution, which is recognised by acts of Parliament, the Kirk enjoys complete independence from the state in spiritual matters. Kirk can mean church in general or the Church of Scotland in particular. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


The British monarch (when in Scotland) is simply a member of the Church (she is not, as in England, its Supreme Governor). [1] The monarch’s accession oath includes a promise to "defend the security" of the Church of Scotland. She is formally represented at the annual General Assembly by a Lord High Commissioner (unless she chooses to attend in person). The role is purely formal. This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Henry VIII was the founder of the Church of England yet did not hold the title of Supreme Governor. ... The 2004 Assembly with Dr Alison Elliot as Moderator The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Churchs governing body. ... As the Sovereigns personal representative Lord High Commissioners were appointed to the Parliament of the Kingdom of Scotland between 1603 and 1707. ...


The Church of Scotland is committed to its ‘distinctive call and duty to bring the ordinances of religion to the people in every parish of Scotland through a territorial ministry’ (Article 3 of its Articles Declaratory). In practice this means that the Kirk maintains a presence in every community in Scotland – and exists to serve not only its members but all Scots (the majority of funerals in Scotland are taken by its ministers). It also means that the Kirk pools its resources to ensure a continued presence in every part of Scotland. The Articles Declaratory of the Constitution of the Church of Scotland – often known as the Declaratory Articles - were drawn up early in the 20th century to facilitate the union of the Church of Scotland and the United Free Church of Scotland. ...

Religion in Scotland

Church of Scotland
Roman Catholic Church
Free Church of Scotland
Free Church of Scotland (Continuing)
United Free Church of Scotland
Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland
Associated Presbyterian Churches
Scottish Episcopal Church
Baptist Union of Scotland
Action of Churches Together in Scotland
Scottish Reformation
Hinduism
Islam
Judaism Scotland, in common with the rest of the United Kingdom, is traditionally a Christian nation with around 70% claiming to be Christian. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Scotland describes the organisation of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church in Scotland, which is distinct from the Catholic Church in England and Wales or the Catholic Church in Ireland. ... The contemporary Free Church of Scotland is that part of the original Free Church of Scotland that remained outside of the union with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland in 1900. ... The Free Church of Scotland (post 1900) is that part of the original Free Church of Scotland that remained outside of the union with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland in 1900. ... The United Free Church of Scotland (or ‘U.F. Church’) is a Scottish Presbyterian denomination formed in 1900 by the union of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (or U.P.) and the Free Church of Scotland, which in turn united with the Church of Scotland in 1929. ... St. ... The Associated Presbyterian Churches (APC), a small Scottish denomination (with some representation in Canada and New Zealand), were formed in 1989 from part of the community of the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland. ... Logo of the Scottish Episcopal Church with the motto: Evangelical truth and Apostolic order. ... Baptist Union of Scotland is an association serving the Baptist churches of Scotland. ... Action of Churches Together in Scotland (ACTS) is an ecumenical grouping of churches and associated organisations founded in 1990. ... John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ... Hinduism in Scotland is of relatively recent provenance, with the bulk of Scottish Hindus having settled there in the second half of the 20th century. ... Glasgow Central Mosque is one of the biggest Sunni mosques in Glasgow, and one of the largest in Glasgow The arrival of Islam in Scotland is relatively recent. ... The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known. ...

The Church played a leading role in the provision of universal education in Scotland (the first such provision in the modern world), largely due to its desire that all people should be able to read the Bible. However, today it does not operate schools - these having been entrusted into the care of the state in the later half of the 19th century. // Public education is education mandated for the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ... Educational oversight Cabinet Secretary Scottish Government Fiona Hyslop MSP National education budget n/a (2007-08) Primary language(s) English and Scottish Gaelic National system Compulsory education 1872 Literacy (2005 est)  â€¢ Men  â€¢ Women 99% 99% 99% Enrollment  â€¢ Primary  â€¢ Secondary  â€¢ Post-secondary 1,452,240 390,2602 322,980 739,0003... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...


Governance and administration

See also: List of Church of Scotland parishes, List of Church of Scotland synods and presbyteries, and Presbyterian church governance

The Church of Scotland is Presbyterian in polity and Reformed in theology. The most recent articulation of its legal position, the Articles Declaratory (1921), spells out the key concepts. The best Church of Scotland, the national church of Scotland, divides the country into presbyteries, which are subdivided into parishes, each served by a parish church usually with its own minister. ... The Church of Scotland has a Presbyterian structure, which means it is organised under a hierarchy of courts. ... Presbyterian governance of a church is typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... The Articles Declaratory of the Constitution of the Church of Scotland – often known as the Declaratory Articles - were drawn up early in the 20th century to facilitate the union of the Church of Scotland and the United Free Church of Scotland. ...


Courts and assemblies

As a Presbyterian church, the Kirk has no bishops, but is rather governed by elders and ministers (collectively called presbyters) sitting in a series of courts. Each congregation is led by a Kirk Session. The Kirk Sessions in turn are answerable to regional presbyteries (the Kirk currently has over 40: see list). The supreme body is the annual General Assembly, which meets each May in Edinburgh. Presbyterian governance of a church is typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders. ... Presbyterian governance of a church is typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders. ... The Church of Scotland has a Presbyterian structure, which means it is organised under a hierarchy of courts. ... The 2004 Assembly with Dr Alison Elliot as Moderator The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Churchs governing body. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


Moderator

The chairperson of each court is known as the 'moderator' – at the local level of the Kirk Session, the moderator is normally the parish minister; Presbyteries and the General Assembly elect a moderator each year. The Moderator of the General Assembly serves for the year as the public representative of the Church – but beyond that enjoys no special powers or privileges and is in no sense the leader or official spokesperson of the Kirk. At all levels, moderators may be either elders or ministers. The Church of Scotland maintains a presbyterian polity and is thus governed by a hierarchy of Church Courts. ... The standard of the Moderator The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is an honorary role, held for 12 months. ...


Councils

The Burning Bush emblem of the Church of Scotland, above the entrance to the Church Offices in Edinburgh
The Burning Bush emblem of the Church of Scotland, above the entrance to the Church Offices in Edinburgh

At a national level, the work of the Church of Scotland is chiefly carried out by "Councils", each supported by full-time staff mostly based at the Church of Scotland Offices in Edinburgh. The Councils are: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 797 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2144 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 797 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2144 pixel, file size: 1. ... Burning bush at St. ... The Church of Scotland offices are located in the centre of Edinburgh (in the New Town) at 121 George Street, Edinburgh, EH2 4YN. These imposing buildings are popularly known in Church circles as one-two-one. They were designed in a Scandinavian-influenced style by the architect Sydney Mitchell and... The Church of Scotland offices are located in the centre of Edinburgh (in the New Town) at 121 George Street, Edinburgh, EH2 4YN. These imposing buildings are popularly known in Church circles as one-two-one. They were designed in a Scandinavian-influenced style by the architect Sydney Mitchell and...

  • Church and Society Council
  • Ministries Council
  • Mission and Discipleship Council
  • Social Care Council (based at Charis House, Edinburgh)
  • Support and Services Council
  • World Mission Council

The Church of Scotland’s Social Care Council (also known as "CrossReach") is the largest provider of social care in Scotland today, running projects for various disadvantaged and vulnerable groups: including care for the elderly; help with alcoholism, drug, and mental health problems; and assistance for the homeless. The Church of Scotlands Church and Society Council was formed on 1st June 2005. ... Social Workers are concerned with social problems, their causes, their solutions and their human impacts. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... A homeless man pushes a cart down the street. ...


The national Church has never shied from involvement in Scottish politics. In 1919, the General Assembly created a Church and Nation Committee, which in 2005 became the Church and Society Council. The Church of Scotland was (and is) a firm opponent of nuclear weaponry. Supporting devolution, it was one of the parties involved in the Scottish Constitutional Convention, which resulted in the setting up of the Scottish Parliament in 1997. Indeed, from 1999-2004 the Parliament met in the Kirk's Assembly Hall in Edinburgh, whilst its own building was being constructed. The Church of Scotland actively supports the work of the Scottish Churches Parliamentary Office in Edinburgh. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Church of Scotlands Church and Society Council was formed on 1st June 2005. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Scottish Constitutional Convention (SCC) was established after prominent Scottish individuals signed the Claim of Right in 1989. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The Assembly Hall is located between the Lawnmarket and the Mound in Edinburgh. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... The Scottish Churches Parliamentary Office (SCPO) was created in 1999, at the same time as the new Scottish Parliament was established. ...


Other Church agencies include:

  • Assembly Arrangements Committee
  • Committee on Chaplains to HM Forces
  • Church of Scotland Guild
  • Committee on Church Art and Architecture (part of the Mission and Discipleship Council)
  • Ecumenical Relations Committee
  • General Treasurer's Department
  • General Trustees (responsible for church buildings)
  • Legal Questions Committee
  • Panel on Review and Reform
  • Principal Clerk's Department
  • Safeguarding Office (child protection)
  • Stewardship and Finance Committee

Church offices

Flag of the Church of Scotland
Flag of the Church of Scotland

The Church of Scotland Offices are located at 121 George Street, Edinburgh. These imposing buildings - popularly known in Church circles as "one-two-one" - were designed in a Scandinavian-influenced style by the architect Sydney Mitchell and built in 1909-1911 for the United Free Church of Scotland. Following the union of the churches in 1929 a matching extension was built in the 1930s. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Church of Scotland offices are located in the centre of Edinburgh (in the New Town) at 121 George Street, Edinburgh, EH2 4YN. These imposing buildings are popularly known in Church circles as one-two-one. They were designed in a Scandinavian-influenced style by the architect Sydney Mitchell and... Situated to the north of Princes Street, George Street is a major street in the centre of Edinburgh. ...


The offices of the Moderator, Principal Clerk, General Treasurer, Law Department and all the Church councils are located at 121 George Street, with the exception of the Social Care Council (CrossReach). There is no "chief executive", but each Council has its own Council Secretary. The Principal Clerk to the General Assembly (since 1996) is Finlay A. J. Macdonald. The Very Rev. ...


History

See also: History of Scotland
In 1559 John Knox returned from ministering in Geneva to lead the reformation in Scotland
In 1559 John Knox returned from ministering in Geneva to lead the reformation in Scotland

While the Church of Scotland traces its roots back to the earliest Christians in Scotland, its identity was principally shaped by the Scottish Reformation of 1560. At that point, the church in Scotland broke with Rome, in a process of Protestant reform led, among others, by John Knox. It reformed its doctrines and government, drawing on the principles of John Calvin which Knox had been exposed to while living in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1560, the Scottish Parliament abolished papal jurisdiction and approved Calvin's Confession of Faith, but did not accept many of the principles laid out in Knox's First Book of Discipline, which argued, amongst other things, that all of the assets of the old church should pass to the new. The 1560 Reformation Settlement was not ratified by the crown for some years, and the question of church government also remained unresolved. In 1572 the acts of 1560 were finally approved by the young James VI, but the Concordat of Leith also allowed the crown to appoint bishops with the church's approval. John Knox himself had no clear views on the office of bishop, preferring to see them renamed as 'superintendents'; but in response to the new Concordat a Presbyterian party emerged headed by Andrew Melville, the author of the Second Book of Discipline. Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... In the public domain by age This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... In the public domain by age This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... This Book of Discipline refers to two works regulative of ecclesiastical order in the Church of Scotland after the Scottish Reformation. ... Ecclesiastical polity is the operational and governance structure of a church or Christian denomination. ... Andrew Melville (August 1, 1545_1622) was a Scottish scholar, theologian and religious reformer. ... This Book of Discipline refers to two works regulative of ecclesiastical order in the Church of Scotland after the Scottish Reformation. ...


Melville and his supporters enjoyed some temporary successes-most notably in the Golden Act of 1592, which gave parliamentary approval to presbyterian courts. However, King James believed that Presbyterianism was incompatible within a monarchy, declaring "No bishop, no king".[1] and by skillful manipulation of both church and state, steadily reintroduced parliamentary and then diocesan Episcopacy. By the time he died in 1625, the Church of Scotland had a full panel of bishops and archbishops. General Assemblies, moreover, met only at times and places approved by the crown. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Episcopacy is the regime of church government by bishops (Lat. ...


Charles I inherited a settlement in Scotland based on a balanced compromise between Calvinist doctrine and Episcopal practice. Lacking the political judgement of his father, he began to upset this by moving into more dangerous areas. Disapproving of the 'plainness' of the Scottish service he sought to introduce the kind of High Church practice in use in England. The centre piece of this new strategy was the Prayer Book of 1637. Although this was devised by a panel of Scottish bishops, and not that already in use in England, as is so often assumed, Charles' insistence that it be drawn up in secret and adopted sight unseen led to widespread discontent. When the Prayer Book was finally introduced at St Giles Cathedral in Edinburgh in the summer of 1637 it caused an outbreak of rioting, which spread across Scotland. In early 1638 the National Covenant was signed by large numbers of Scots, protesting at the introduction of the Prayer Book and other liturgical innovations that had not first been tested and approved by free Parliaments and General Assemblies of the Church. In November 1638, the General Assembly in Glasgow, the first to meet for twenty years, not only declared the Prayer Book unlawful, but went on to abolish the office of bishop itself. The Church of Scotland was then established on a Presbyterian basis. Charles' attempt at resistance to these developments led to the outbreak of the Bishops' Wars. In the ensuing civil wars, the Scots Covenanters at one point made common cause with the English parliamentarians - resulting in the Westminster Confession of Faith being agreed by both. Ironically, this document remains the subordinate standard of the Church of Scotland, but was replaced in England after the Restoration. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... St Giles Cathedral A prominent feature of the Edinburgh skyline, St Giles Cathedral decorates the midpoint of the Royal Mile with its rounded hollow-crown tower. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... The Bishops’ Wars—Bellum Episcopale—refers to two armed encounters between Charles I and the Scottish Covenanters in 1639 and 1640, which helped to set the stage for the English Civil War and the subsequent Wars of the Three Kingdoms // The Scottish Reformation in 1560 was intended to settle the... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ...

Old square-shaped logo of the Church of Scotland used between 1930 and 1939.
Old square-shaped logo of the Church of Scotland used between 1930 and 1939.

Episcopacy was reintroduced to Scotland after the Restoration, the cause of considerable discontent, especially in the south-west of the country, where the Presbyterian tradition was strongest. The modern situation largely dates from 1690, when after the Glorious Revolution the majority of Scottish bishops were non-jurors, and in response Presbyterian government was guaranteed by law. However, controversy still surrounded the relationship between the Church of Scotland's independence and the civil law of Scotland. The interference of civil courts with Church decisions, particularly over the right to appoint ministers, led to a number of groups seceding. This began with the secession of 1733 and culminating in the Disruption of 1843, when a large portion of the Church broke away to form the Free Church of Scotland. The seceding groups tended to divide and reunite among themselves — leading to a proliferation of Presbyterian denominations in Scotland. The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... The Nonjuring schism was a split in the Anglican Church in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution, over whether William of Orange could legally be recognized as King of England. ... Civil law has at least three meanings. ... In one sense the Free Church of Scotland dated its existence from the Disruption of 1843, in another it claimed to be the rightful representative of the national Church of Scotland as it was reformed in 1560. ... The Free Church of Scotland (1843-1900) was a Scottish denomination formed by the withdrawal of a large section of the established Church of Scotland in a schism known as the Disruption of 1843. ...


However, in the 1920s, the British Parliament passed the Church of Scotland Act 1921, finally recognising the full independence of the Church in matters spiritual, and as a result of this the Kirk was able to unite with the United Free Church of Scotland in 1929. The United Free Church of Scotland was itself the product of the union of the former United Presbyterian Church of Scotland and the majority of the Free Church of Scotland in 1900. Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... The Church of Scotland Act 1921 is an Act of the British Parliament, passed in 1921. ... The United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (1847-1900) was a Scottish Presbyterian denomination. ...


Some independent Scottish Presbyterian denominations still remain. These include the Free Church of Scotland (formed of those congregations which refused to unite with the United Presbyterian Church in 1900), the United Free Church of Scotland (formed of congregations which refused to unite with the Church of Scotland in 1929), the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland (which broke from the Free Church of Scotland in 1893), the Associated Presbyterian Churches (which emerged as a result of a split in the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland in the 1980s) and the Free Church of Scotland (Continuing) (which emerged from a split in the Free Church of Scotland in 2000). The contemporary Free Church of Scotland is that part of the original Free Church of Scotland that remained outside of the union with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland in 1900. ... United Presbyterian Church (of Scotland). ... The United Free Church of Scotland (or ‘U.F. Church’) is a Scottish Presbyterian denomination formed in 1900 by the union of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (or U.P.) and the Free Church of Scotland, which in turn united with the Church of Scotland in 1929. ... St. ... The Associated Presbyterian Churches (APC), a small Scottish denomination (with some representation in Canada and New Zealand), were formed in 1989 from part of the community of the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland. ... The Free Church of Scotland (post 1900) is that part of the original Free Church of Scotland that remained outside of the union with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland in 1900. ...

Stained glass showing the burning bush and the motto "nec tamen consumebatur", St. Mungo's Cathedral, Glasgow.
Stained glass showing the burning bush and the motto "nec tamen consumebatur", St. Mungo's Cathedral, Glasgow.

The motto of the Church of Scotland is nec tamen consumebatur (Latin) - 'Yet it was not consumed', an allusion to Exodus 3:2 and the Burning Bush. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1168x1760, 474 KB) Summary stained glass nec tamen consumebatur, St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1168x1760, 474 KB) Summary stained glass nec tamen consumebatur, St. ... The front of Glasgow Cathedral, from Cathedral Square Glasgow Cathedral and Glasgow Royal Infirmary viewed from Glasgow Necropolis Painting of David Robert shows St. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Burning bush at St. ...


Theology and practice

The basis of faith for the Church of Scotland is the Word of God, which it views as being ‘contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament’. Its principal subordinate standard is The Westminster Confession of Faith (1647), although here liberty of opinion is granted on those matters ‘which do not enter into the substance of the faith’ (Art. 2 and 5). The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ...


The Church of Scotland has no compulsory prayer book although it does have a hymn book (the 4th edition was published in 2005) and its Book of Common Order contains recommendations for public worship which are usually followed fairly closely in the case of sacraments and ordinances. Preaching is the central focus of most services. Traditionally, Scots worship centred on the singing of metrical psalms and paraphrases, but for generations these have been supplemented with Christian music of all types. The typical Church of Scotland service lasts about an hour, and has been characterised jokingly as a hymn-prayer sandwich, in which everything leads up to a climax in a 15-minute sermon near the end. There is normally no sung or responsive liturgy. However, worship is the responsibility of the minister in each parish, and the style of worship can vary and be quite experimental. In recent years, a variety of modern song books have been widely used in order to appeal more to contemporary trends in music, and elements from Iona Community liturgies are incorporated in some congregations. Although traditionally worship is conducted by the parish minister, lay participation in services is becoming more frequent. A Modern Prayer Book The Book of Common Prayer is the prayer book of the Church of England and also the name for similar books used in other churches in the Anglican Communion. ... Decisions concerning the conduct of public worship in the Church of Scotland are entirely at the discretion of the parish minister. ... 16th Century The Book of Common Order, sometimes called The Order of Geneva or Knoxs Liturgy, is a directory for public worship in the Reformed Church in Scotland. ... A metrical psalter is a kind of Bible translation: a paraphrase of all or part of the Book of Psalms in vernacular poetry, meant to be sung as hymns in a church. ... Christian music (sometimes marketed as Inspirational music, Praise music, Worship music, or Contemporary Christian Music/CCM) is music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life, as well as (in terms of the varying music styles) to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular... The Iona Community, founded in 1938 by the Rev George MacLeod, is an ecumenical Christian community of men and women from different walks of life and different traditions in the Christian church that is committed to seeking new ways of living the gospel of Jesus in todays world. ...


In common with other Protestant denominations, the Church recognises two sacraments: Baptism and Holy Communion (the Lord's Supper). The Church baptises both believing adults and the children of Christian families. Communion in the Church of Scotland today is open to Christians of whatever denomination, without precondition. Communion services are usually taken fairly seriously in the Church; traditionally, a congregation held only three or four per year, although practice now greatly varies between congregations. In some congregations communion is celebrated once a month. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Theologically, the Church of Scotland is Reformed (ultimately in the Calvinist tradition) and is a member of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches. However, its longstanding decision to respect "liberty of opinion on matters not affecting the substance of the faith", means it is relatively tolerant of a variety of theological positions, including those who would term themselves conservative and liberal in their doctrine, ethics and interpretation of Scripture. (The 19th century Scottish distinction was between 'evangelicals' and 'moderates'.) This is not quite the English concept of a ‘broad church’, but in practice it comes close to it. The World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) is a fellowship of more than 200 churches with roots in the 16th-century Reformation. ... Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. ... Moderates, in church terms is, normally, though not exclusively, used to refer to an important party of clerics in the Church of Scotland during the 18th Century. ...


The Church of Scotland is a member of ACTS (Action of Churches Together in Scotland) and, through its Committee on Ecumenical Relations, works closely with other denominations in Scotland. The present inter-denominational cooperation marks a distinct change from attitudes in certain quarters of the Church in the early twentieth century and before, when opposition to Irish Roman Catholic immigration was vocal (see Catholicism in Scotland). The Church of Scotland is a member of the World Council of Churches and the Conference of European Churches. Action of Churches Together in Scotland (ACTS) is an ecumenical grouping of churches and associated organisations founded in 1990. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Scotland describes the organisation of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church in Scotland, which is distinct from the Catholic Church in England and Wales or the Catholic Church in Ireland. ... The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... The Conference of European Churches (CEC) was founded in 1959 to promote reconciliation, dialogue and friendship between the churches of Europe at a time of growing Cold War political tensions and divisions. ...


Current reform

In common with many larger denominations, the Church of Scotland faces many current difficulties. Since the 1950s its membership has continued to decline, now being less than half what it was then. In 2008 the membership dropped below ½ million. The Church faces financial strains and the costly upkeep of many older ecclesiastical buildings. Recruitment of ministers was, until recently, a further concern. However, the number of candidates has increased in recent years. Today, around 1400 ministers serve about 480,000 members, and a considerably higher number of adherents.


Since the Reformation, one of the church’s tenets has been ecclesia reformata semper reformanda secundum verbum Dei – a ‘church which is reformed must always be reformed according to the Word of God’.[citation needed] Recently, the General Assembly produced its ‘Church without Walls’ report (2001) which embodies an ethos of change, and a focus on the grassroots life of the Church rather than its institutions.


As in most western denominations, the membership of the Church of Scotland is also aging, and it has struggled to maintain its relevance to the younger generations. The Church has made attempts to address their problems, at both a congregational and national level. The annual National Youth Assembly and the presence of youth delegates at the General Assembly have served as a visible reminder of the Church’s commitment. The Church's National Youth Assembly has grown in prominence and attendance in recent years.


Since as early as 1968, all ministries and offices in the church have been open to women and men on an equal basis. However, it was not until 2004 that a woman was chosen to be Moderator of the General Assembly. Dr Alison Elliot was also the first non-minster to be chosen since George Buchanan, four centuries before. In May 2007 the Rev Sheilagh M. Kesting became the first female minister to be Moderator. Dr Alison Elliot OBE MA MSc PhD LLD DD is the Associate Director of the Centre for Theology and Public Issues at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... George Buchanan. ... The Rev Sheilagh Kesting is a Scottish minister and the first female minister to be nominated to be Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. ...


Publications

The following publications are useful sources of information about the Church of Scotland.

  • Life and Work - the monthly magazine of the Church of Scotland.
  • The Church of Scotland Yearbook (known as "the red book") - published annually with statistical data on every parish and contact information for every minister.
  • Reports to the General Assembly (known as "the blue book") - published annually with reports on the work of the church's departments.
  • The Constitution and Laws of the Church of Scotland (known as "the green book") edited by the Very Rev Dr James L. Weatherhead, published 1997 by the Church of Scotland, ISBN 0-86153-246-5
  • Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae - published irregularly since 1866, contains biographies of ministers.

This article is about the field of statistics. ...

References

  1. ^   "Established Church of Scotland". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company, 

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ...

See also

History and concepts
Ministry and congregations
Organisation
Documents and resources
Issues
Bodies to which the Church of Scotland is affiliated
Other bodies

Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Logo of the Womans Guild The Church of Scotland Guild or simply The Guild (formerly know as the Womans Guild), is a movement within the Church of Scotland. ... In one sense the Free Church of Scotland dated its existence from the Disruption of 1843, in another it claimed to be the rightful representative of the national Church of Scotland as it was reformed in 1560. ... Kirk can mean church in general or the Church of Scotland in particular. ... The Marrow Controversy was a Scottish ecclesiastical dispute occasioned by the republication in 1718 of The Marrow of Modern Divinity by E. F. (The Marrow was originally published in 2 parts in London in 1645 and 1649). ... St Pauls Cathedral The United Kingdom is traditionally a Christian state, though of the four constituent countries, only England still has a state faith in the form of an established church. ... A few Church of Scotland congregations, mainly in the Western Isles, have regular Sunday services in Gaelic. ... The best Church of Scotland, the national church of Scotland, divides the country into presbyteries, which are subdivided into parishes, each served by a parish church usually with its own minister. ... The Presbytery of Europe covers the Church of Scotlands congregations in continental Europe. ... The Scottish Churches Industrial Mission is an ecumenical action of Scotland’s Churches engaging with working life in Scotland. ... The 2004 Assembly with Dr Alison Elliot as Moderator The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Churchs governing body. ... The Church of Scotland has a Presbyterian structure, which means it is organised under a hierarchy of courts. ... A Church of Scotland congregation is led by its minister and elders. ... The Church of Scotland maintains a presbyterian polity and is thus governed by a hierarchy of Church Courts. ... The standard of the Moderator The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is an honorary role, held for 12 months. ... The following is a list of Moderators of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland from the Reformation until 1908 and since 1918. ... The Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the British Sovereigns personal representative to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland (the Kirk). ... The Articles Declaratory of the Constitution of the Church of Scotland – often known as the Declaratory Articles - were drawn up early in the 20th century to facilitate the union of the Church of Scotland and the United Free Church of Scotland. ... 16th Century The Book of Common Order, sometimes called The Order of Geneva or Knoxs Liturgy, is a directory for public worship in the Reformed Church in Scotland. ... Decisions concerning the conduct of public worship in the Church of Scotland are entirely at the discretion of the parish minister. ... The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ... Like most Reformed Churches, the Church of Scotland has a Presbyterian structure which invests in a hierarchy of courts the authority which other denominations give to bishops. ... The Church of Scotland was one of the first national churches to accept the Ordination of women. ... Action of Churches Together in Scotland (ACTS) is an ecumenical grouping of churches and associated organisations founded in 1990. ... Churches Together in Britain and Ireland (CTBI) is an ecumenical organisation. ... The Conference of European Churches (CEC) was founded in 1959 to promote reconciliation, dialogue and friendship between the churches of Europe at a time of growing Cold War political tensions and divisions. ... The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... The World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) is a fellowship of more than 200 churches with roots in the 16th-century Reformation. ... The Iona Community, founded in 1938 by the Rev George MacLeod, is an ecumenical Christian community of men and women from different walks of life and different traditions in the Christian church that is committed to seeking new ways of living the gospel of Jesus in todays world. ... The Scottish Churches Parliamentary Office (SCPO) was created in 1999, at the same time as the new Scottish Parliament was established. ... The Society, Religion and Technology Project - or SRT Project for short - was begun by the Church of Scotland in 1970 to address issues being raised by the impact of modern technology. ...

External links

Coordinates: 55°56′59″N, 3°11′42″W Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Scotland This is a list of articles relating to Scotland. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex and dramatic past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ... Steel engraving and enhancement of the obverse side of the Great Seal of David I, portraying David in the European fashion the other wordly maintainer of peace and defender of jutice. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... The history of Scotland in the Late Middle Ages might be said to be dominated by the twin themes of crisis and transition. ... John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ... Scottish colonization of the Americas consisted of a number of failed or abandoned settlements in North America, a colony at Darien, Panama and a number of wholly or largely Scottish settlements made as part of Great Britain. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ... The Lowland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Galltachd) in Scotland were one of the results of the British Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland for hundreds of years. ... Scotland has an incomparable variety of geology for an area of its size. ... Scotland covers an area of 78,782km² or 30,341mi², giving it a population density of 64 people/km². Around 70% of the countrys population live in the Central Lowlands - a broad, fertile valley stretching in a northeast-southwest orientation between the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and including... Scotland is the most mountainous region of the United Kingdom. ... Freshwater Lochs Loch Arkaig Loch Awe, the third largest loch by surface area, also the longest Loch Dochfour Loch Ericht Loch Katrine, an important water reservoir Loch Leven, site of Loch Leven Castle Loch Lochy Loch Lomond, the largest by surface area Loch Lubnaig, Loch Maree, the fourth largest by... The Fauna of Scotland is generally typical of that of the north west European part of the Palearctic ecozone, although several of the larger mammals were hunted to extinction in historic times. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Lowland-Highland divide The Scottish Lowlands (a Ghalldachd, meaning roughly the non-Gaelic region, in Gaelic), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due... Not to be confused with Central Lowlands. ... Berwick-upon-Tweed from south of the river The Anglo-Scottish border (or English-Scottish border) runs for between the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. ... List of Scottish companies is an incomplete list of companies incorporated in Scotland, organised by industry sector. ... Bank of Scotland plc is a commercial and clearing bank, based in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Royal Bank of Scotland Plc (Scottish Gaelic: [1]) is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, which together with NatWest, provides branch banking facilities in the United Kingdom. ... // North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... The ruins of Melrose Abbey, Scottish Borders Scotland is a well-developed tourist destination, with tourism generally being responsible for sustaining 200,000 jobs mainly in the service sector, with tourist spending averaging at £4bn per year [1]. Tourists from the United Kingdom make up the bulk of visitors to... For other uses, see Harris Tweed (disambiguation). ... Wind, wave and tide make up more than 80% of Scotlands renewable energy potential. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... The Courts of Scotland are the civil, criminal and heraldic courts responsible for the administration of justice in Scotland. ... The Lord President of the Court of Session is head of the judiciary in Scotland and presiding judge of the College of Justice and Court of Session. ... The Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service is a government department in Scotland that is responsible for the public prosecution of alleged criminals. ... Her Majestys Advocate, known as the Lord Advocate (Morair Tagraidh in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief legal adviser to the Scottish Executive and the Crown in Scotland for both civil and criminal matters that fall within the devolved powers of the Scottish Parliament. ... Her Majestys Solicitor General for Scotland (Àrd-neach-lagha a Chrùin an Alba) is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, and the deputy of the Lord Advocate, whose duty is to advise the Crown and the Scottish Executive on Scots Law. ... The procurator fiscal is the local public prosecutor in Scotland. ... Udal law is a near-defunct Norse derived legal system, which was formerly found in the Shetland islands and Orkney. ... List of Scots is an incomplete list of notable people from Scotland. ... List of Scottish actors is a list of Scottish actors, This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... John Logie Baird, television pioneer. ... List of Scottish musicians is a list of Scottish musicians, please see Scottish composers for classical writers. ... William Aiton (1731-1793), botanist Alexander Anderson (mathematician), (c. ... List of Scottish writers is an incomplete alphabetical list of Scottish writers. ... The Politics of Scotland forms a distinctive part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Scotland one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... // Parties represented in the Scottish Parliament (in order of number of representatives): Scottish National Party (SNP) - centre-left, social democratic, pro-independence- 47 MSPs Labour - centre-left, unionist - 46 MSPs Conservative - centre-right, conservative, unionist - 17 MSPs Liberal Democrat - centre-left, federalist - 16 MSPs Scottish Green Party - left-wing, environmentalist... Scotland has elections to several bodies: the Scottish Parliament, the United Kingdom Parliament, the European Parliament, local councils and community councils. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The First Minister of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: ; Scots: ) is, in practice, the political leader of Scotland, as head of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the Scottish Parliament. ... The Secretary of State for Scotland (Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief minister in the government of the United Kingdom with responsibilites for Scotland, at the head of the Scotland Office (formerly The Scottish Office). ... The Scotland Office (Oifis na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a department of the United Kingdom government, responsible for reserved Scottish affairs. ... The local government of Scotland is organised into 32 unitary authorities covering the mainland and islands of Scotland. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The 2004 Assembly with Dr Alison Elliot as Moderator The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Churchs governing body. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Scotland describes the organisation of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church in the geographic area of Scotland, distinct from the Catholic Church in England & Wales and the Catholic Church in Ireland. ... The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known. ... Logo of the Scottish Episcopal Church with the motto: Evangelical truth and Apostolic order. ... Glasgow Central Mosque is one of the biggest Sunni mosques in Glasgow, and one of the largest in Glasgow The arrival of Islam in Scotland is relatively recent. ... Hinduism in Scotland is of relatively recent provenance, with the bulk of Scottish Hindus having settled there in the second half of the 20th century. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English[1][2]. It is the language normally used in formal, non-fiction written texts in Scotland. ... Highland English is the variety of Gaelic influenced Scottish English spoken in the Scottish Highlands. ... A mod is a festival of Scottish Gaelic song, arts and culture. ... Addressing the haggis during Burns supper: Fair fa your honest, sonsie face, Great chieftain o the puddin-race! The culture of Scotland is the national culture of Scotland. ... Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans (from Old Gaelic clann, children), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which... Scottish cuisine shares much with that of other parts of the British Isles but has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own, thanks to foreign and local influences both ancient and modern. ... This is a list of flags that are used exclusively in Scotland. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland was the official coat of arms of the monarchs of Scotland, and were used as the official coat of arms of the Kingdom of Scotland until the Union of the Crowns in... There is no official national anthem of Scotland[1]. However, there is a complex and on-going social and political dispute amongst many contenders for the title of the nations de jure song, which has polarised much of the public. ... Hogmanay (pronounced — with the main stress on the last syllable - hog-muh-NAY) is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year (Gregorian calendar) in the Scottish manner. ... John Logie Baird, the Scottish inventor of television. ... Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ... The Tannahill Weavers Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Modern formal Highland black tie, including kilt and Prince Charlie jacket. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Church of Scotland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2813 words)
The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland.
The Church of Scotland was (and is) a firm opponent of nuclear weaponry.
The Church of Scotland is Presbyterian in polity, and Reformed in theology.
Established Church of Scotland (2703 words)
The claim of the Church to legislative independence was rudely brushed aside by the President of the Court of Session, in his famous declaration that "the temporal head of the Church is Parliament, from whose acts alone it exists as the national Church, and from which alone it derives all its powers".
The Established Church of Scotland maintains that her system of government, by kirk-sessions, presbyteries, synods, and the General Assembly, is "agreeable to the Word of God and acceptable to the people"; but she does not claim for it exclusively the Divine sanction and authority.
The number of ecclesiastical parishes in Scotland (1911) is 1441; of chapels, 80; of mission stations, 170; total, 1691; and the increase of church sitting since 1880 is stated to be 196,000.
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