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Encyclopedia > Church of England
Church of England

The Church of England logo since 1996.
Classification Anglican (1534- ), Roman Catholic (597-1534)
Orientation Mainline
Polity Episcopal
Founder St Augustine of Canterbury
Origin 597
Canterbury
Separated from Roman Catholic Church
Separations Congregationalism, Methodist Episcopal Church, other Methodist denominations
Associations Anglican Communion
Geographical Area England, Isle of Man, Cornwall, Channel Islands
Statistics
Members 13-17 million[1]
Ministers 20,259[2]

The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communion's thirty-eight independent national churches. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Christian doctrine redirects here. ... In the United States, the mainline (also sometimes called mainstream) or mainline Protestant denominations are those Protestant denominations with a mix of moderate and liberal theologies. ... Ecclesiastical polity is the operational and governance structure of a church or Christian denomination. ... It has been suggested that episcopal be merged into this article or section. ... Augustine of Canterbury (birth unknown, died May 26, 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, sent to Ethelbert of Kent, Bretwalda (ruler) of England by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The Methodist Episcopal Church, sometimes referred to as the M.E. Church, officially began at the Baltimore Christmas Conference in 1784. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other types of... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Church. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ...


The Church of England considers itself to be both Catholic and reformed:

  • Reformed insofar as many of the principles of the early Protestant reformers as well as the subsequent Protestant Reformation have influenced it via the English Reformation and also insofar as it does not accept Papal supremacy or the Counter-Reformation.
  • Catholic in that it views itself as being an unbroken continuation of both the early apostolic and later mediæval universal church, rather than as a new formation, and in that it holds and teaches the historic Catholic Faith. In its customs and liturgy it has retained more of the Catholic tradition than most other churches touched by the Protestant Reformation.

Contents

Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Reformation redirects here. ... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[2] - is described in the Oxford Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or Western...

History

Main article: History of the Church of England

The Church of England traces its formal corporate history from the 597 Augustinian mission, stresses its continuity and identity with the primitive universal Western church, and notes the consolidation of its particular independent and national character in the post-Reformation events of Tudor England. The specifically English church originates primarily from events in the late 6th century in the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Kent, and the mission of Saint Augustine. ... Augustine of Canterbury (birth unknown, died May 26, 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, sent to Ethelbert of Kent, Bretwalda (ruler) of England by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ...


Christianity arrived in Britain in the first or second century (probably via the tin trade route through Ireland and Iberia), and existed independently of the Church of Rome, as did many other Christian communities of that era. Records note British bishops, such as Restitutus in attendance at the Council of Arles in 314, and, even more significantly, Britain was the home of Pelagius, who nearly defeated Augustine of Hippo's doctrine of original sin. The Pope sent Saint Augustine from Rome in the 6th century to evangelise the Angles in 597. With the help of Christians already residing in Kent he established his church in Canterbury, the former capital of Kent (it is now Maidstone), and became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury. Later archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus, also contributed to the organisation of English Christianity. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Restitutus (fl. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (Subprefecture) Arrondissement Arles Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Arles-Est and Arles-Ouest Intercommunality Agglomeration community of Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette Mayor Hervé Schiavetti (PS) (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 0 m–57 m (avg. ... For other uses, see Pelagius (disambiguation). ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Original Sin redirects here. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Augustine of Canterbury (birth unknown, died May 26, 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, sent to Ethelbert of Kent, Bretwalda (ruler) of England by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For other uses, see Maidstone (disambiguation). ... Theodore (602–September 19, 690) was the eighth archbishop of Canterbury. ...


Simultaneously, the Celtic Church of St Columba continued to evangelise Scotland. The Celtic Church of North Britain submitted in some sense to the 'authority' of Rome at the Synod of Whitby in 664. Over the next few centuries, the Roman system introduced by Augustine gradually absorbed the pre-existing Celtic Christian churches. Celtic Christianity is Christianity as it was first received and practiced by communities with Celtic backgrounds that observed certain practices divergent from those in the rest of Europe. ... See Columba (disambiguation) and St Columb for other uses. ... This article is about the country. ... The Synod of Whitby was an important synod which eventually led to the unification of the church in Britain. ... Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Cumbrians (the inhabitants of the...


The English Church was under papal authority for nearly a thousand years, before separating from Rome in 1534 during the reign of King Henry VIII. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church such as the Lollards, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so he could marry Anne Boleyn. Under pressure from Catherine's nephew, the Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Pope Clement VII refused the annulment, and, eventually, Henry, although theologically a doctrinal Catholic, took the position of Supreme Head of the Church of England to ensure the annulment of his marriage. He was excommunicated by Pope Paul III[4]. Henry maintained a strong preference for the traditional Catholic practices and, during his reign, Protestant reformers were unable to make many changes to the practices of the Church of England. Indeed, this part of Henry's reign saw the trial for heresy of Protestants as well as Roman Catholics. 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Lollardy or Lollardry was the political and religious movement of the Lollards in late 14th century and early 15th century England. ... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) (Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla), was the Queen of England as the first wife of Henry VIII of England. ... Anne Boleyn, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke (1501/1507–19 May 1536) was a Queen Consort of England, the second wife of King Henry VIII and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I. Henrys marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key player in the political and religious... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... For the antipope (1378-1394) see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII Clement VII, né Giulio di Giuliano de Medici (1478 – September 25, 1534) was pope from 1523 to 1534. ... Henry VIII was the founder of the Church of England yet did not hold the title of Supreme Governor. ... Excommunication is religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (left) and his other grandson (right), Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death 1549. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Under his son, Edward VI, however, the Church became theologically more radical, before legislatively rejoining the Roman church during the reign of Queen Mary I, in 1555. The settlement under Elizabeth I (from 1558) of a mildly reformed, Catholic, apostolic, and established church (i.e., subject to and part of the state) led to great civil strife in the following century. Edward Tudor redirects here. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ...

Stained glass window in Rochester Cathedral, Kent.

For the next century, through the reigns of James I and Charles I, and culminating in the English Civil War and the protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, there were significant swings back and forth between two factions: the Puritans (and other radicals) who sought more far-reaching Protestant reforms, and the more conservative churchmen who aimed to keep closer to traditional beliefs and Catholic practices. The failure of political and ecclesiastical authorities to submit to Puritan demands for more extensive reform was one of the causes of open warfare. By continental standards, the level of violence over religion was not high, but the casualties included a king, Charles I, and an Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud. Under the Protectorate of the Commonwealth of England from 1649 to 1660, Anglicanism was disestablished and outlawed, and in its place, presbyterian ecclesiology was introduced in place of the episcopate. In addition, the Articles were replaced with the Westminster Confession, and the Book of Common Prayer was replaced by the Directory of Public Worship. Despite this, about one quarter of English clergy refused to conform to this form of State Presbyterianism. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 479 KB) Summary Photograph of a stained glass window in Rochester Cathedral, Kent, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 479 KB) Summary Photograph of a stained glass window in Rochester Cathedral, Kent, England. ... Rochester Cathedral is a Norman church in Rochester, Kent. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scots and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ...


With the Restoration of Charles II, Anglicanism too was restored in a form not far removed from the Elizabethan version. One difference was that the ideal of encompassing all the people of England in one religious organisation, taken for granted by the Tudors, had to be abandoned. The religious landscape of England assumed its present form, with the Anglican Established church occupying the middle ground, and Roman Catholics and those Puritans who dissented from the Anglican Establishment, too strong to be suppressed altogether, having to continue their existence outside the National Church rather than controlling it.


Continuing official suspicion and legal restrictions continued well into the nineteenth century.


Membership

In addition to England proper, the jurisdiction of the Church of England extends to the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands, and a few parishes in Flintshire, Monmouthshire, and in Radnorshire, Wales. Expatriate congregations on the continent of Europe have become the Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe. This article is about the British dependencies. ... Flintshire (Welsh: ) is a principal area and county in north-east Wales. ... Monmouthshire (Welsh: ) is both a historic county and principal area in south-east Wales. ... Radnorshire (Welsh: ) is one of thirteen historic counties and former administrative counties of Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... The Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe (also called simply the Diocese in Europe) is geographically the largest diocese of the Church of England, covering Morocco, Europe (excluding the United Kingdom and Ireland but including Iceland), Turkey, and the entire Russian Federation. ...


According to statistics "1.7 million people attend Church of England church and cathedral worship each month while around 1.2 million attend each week – on Sunday or during the week - and just over one million each Sunday."[2]


Structure

The British monarch, at present Queen Elizabeth II, has the constitutional title of "Supreme Governor of the Church of England". The Canons of the Church of England state, "We acknowledge that the Queen’s most excellent Majesty, acting according to the laws of the realm, is the highest power under God in this kingdom, and has supreme authority over all persons in all causes, as well ecclesiastical as civil." The Church is then structured as follows: Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Henry VIII was the founder of the Church of England yet did not hold the title of Supreme Governor. ...

  • Primacy, e.g., Church of England. This is the area under the jurisdiction of a primate, e.g., the Archbishop of Canterbury. A primacy may consist of one or several provinces.
  • Province, i.e., York and Canterbury (these are the only two in the Church of England). This is the area under the jurisdiction of an archbishop, i.e. the Archbishops of Canterbury and York. Decision making within the province is the responsibility of the General Synod (see also above). A province is subdivided into many dioceses.
  • Diocese, i.e., Durham, Guildford, St Albans, more. This is the area under the jurisdiction of a diocesan bishop, i.e., the Bishops of Durham, Guildford and St Albans, and will have a cathedral. There may also be a small number of assisting bishops, some with the status of Suffragan Bishops, within the diocese who assist the diocesan bishop in his ministry, i.e., in Guildford Diocese, the Bishop of Dorking. The bishops will work with an elected body of lay and ordained representatives, known as the Diocesan Synod, to run the diocese. A diocese is subdivided into a small number of archdeanconry.
  • Archdeaconry, e.g., Dorking. This is the area under the jurisdiction of an archdeacon. It will consist of a number of deaneries.
  • Deanery, i.e., Lewisham, Runnymede. This is the area for which a rural dean is responsible. It will consist of a number of parishes in a particular region. The rural dean will usually be the incumbent of one of the constituent parishes. The parishes each elect lay (that is non-ordained) representatives to the Deanery Synod. Deanery Synod members each have a vote in the election of representatives to the Diocesan Synod.
  • Parish, this is the most local level, often consisting of one church building and community, although nowadays many parishes are joining forces in a variety of ways for financial reasons. The parish will be looked after by either a Vicar, Rector, Priest-in-Charge, Team Rector or Team Vicar, who may also be known as the Incumbent. The running of the parish church is the joint responsibility of the incumbent and the Parochial Church Council (PCC), which consists of the parish clergy and elected representatives from the congregation.

All rectors and vicars are appointed by patrons, who may be private individuals, corporate bodies such as cathedrals, colleges or trusts, or by the bishop or even appointed directly by the crown. No clergy can be instituted and inducted into a parish without swearing the Oath of Allegiance to Her Majesty, and taking the Oath of Canonical Obedience "in all things lawful and honest" to the bishop. Usually the archdeacon inducts into the actual possession of the benefice property - church and parsonage. Curates are appointed by rectors and vicars, but if priests-in-charge then by the bishop after consultations with the patron. Cathedral clergy are appointed either by the Crown, the bishop, or by the dean and chapter themselves. Clergy officiate in a diocese either because they hold office as beneficed clergy, or are licensed by the bishop when appointed (e.g. curates), or simply with permission. Wiktionary has a definition of: Primacy Primacy is the state or condition of being prime or first, as in time, place, rank, etc. ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... An ecclesiastical province is a unit of religious government existing in certain Christian churches. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... The General Synod is the title of the governing body of some church organizations. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Durham (IPA: locally, in RP) is a small city and main settlement of the City of Durham district of County Durham in North East England. ... , For other places with the same name, see Guildford (disambiguation). ... , St Albans is the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans in southern Hertfordshire, England, around 22 miles (35km) north of central London. ... This page is a list of Church of England Dioceses, along with their geographic location and the foundation dates of those founded in the modern era, i. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... This article is about the sacrament. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the Major League Baseball player, see Maurice Archdeacon. ... In the Church of England and Roman Catholic Church, a deanery is a collection of parishes within an archdeaconry. ... A dean, in a church context, is a cleric holding certain positions of authority within a religious hierarchy. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... Vicariate redirects here. ... The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings, but all of them indicate someone who is in charge of something. ... A priest in charge is a priest in charge of a parish who does not receive the temporalities of the parish. ... The Parochial Church Council or PCC, is the executive body of a Church of England parish. ... Vicariate redirects here. ... Advowson is the right in English law of presenting a nominee to a vacant ecclesiastical benefice. ...


Primates

Archbishop of Canterbury, The Most Reverend Dr Rowan Williams.
Archbishop of Canterbury, The Most Reverend Dr Rowan Williams.

The most senior bishop of the Church of England is the Archbishop of Canterbury, who is the archbishop and primate of the southern province of England, the Province of Canterbury. He also has the status of Primate of All England and Metropolitan. He is also the focus of unity for the worldwide Anglican Communion of independent national or regional churches. The Most Reverend and Right Honourable Dr Rowan Williams has served as Archbishop of Canterbury since 2002. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... For the English boxer, see Rowan Anthony Williams. ...


The second most senior bishop is the Archbishop of York, who is the archbishop and primate of the northern province of England, the Province of York. For historical reasons he is referred to as the Primate of England. The Most Reverend and Right Honourable Dr John Sentamu has served as the Archbishop of York since 2005. John Tucker Mugabi Sentamu, PhD, (born 10 June 1949 in Kampala, Uganda) is the 97th Archbishop of York, Metropolitan of the province of York, and Primate of England. ...


Diocesan bishops

The process of appointing diocesan bishops is complex, and is handled by a body called the Crown Nominations Committee, which submits names to the Prime Minister (acting on behalf of the Crown) for consideration. The Appointment of Church of England diocesan bishops follows a somewhat convoluted process, reflecting the churchs traditional tendency towards compromise and ad-hoc solutions, traditional ambiguity between heirarchy and democracy, and traditional role as a semi-autonomous state church. ...


Representative bodies

The Church of England has a legislative body, the General Synod. Synod can create two types of legislation, Measures and Canons. Measures of Synod have to be approved but cannot be amended by the UK Parliament before receiving the Royal Assent and becoming part of the law of England.[5] Canons require Royal Licence and Royal Assent, but form the law of the Church, rather than the law of the land.[6] The General Synod is the governing body of the Church of England, a church within the Anglican Communion. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ...


Worship and liturgy

The Church of England embraces three orders of ministry: deacon, priest and bishop.


The Book of Common Prayer

In addition to the Book of Common Prayer the church's other official liturgical book is Common Worship, dating from 2000. Like its predecessor, the 1980 Alternative Service Book, it differs substantially from the Book of Common Prayer, although it does include the Order Two rite of the Eucharist. This is a very slight revision of the prayer book service, altering only a few words and allowing the insertion of the Agnus Dei (Lamb of God) before communion. The Order One rite follows the pattern of modern liturgical scholarship. For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... Common Worship is a series of books of services and prayers, known as a liturgy, published by the Church of England. ... The Alternative Service book 1980 was the first complete prayer book produced by the Church of England since 1662. ... A lamb holding a Christian banner is a typical symbol for Agnus Dei. ... For the band, see Lamb of God (band). ...


Doctrine and practice

See also: Anglicanism and Anglican doctrine
Canterbury Cathedral from the southwest. It houses the cathedra or throne of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and is the mother church of the Diocese of Canterbury (east Kent) and the Church of England, and the focus for the Anglican Communion.
Canterbury Cathedral from the southwest. It houses the cathedra or throne of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and is the mother church of the Diocese of Canterbury (east Kent) and the Church of England, and the focus for the Anglican Communion.

In both beliefs and practices, or forms of churchmanship, the Church of England is mixed: in some of its congregations worship remains closer to Roman Catholicism (see high church) than most Protestant churches, but in others it is difficult to distinguish between the Anglican forms in use and the uses of other Evangelical bodies (see low church). Its constitution affirms many relatively conservative theological beliefs, its liturgical form of worship is traditional, and its organisation embodies a belief in the appropriateness of the historical episcopal hierarchy of archbishops, bishops, and dioceses. This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... Look up doctrine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3200x2400, 1040 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: United Kingdom Canterbury Cathedral ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3200x2400, 1040 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: United Kingdom Canterbury Cathedral ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... The cathedra of the Pope in the apse of St. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Arms of the Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior bishop of the state Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion, outranking the other English archbishop, the Archbishop of York. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Look up doctrine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Anglican parlance, churchmanship is the general emphasis on doctrine, discipline, political outlook, and liturgical practice by adherents of the Church of England, particularly in certain historical periods. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... It has been suggested that episcopal be merged into this article or section. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ...


In many people's eyes, the Church of England has as its primary distinguishing heritage its breadth and "open-mindedness". Today, beliefs and practices range from those of the Anglo-Catholics, who emphasise liturgy and sacraments, to the far more preaching-centred and less ritual based services of Evangelicals and the high-octane gatherings of the Charismatics. But this "broad church" faces various contentious doctrinal questions raised by the development of modern society, such as conflicts over the ordination of women as priests (accepted in 1992 and begun in 1994), and the status of non-celibate homosexual clergy (still unsettled today). In July 2005 the divisions were once again apparent, as the General Synod voted to "set in train" the process of allowing the consecration of women as bishops; in February 2006 the Synod voted overwhelmingly for "further exploration" of a scheme that would also allow parishes that did not want a woman bishop to opt for a man instead.[7] The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The charismatic movement began... Broad church is a term referring to latitudinarian churches in the Church of England. ... In general religious use, ordination is the process by which one is consecrated (set apart for the undivided administration of various religious rites). ... The relationship between religion and homosexuality varies greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and sects, and regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality. ... The General Synod is the title of the governing body of some church organizations. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article...


The church also has its own system of canon law, and judicial branch, known as the Ecclesiastical courts, which likewise form a part of the UK court system. Such courts have powers especially in relation to the care of churches and churchyards and the discipline of the clergy. The Church of England, like the other autonomous member churches of the Anglican Communion, has its own system of Canon law. ... An ecclesiastical court (also called Court Christian) is any of certain courts having jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or religious matters. ...


Ecumenical relations

Like many other Anglican churches, the Church of England has entered into full communion with the Old Catholics. In the late 20th century it also became a founding member of the new Porvoo Communion. The Church of England stands in full communion with the other churches in the Anglican Communion. The Church of England is also a full member of the Conference of European Churches. Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... The Old Catholic Church is a community of Christian churches. ... The Porvoo Communion is an agreement between 12 European Protestant churches establishing full communion. ... The Conference of European Churches (CEC) was founded in 1959 to promote reconciliation, dialogue and friendship between the churches of Europe at a time of growing Cold War political tensions and divisions. ...


Related churches

Saint Peter's Church, in St. George's, Bermuda, is the oldest Church of England (now Anglican) church outside the British Isles. Consecrated in 1612, it was rebuilt more than once.
Saint Peter's Church, in St. George's, Bermuda, is the oldest Church of England (now Anglican) church outside the British Isles. Consecrated in 1612, it was rebuilt more than once.
Main article: Anglican Communion

The Church of England's sister church in Ireland, the Church of Ireland, also went through the reformation in the sixteenth century. Unlike in England, the majority of the populace did not go along with this, preferring continued adherence to the Roman Catholic Church, but the Church of Ireland retained official established church status in Ireland until 1871. Under the Act of Union (Ireland) 1800, the Church of Ireland was united with the Church of England. This union was dissolved and the Irish church disestablished in 1871. To this day the Church of Ireland remains organised on an all-Ireland basis. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... St. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... The phrase Act of Union 1800 (or sometimes Act of Union 1801) (Irish: Acht an Aontais 1800) is used to describe two complementary Acts[1] whose official United Kingdom titles are the Union with Ireland Act 1800 (1800 c. ...


The Scottish Episcopal Church is the sister church in Scotland and is in full communion with it. It is much smaller than the Church of Scotland that is recognised in law as the "national church" and has a Presbyterian system of government. The history of the Episcopal Church is complicated, involving alternating periods of official promotion and persecution: for a time, because of its association with Jacobitism, it had to operate sub rosa. Logo of the Scottish Episcopal Church with the motto: Evangelical truth and Apostolic order. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... The term national church is usually a reference to a church organization in Christianity that claims pastoral jurisdiction over a nation. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Look up sub rosa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


When the Episcopal Church in the U.S. became independent of the Church of England after the American War of Independence, the leadership of the Church of England did not believe itself legally able to consecrate new bishops without requiring of them the standard oath of loyalty to the crown. Consequently it was the non-juring bishops of the non-established Scottish Episcopal Church who consecrated the first American bishop, until new legislation allowed the Church of England to relax its policy. This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... This article is about military actions only. ...


The Church in Wales, previously a part of the Church of England, was disestablished in 1920 and at the same time became an independent member of the Anglican Communion. Flag of the Church in Wales The Church in Wales (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Yng Nghymru) is a member Church of the Anglican Communion, consisting of six dioceses in Wales. ...


Financial situation

Hereford is one of the church's forty-three cathedrals, many with histories stretching back centuries.
Hereford is one of the church's forty-three cathedrals, many with histories stretching back centuries.

The Church of England, although an established church, does not receive any direct government support. Donations comprise its largest source of income, though it also relies heavily on the income from its various historic endowments. As of 2005, the Church of England had estimated total outgoings of around £900 million.[8] Download high resolution version (417x640, 100 KB)Interior of Hereford Cathedral in May 2004, taken by User:Benwbrum while on vacation. ... Download high resolution version (417x640, 100 KB)Interior of Hereford Cathedral in May 2004, taken by User:Benwbrum while on vacation. ... The current Hereford Cathedral, located at Hereford in England, United Kingdom, dates from 1079. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Historically, individual parishes both raised and spent the vast majority of the Church's funding, meaning that clergy pay depended on the wealth of the parish, and parish advowsons (the right to appoint clergy to particular parishes) could become extremely valuable gifts. Individual dioceses also held considerable assets: the Diocese of Durham possessed such vast wealth and temporal power that its Bishop became known as the 'Prince-Bishop'. Since the mid-19th century, however, the Church has made various moves to 'equalise' the situation, and clergy within each diocese now receive standard stipends paid from diocesan funds. Meanwhile, the Church moved the majority of its income-generating assets (which in the past included a great deal of land, but today mostly take the form of financial stocks and bonds) out of the hands of individual clergy and bishops to the care of a body called the Church Commissioners, which uses these funds to pay a range of non-parish expenses, including clergy pensions, and the expenses of cathedrals and bishops' houses. These funds amount to around £3.9 billion, and generate income of around £164 million each year (as of 2003), around a fifth of the Church's overall income.[9] Advowson is the right in English law of presenting a nominee to a vacant ecclesiastical benefice. ... Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ... The Church Commissioners are a body managing the historic property assets of the Church of England. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ...


The Church Commissioners give some of this money as 'grants' to local parishes; but the majority of the financial burden of church upkeep and the work of local parishes still rests with individual parish and diocese, which meet their requirements from donations. Direct donations to the church (not including legacies) come to around £460 million per year, while parish and diocese reserve funds generate another £100 million. Funds raised in individual parishes account for almost all of this money, and the majority of it remains in the parish which raises it, meaning that the resources available to parishes still vary enormously, according to the level of donations they can raise.


Most parishes give a portion of their money, however, to the diocese as a 'quota'. While this is not a compulsory payment, dioceses strongly encourage and rely on it being paid; it is usually only withheld by parishes either if they are unable to find the funds or as a specific act of protest. As well as paying central diocesan expenses such as the running of diocesan offices, these diocesan funds also provide clergy pay and housing expenses (which total around £260 million per year across all dioceses), meaning that clergy living conditions no longer depend on parish-specific fundraising.

The old and new Coventry Cathedrals, in the Diocese of Coventry. The new cathedral was built next to the ruins of the old, which was destroyed in the Second World War.
The old and new Coventry Cathedrals, in the Diocese of Coventry. The new cathedral was built next to the ruins of the old, which was destroyed in the Second World War.

Although asset-rich, the Church of England has to look after and maintain its thousands of churches nationwide — the lion's share of England's built heritage.[10] As current congregation numbers stand at relatively low levels and as maintenance bills increase as the buildings grow older, many of these churches cannot maintain economic self-sufficiency; but their historical and architectural importance make it difficult to sell them. In recent years, cathedrals and other famous churches have met some of their maintenance costs with grants from organisations such as English Heritage; but the church congregation and local fundraisers must foot the bill entirely in the case of most small parish churches.[11] (The government, however, does provide some assistance in the form of tax breaks, for example a 100% VAT refund for renovations to religious buildings.) ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 330 KB) Photo showing the old and the new cathedral of Coventry. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 330 KB) Photo showing the old and the new cathedral of Coventry. ... The roofless ruins of the old cathedral. ... The Dioecese of Coventry is a Church of England diocese in the Province of Canterbury. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The standard of English Heritage English Heritage is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) with a broad remit of managing the historic environment of England. ... vat can be a type of barrel used for storage. ...


In addition to consecrated buildings, the Church also controls numerous ancillary buildings attached to or associated with churches, including a good deal of clergy housing. As well as vicarages and rectories, this housing includes residences (called 'palaces') for each of the Church's 114 bishops. In some cases, this name seems entirely apt; buildings such as Archbishop of Canterbury's Lambeth Palace in London and Old Palace at Canterbury have truly palatial dimensions, while the Bishop of Durham's Auckland Castle has 50 rooms, a banqueting hall and 30 acres (120,000 m²) of parkland. However, many bishops have found the older palaces inappropriate for today's lifestyles, and some bishops' 'palaces' are ordinary four bedroomed houses. Many dioceses which have retained large palaces now employ part of the space as administrative offices, while the bishops and their families live in a small apartment within the palace; and in recent years some dioceses have managed to put their palaces' excess space and grandeur to profitable use as conference centres. All three of the more grand bishop's palaces mentioned above — Lambeth Palace, Canterbury Old Palace and Auckland Castle — serve as offices for church administration, conference venues, and only in a lesser degree the personal residence of a bishop. The size of the bishops' households has shrunk dramatically and their budgets for entertaining and staff form a tiny fraction of their pre-twentieth-century levels. Lambeth Palaces gatehouse. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Auckland Castle is a castle near to the town of Bishop Auckland in County Durham, England. ...


References

  1. ^ Anglicanism Catholic Encyclopedia
  2. ^ a b Latest Church of England statistics (15/09/2006)
  3. ^ The History of the Church of England. The Archbishops' Council of the Church of England. Retrieved on 2006-05-24.
  4. ^ HistoryMole: King Henry VIII (1491-1547)
  5. ^ Summary of Church Assembly and General Synod Measures. Church of England website. Archbishops' council of the Church of England (November 2007).
  6. ^ General Synod. Church of England website. Archbishops' council of the Church of England.
  7. ^ Church votes overwhelmingly for compromise on women bishops - news from ekklesia | Ekklesia
  8. ^ outgoings
  9. ^ funds
  10. ^ The Church of Englnd's built heritage. Church of England website. Archbishops' Council of the Church of England (2004). “The Church of England has some 16,000 church buildings, in 13,000 parishes covering the whole of England, as well as 43 cathedrals. Together they form a unique collection of buildings; between 12,000 and 13,000 churches are listed, i.e. are recognised by the Government as being of exceptional historic or architectural importance, and about 45% of all Grade I buildings in England are churches. Though first and foremost a place of worship, churches are also often the oldest building in a settlement still in continual use. Even in industrial or twentieth-century settlements, they are a focus. Many churches – and cathedrals particularly - are the largest, most architecturally complex, most archaeologically sensitive, and most visited building in their village, town or city.”
  11. ^ local fundraisers

Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

England Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Anglican churches

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This page is a list of Church of England Dioceses, along with their geographic location and the foundation dates of those founded in the modern era, i. ... This page traces the history of the dioceses and cathedrals of the Church of England. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... A parish church in the Church of England, is the place of Christian worship which acts as the religious centre for the people of the smallest and most basic Church of England administrative unit, known as a parish. ... St Pauls Cathedral The United Kingdom is traditionally a Christian state, though of the four constituent countries, only England still has a state faith in the form of an established church. ... This page lists Bishops and Archbishops in the Church of England, the Church in Wales, the Scottish Episcopal Church and the Church of Ireland Archbishops in the Church of England Archbishop of Canterbury Archbishop of York Bishops in the Church of England Bishop of Bath and Wells Bishop of Birmingham... The Appointment of Church of England diocesan bishops follows a somewhat convoluted process, reflecting the churchs traditional tendency towards compromise and ad-hoc solutions, traditional ambiguity between heirarchy and democracy, and traditional role as a semi-autonomous state church. ... In general, the term, Ritualism can be used to describe an outlook which places a great (or even exaggerated) emphasis on ritual. ... Durham Cathedral, above the River Wear. ...

External links

Anglicanism Portal
Anglican Communion
Anglican hierarchy in the United Kingdom and Ireland
Anglican Communion
Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Church of England - MSN Encarta (1506 words)
The earliest unquestioned historical evidence of an organized Christian church in England is found in the writings of such early Christian fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century, although the first Christian communities probably were established some decades earlier.
Furthermore, the movement enlarged the theological concern of the church for the ancient Catholic and apostolic character of the ministry and for the sacraments, for its pastoral ideals, and for the meaning of its fundamental creeds.
The doctrine of the Church of England is found primarily in the Book of Common Prayer, containing the ancient creeds of undivided Christendom, and secondarily in the Thirty-nine Articles, which are interpreted in accordance with the prayer book.
Church of England - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2222 words)
The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, and acts as the 'mother' and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion.
The Church of England traces its formal corporate history from the 597 Augustinian mission, stresses its continuity and identity with the primitive universal Western church, and notes the consolidation of its particular independent and national character in the post-Reformation events of Tudor England.
In Scotland, the Church of Scotland is recognised in law (Church of Scotland Act 1921) as the "national church" (although it is not "established" in the same manner as the Church of England, having fuller autonomy of governance).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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