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Encyclopedia > Church of Christ
Part of a series of articles on
Christianity

History of Christianity
Timeline of Christianity
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Reformation Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Image File history File links Christian_cross. ... This article outlines the history of Christianity and provides links to relevant topics. ... Timeline of Christianity (1 Anno Domini-Present) The purpose of this chronology is to give a detailed account of Christianity from 1 AD to the present. ... The Twelve Apostles (in Koine Greek απόστολος apostolos, Liddell & Scott, Strongs G652, someone sent forth/sent out) were men that according to the Synoptic Gospels and Christian tradition, were chosen from among the disciples of Jesus for a mission. ... See also General Council (disambiguation). ... Great Schism redirects here. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ...

The Trinity
God the Father
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Nontrinitarianism For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... This article presents a description of Jesus as based on the views of Christians. ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE — 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... This page is about the title or the Divine Person. For the Christian figure, see Jesus. ... This article uses excessive clichés and jargon associated with topic . ... Nontrinitarianism or (the Roman Catholic term) Antitrinitarianism, is the doctrine that rejects the Trinitarian doctrine that God subsists as three distinct persons in the single substance of the Holy Trinity. ...

The Bible
Old Testament · LXX
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Sermon on the Mount The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hē biblos, the book) (sometimes The Holy Bible, Scripture, is the name used by Jews and Christians for their differing (and overlapping) canons of sacred texts. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... The Septuagint (LXX) is the name commonly given in the West to the Greek Alexandrine translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) translated some time between the 3rd to 1st century BC. The Septuagint translation includes additional books and chapters of the Hebrew text, including the books of the... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... The Ten Commandments on a monument on the grounds of the Texas State Capitol This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated 1675 decalogue at the Esnoga synagogue of Amsterdam The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives which, according to religious tradition, were... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd (Matt 5:1; 7:28). ...

Christian theology
Fall of Man · Grace
Salvation · Justification
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Antichrist It has been suggested that Christian theological controversy be merged into this article or section. ... Essentially, original sin is the doctrine, shared in one form or another by most Christian churches, that the sin of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden changed or damaged human nature, such that all human beings since then are innately predisposed to sin, and are powerless to overcome... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favor of God for humankind, as manifest in the blessings bestowed upon all —irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... In religion, salvation refers to being saved from an undesirable state or condition — typically one in which an individual faces the prospect of eternal torment in hell. ... In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of making or declaring a sinner righteous before God. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Christian eschatology and Islam, the Antichrist, Anti-christ or Dajjal (literally: anti, opposite; christ, Jesus) has come to mean a person, image of a person, or other entity that is the embodiment of evil and utterly opposed to truth, according to Christianity, while convincingly disguised as wholly good and...

Christian Church
Roman Catholicism
Orthodox Christianity
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In Christian theology, One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church is a phrase describing the nature of the Christian community and/or Christian Church, in the various meanings it has. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Orthodox Christianity is a generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions (which descend through, or alongside of, the Roman Catholic Church) or the Eastern Rite Catholic churches. ... Protestantism is one of three primary branches of Christianity. ... The term Anglican (from medieval Latin ecclesia Anglicana meaning the English church) is used to describe the people, institutions, and churches that adhere to the religious traditions developed by the established Church of England, the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican Churches, a loosely affiliated group of independent churches which... Mr wadawits smells Luthers seal Lutheranism is a Christian tradition based upon the main theological insights of Martin Luther. ...


Christian denominations
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A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ... Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ...

This box: viewtalkedit

The Churches of Christ are autonomous Christian congregations. The Church of Christ is a term in Christian theology denoting the entire body of Christians throughout the world, no matter the denomination. ... The temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints located in Salt Lake City, Utah is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... The United Church of Christ (UCC) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination principally in the United States, generally considered within the Reformed tradition, and formed in 1957 by the merger of two denominations, the Evangelical and Reformed Church and the Congregational Christian Churches. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Church of Christ was the original name given to the church formally organized by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the Mormonism movement or the Mormon movement) is a religious movement beginning in the early 19th century that led to the set of doctrines, practices, and cultures called Mormonism and to the existence of numerous churches whose members call themselves Latter Day Saints. ... Iglesia ni Cristos first chapel The Iglesia ni Cristo (IPA: ) (also known as INC, Iglesia ni Manalo, or Iglesya ni Kristo ; Filipino for Church of Christ) is a nontrinitarian independent religious organization which originated in the Philippines. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus, whom they regard as a/the Christ. ... A congregation is the group of members who make up a local Christian church or Jewish synagogue (or those who are present at a service thereat), as opposed to the building itself. ...


They generally emphasize their belief that the modern Churches of Christ represent the original, primitive Christian church established by Jesus Christ and the Apostles on the Day of Pentecost as described in the New Testament in Acts 2. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the world. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ...


In the United States, for the most part, the churches' roots can be traced back to the Restoration Movement championed by American preachers in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, most notably Thomas Campbell and his son Alexander Campbell. For information related to Dispensational Christian views regarding Jewish people in the End times see Restorationism The Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement (or simply, Restoration Movement) is a religious reform movement born in the early 1800s in the United States. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Campbell (1763–1854) was a Presbyterian minister who, with his son Alexander Campbell, helped found the Restoration Movement. ... Alexander Campbell Alexander Campbell (September 12, 1788 – March 4, 1866) was an early leader of a movement that began in 1800 with the goal of removing divisions between Christians, by returning believers in the New Testament to principles of Truth and Union. ...


Members of the Church of Christ are quick to point out that there have been those who sought to return to a first century Christianity pattern of worship throughout Christian history. They do not believe that it is necessary to be able to trace an unbroken lineage back to the church of the first century in order to be the "true church" that was established by Christ. These assertions are based on the view that the church is a spiritual body and therefore differs from secular notions of lineage. This page is about the title or the Divine Person. For the Christian figure, see Jesus. ...


Following Alexander Campbell's death in 1866, conservatives within the movement, led by Tolbert Fanning, David Lipscomb, and others, advocated an increased unity in doctrine which produced a division with the more liberal Disciples of Christ that was formalized in 1906. Further internal disagreements since that time have produced a number of sub-groupings according to differences over various beliefs and practices. 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Tolbert Fanning Tolbert Fanning (1810-1873) was born in Cannon County, Tennessee. ... David Lipscomb (1831-1917) David Lipscomb (1831–1917) was an important minister, editor, and educator in the American Restoration Movement and one of the leaders of the theologically conservative faction of that movement, which by 1906 had formalized the division between itself as the Church of Christ and the more... The Disciples of Christ, also known as the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) or simply as the Christian Church, is a denomination of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell of Pennsylvania and Barton W. Stone and Virginia Stone of Kentucky. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Today, Churches of Christ have the following distinctive traits: the refusal to hold to any creeds other than the Bible itself; the practice of youth and adult baptism (but not infant baptism) as a requirement for the remission of sins; autonomous non-denominational congregational church organization, with congregations overseen by a plurality of male-only elders; the weekly observance of The Lord's Supper; and the belief in a cappella congregational singing during worship. A creed is a statement of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. ... The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hē biblos, the book) (sometimes The Holy Bible, Scripture, is the name used by Jews and Christians for their differing (and overlapping) canons of sacred texts. ... Believers baptism (also called credobaptism) is the Christian ritual of baptism as given only to adults and children who have made a declaration of faith in Jesus as their personal savior, because he died for their sins, and was resurrected by the power of God the Father. ... SiN is a computer game developed by Ritual Entertainment and published by Activision in late 1998. ... A non-denominational church (usually Christian) is a religious organization which does not necessarily align its mission and teachings to an established denomination. ... A plurality (or relative majority) is the largest share of something, which may or may not be a majority. ... An elder refers to various Wikipedia topics. ... The Lords Supper is a variation of the name and the service of The Last Supper or Eucharist. ... A cappella music is vocal music or singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. ... Worship usually refers to specific acts of religious praise, honour, or devotion, typically directed to a supernatural being such as a god or goddess. ...

Contents


Prevalence and Growth

The United States Census Bureau listed the Churches of Christ as the self-described religious identification of 1,769,000 adults in 1990, and 2,593,000 adults in 2001 (rounded to nearest thousand), ranking 11th in the list of Christian religious affiliations, which fixes it above the Jehovah's Witnesses but below The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormon). The same data reports 15,000 individual congregations in 1999.[1] The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... This article is about the year. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... The temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints located in Salt Lake City, Utah is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... For other uses, see Mormon (disambiguation). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


These figures correspond to a compound annual growth rate of 3.54% for the years 1990 to 2001. The church was first enumerated separately in 1906 when there were 159,658 members. This makes the average annual growth rate 2.98% from 1906 to 2001, so that from 1990 to 2001 the church grew at a rate 18.9% higher than its historical average growth rate. (This may be a less-than-meaningful result due to differences in statistics gathering methods over the long period involved, and must also be considered in light of concurrent trends in the statistics of the general population.) Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is one method of assessing the average growth of a value over time. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Self-identification

Despite the churches' historical origin as part of a movement started by Baptist and Presbyterian preachers, members of this group tend to object to being referred to as "Protestants", believing that Christ's church was not founded as a protest against anything. A Baptist is a member of a Baptist church. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Protestantism is one of three primary branches of Christianity. ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ...


Members also object to categorizations of their church tradition as a "denomination". One of the tenets of the movement holds that its member churches are not a denomination and that denominationalism is a departure from the original plan laid down in the Bible for the church. A religious denomination, (also simply denomination) is a large, long-established subgroup within a religion that has existed for many years. ... Tenet is a Canadian heavy metal band, started by Strapping Young Lad guitarist Jed Simon and drummer Gene Hoglan. ... Denominationalism is the division of a religion into separate religious denominations. ...


Often, the more recent historical origins of the Churches of Christ as an outgrowth of Restoration Movement theology are deemphasized in Church of Christ teachings, which tend to point only to the founding of the first-century church. One scholar, Russell Paden, has called this tendency "historylessness" while comparing the Churches of Christ to an offshoot movement: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Both groups have an attitude of "historylessness," meaning that they believe their religious beliefs and practices are above being influenced by anything extra-biblical, including the culture around them, contemporary social dynamics, or nearly 2,000 years of church history. In essence, each group believes that it has recreated the apostolic first-century church with all the perfection of the first ecclesiastical age.[2]

However, scholarly journals produced at Church-affiliated institutions do exhibit awareness of the historical origins of the Church of Christ, examining subjects such as the changing makeup of church hymnals, and the various historical baptism controversies: an example is Abilene Christian University's Restoration Quarterly. Abilene Christian University (ACU) is a private university located in Abilene, Texas, affiliated with Churches of Christ. ...


Historically, individuals in the Churches of Christ have aspired to be members of the one body of Christ described in the New Testament, without denominational affiliation. Traditionally, they have viewed congregational identity not as denominational identity, but rather as a reconstruction of church identity described in the New Testament (for example, the churches in Corinth and Galatia as described in the Pauline epistles.) This page is about the title or the Divine Person. For the Christian figure, see Jesus. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The term denomination can refer to: A religious denomination A unit of currency (See Denomination (currency)) A naming. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Κόρινθος; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... For the Greek name for Gaul, see Gaul Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (now Turkey). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


There has been substantial debate over the topic of the Church of Christ's identity or non-identity as a denomination in recent years, with some now embracing the view that the Church of Christ is a denomination. The debate hinges, to a large extent, upon the issue of whether to embrace a historical or transhistorical or anti-historical ecclesiology. History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... An entity or concept is transhistorical if it holds throughout human history, not merely within the frame of reference of a particular form of society at a particular stage of historical development. ... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is a branch of study that deals with the doctrines pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ...


Origins

Restoration Movement

The American Restoration Movement of the 19th century promoted a return to the practices of the first century Christian churches as described in the New Testament. For information related to Dispensational Christian views regarding Jewish people in the End times see Restorationism The Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement (or simply, Restoration Movement) is a religious reform movement born in the early 1800s in the United States. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ...


Part of the Second Great Awakening, the founders of the movement were influenced by the works of Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke. The original, somewhat utopian, vision that denominational distinctions could be cast off or ignored mirrored similar visions of other Christian groups such as those of the Quakers. In the case of the Restoration Movement, the emphasis was simply on the denying of denomination labels, and the acceptance of a diversity of doctrine. "In essentials, unity; in non-essentials, liberty; in all things, charity" was one oft-quoted slogan of the period. [3] The Second Great Awakening was the second great religious revival in United States history and consisted of several kinds of activity, distinguished by locale and expression of religious commitment. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a period which includes the Age of Reason. ... John Locke (August 29, 1632 – October 28, 1704) was an influential English philosopher. ... See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... The Latin phrase in necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas means in certain things unity; in doubtful things liberty; in all things charity. It is often misattributed to St. ...


The restorationist "Church of Christ" movement solidified in 1832 with the merger of the separate movements championed by Barton W. Stone and Alexander Campbell (thus, it is sometimes also called the "Stone-Campbell Movement"); following Stone's death in 1844 Alexander Campbell served as the most influential surviving voice of the movement's founders. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Barton W. Stone (December 24, 1772 - November 9, 1844) was a religious reformer of the early 19th century associated with the Restoration Movement. ... 1844 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


The period of the American Civil War (18611865) saw a pause in publication of many widely read Church of Christ publications as the nation's mail service was interrupted, particularly in the South. The Civil War is by far the most common term for this conflict; see Naming the American Civil War. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Antebellum Period, Civil War, and Reconstruction Period

The tumultuous early Reconstruction period would see the death of one of the last of the movement's founders, Alexander Campbell, in 1866, but by the time of his death the torch of Restoration Movement faith had already begun to pass from the movement's now elderly progenitors to younger, and hence more vital, successors such as William Lipscomb and Tolbert Fanning, who in 1855 had begun to publish the still-influential Gospel Advocate. In the North, conservatives such as Benjamin Franklin and Daniel Sommer served as rough contemporaries respectively of Fanning and David Lipscomb. // Reconstruction was the period in United States history, 1865–77, that resolved the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and its system of slavery were destroyed. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... William Lipscomb (July 20, 1829-1908) was a leading figure of the American Restoration Movement. ... Tolbert Fanning Tolbert Fanning (1810-1873) was born in Cannon County, Tennessee. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Gospel Advocate is a religious magazine published monthly in Nashville, Tennessee. ... Benjamin Franklin (February 1, 1812-October 22, 1878) was an important conservative figure in the American Restoration Movement, especially as the leading antebellum conservative in the northern United States branch of the movement. ... Daniel Sommer (1850–1940) was a key figure in the Restoration Movement and in the separation of the Church of Christ from the Christian Church. ... David Lipscomb (1831-1917) David Lipscomb (1831–1917) was an important minister, editor, and educator in the American Restoration Movement and one of the leaders of the theologically conservative faction of that movement, which by 1906 had formalized the division between itself as the Church of Christ and the more...


By the 1850s, the liberty granted individual congregations had produced variances within the movement which Fanning and others could not tolerate: an example was the Spiritualist leanings of Jesse Babcock Ferguson of the Nashville Church of Christ, which resulted in his forced resignation in 1857: the church building caught fire and burned under suspicious circumstances shortly thereafter. Spiritualism is a religious movement, prominent from the 1840s to the 1920s, found primarily in English-speaking countries. ... Jesse Babcock Ferguson (January 19, 1819-September 3, 1870) was an American Christian preacher who developed Spiritualist leanings in the 1840s and 1850s while serving as the preacher at the Nashville, Tennessee Church of Christ. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The principle of unity in essential matters of doctrine led many to question what constituted an "essential" matter. The answer seemed simple in the highly analytical, post-Enlightenment period of the middle and latter 19th century: if all that were necessary for salvation was contained in the pages of the Bible, a systematic analysis of those scriptures should provide illumination for any doctrinal dispute, no matter how minor.


This post-Enlightenment fervor for the limitless prospects for human progress was nowhere more evident than in the writings of Alexander Campbell, who wrote, in his March 1846 essay "Is Capital Punishment Sanctioned by Divine Authority?":

"Stimulated by former conquests over error, and the new discoveries since made, the human mind seems intent on carrying on war against false assumptions and unwarranted conclusions--as if determined to advance from victory to victory over every species of error and delusion: so that we may not unreasonably anticipate a day when the last error shall be exploded, and the last baseless assumption shall be entombed in the same unfathomable abyss with the vortices of Descartes, or in the nethermost hollow sphere of the speculative and hypothetical, though ingenious, Captain Symmes."

Soon, among many congregations the "in non-essentials, liberty" clause became subjugated to the "in essentials, unity" clause as the scope of essential doctrine was expanded time and again by those who sought to recreate the Christian church of the first century. For other things named Descartes, see Descartes (disambiguation). ... John Cleves Symmes (1779 - May 1829) was born in New Jersey to Timothy Symmes. ...


Although the insistence on congregational autonomy meant that these developments happened on the scale of individual congregations, public and published debates between preachers on opposing sides of any particular issue meant that the congregations did not each evolve in a vacuum. The strict emphasis on doctrinal orthodoxy by church leaders, combined with the notion of the Bible as all-sufficient made it vital that a side be taken on any issue raised. As in any dispute, only one side represented the one true path to avoid eternal damnation.


Other churches that grew out of the Restoration Movement include the Independent Christian Churches/Churches of Christ (often designated "Instrumental" for their acceptance of musical instruments within worship) and the Disciples of Christ. The Independent Christian Churches/Churches of Christ are a part of the Restoration Movement and are in the theological middle ground between the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and the Church of Christ (non-instrumental). ...


A complete history of this movement is beyond the scope of this article: see the Restoration Movement article for details of the motivations and forces which shaped this important chapter in the story of American religious practice. See also the section of the present article entitled Other Stone-Campbell bodies.


Post Civil War disagreements

Austin McGary advanced the proposition that a believer's knowledge, at the time of baptism, of baptism's purpose in the remission of sin was required for that baptism to be valid. McGary began publishing his periodical Firm Foundation in 1884 in support of his position. Austin McGary (February 6, 1846- June 15, 1928 was an American Restoration Movement evangelist and publisher of a periodical entitled The Firm Foundation. ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


David Lipscomb debated McGary, responding in the negative in the pages of his Gospel Advocate. The issue was never completely settled, and is now apparently less of a contentious issue than in the days of the Lipscomb-McGary debates. Jesse L. Sewell weighed in on the side of Lipscomb and W. H. Bagby referred to McGary's position as "the baptism hobby" in the pages of the Christian Standard. The debate raged for 15 years, by a 1971 account.[4] 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ...


The Sand Creek Declaration and Address

Daniel Sommer was another significant leader, whose participation in the Sand Creek Declaration and Address, read in Shelby County, Illinois on August 18, 1889, stated clearly the divisive nature of human innovations and digressions from the biblical pattern which were affecting the church at that time and for years to come: Daniel Sommer (1850–1940) was a key figure in the Restoration Movement and in the separation of the Church of Christ from the Christian Church. ... Shelby County is a county located in the state of Illinois. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

"It is, therefore, with this view, if possible, of counteracting the usage's [sic] and practices that have crept into the churches that this effort on the part of the congregations from now on named is made. And now, in closing up this address and declaration, we state that we are impelled from a sense of duty to say that all such as are guilty of teaching or allowing and practicing the many innovations and corruptions to which we have referred, after having had sufficient time for meditation and reflection, if they will not turn away from such abominations, THAT WE CANNOT AND WILL NOT REGARD THEM AS BRETHREN." (emphasis original.) [5]

The Sand Creek church property had been acquired in a deed dated July 18, 1874 to the trustees of the "Christian Church of Sand Creek," though the congregation traced its history to 1834. July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The formal division in the Sand Creek congregation erupted in the autumn of 1903 over a dispute over holding a singing school in the church building. A minority of some 30 digressives began meeting in a local schoolhouse while the majority of approximately 100 conservatives continued use of the brick church building. The two factions ultimately went to court, each claiming property rights over the building. The conservatives referred to themselves as "The Sand Creek Church of Christ," while the digressives used the name "Sand Creek Christian Church." Though the name "Christian Church" did appear on the title to the land, the conservatives successfully argued that they, and not the digressives, represented faithfulness to the original tenets of the faith. The decision, in favor of the conservatives, was rendered first by the Circuit Court of Shelby County, Illinois, likely in 1904, and upheld by the Illinois Supreme Court in a decision handed down in October 1905. 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Supreme Court of Illinois is the apex court of judicature of the state of Illinois, United States of America. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The state supreme court noted that the roots of the division lay decades earlier than the Declaration and Address:

"In 1849 there sprang up among the members of said religious sect different views upon subjects of practice to be adopted by the congregations with reference to matters upon which the Bible is silent, one view being, that in the matters upon which the Bible is silent, such silence should be construed as a positive prohibition; the other view being, that if the Bible is silent upon a given subject pertaining to church government, then the congregation may formulate a rule in that particular for the government of the congregation."[6].

The opinion cites an earlier case, "Church of Christ v. Christian Church of Hammond, 193 Ill. 144." a clue that this was not the first time Illinois congregations had divided in this way. 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Hammond is a village located in Piatt County, Illinois. ...


In the years that followed until his death, Sommer would reverse his endorsement of the Sand Creek Declaration and Address, as did others. But the form and content of the Declaration and Address is representative of the fervor over "usages and practices" and "innovations and corruptions" within the late 19th-century Churches of Christ. Such strong statements, and the positions they articulate, are still maintained more than a century later.


Formal division from the Disciples of Christ (1906)

The present article describes the Churches of Christ which emerged as the minority faction in the schism over instrumental music and missionary societies which emerged after the Civil War. Although disagreements over doctrine had been noted by Campbell and others as early as the 1830s, following the death of Alexander Campbell in 1866 the process of division accelerated due to the conservative theological influence of Tolbert Fanning and others. This process led David Lipscomb to identify the Churches of Christ as a separate body to the United States Census Bureau in 1906. At the time of the 1906 split with the Disciples of Christ, the Churches of Christ numbered 159,658 members, with the Disciples of Christ numbering over six times as many.[7] The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Events and Trends Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Dutch-speaking farmers known as Voortrekkers emigrate northwards from the Cape Colony Croquet invented in Ireland Railroad construction begins in earnest in the United States Egba refugees fleeing the Yoruba civil wars found the city of Abeokuta in south-west Nigeria... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Post 1906 schisms

The placing of such strict emphasis on "correct" Biblical doctrine meant that other schisms in the Church of Christ were to follow: one researcher counts over 21 schisms by the 1960s. Some of these divisions were delayed responses which had their roots in 19th century disputes within the Restoration Movement. As a result, the majority Disciples of Christ faction of the 1906 split would also go on to experience schism in the 20th century, in parallel to the Churches of Christ. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ...


The remainder of this section treats only those schisms in the Church of Christ itself following its emergence as a separately enumerated body in 1906. For a broader treatment, see Restoration Movement: Church of Christ Schisms. For information related to Dispensational Christian views regarding Jewish people in the End times see Restorationism The Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement (or simply, Restoration Movement) is a religious reform movement born in the early 1800s in the United States. ...


One-Cup / non-Sunday School Movement

By the early 1920s, a division had developed over the use of multiple cups versus a single cup in the serving of communion. One source cites the first actual division in fellowship over the issue occurring in 1918.[8] Verses cited by the internal literature for the "fruit of the vine" connoting unfermented grape juice included Deuteronomy 32:14 and Isaiah 27:2, with an added argument that since Christ instituted "the fruit of the vine" as a metaphorical reference to his own blood, he must have implicitly referenced the Old Testament scriptures which deal with this metaphor.[9] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Social issues of the 1920s. ... Communion has several meanings within Christianity. ...


At roughly the same time, the issue of whether to have Sunday Schools emerged among many of the same congregations, so that parallel arguments drove the split with congregations emerging on all sides of the various issues.


Further internal disputes within this group quickly arose over the way in which portions of bread were divided from the loaf (whether broken into pieces beforehand or "pinched" from a partially whole loaf at the time of consumption) during communion, whether wine or grape juice only were acceptable as the "fruit of the vine" in communion, and whether divorced people could partake in communion.


Premillennialism

(See also the section on Eschatology.)

A separate division took place in the 1930s over premillennialism. A controversy focused on the teachings of Robert Henry Boll and was fomented by opponents of the doctrine. Boll was removed from the editorship of the Gospel Advocate over a series of articles on biblical prophecy which he published during his tenure as front-page editor from 1909 to his dismissal in 1915.[10] This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... This article specifically relates to Premillennialism in Christian eschatology; for political millenarianism and other uses of the word see Millenarianism Premillennialism in Christian eschatology is the interpretation of chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation in the Bible which sees Christs second coming as occurring before or pre- his... Robert Henry Boll (June 7, 1875–1956) was a German-born American preacher in the Church of Christ. ... Prophecy, in a broad sense, is the prediction of future events. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The premillenialists pointed out, with some justification, that Stone, Campbell, and others among the earliest pioneers of the Restoration Movement, including Tolbert Fanning and David Lipscomb, held premillenialist or postmillennialist views. From the point of view of the 20th century millennialists, those who insisted on an amillennialist perspective were divergent from the traditional attitude that the lack of certainty among Churches of Christ over eschatology meant that latitude of belief should be permitted. In Christian eschatology, postmillennialism is an interpretation of chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation which sees Christs second coming as occurring after or post- the thousand year millennium. Although some postmillennialists hold to a literal millennium of 1,000 years, most postmillennialists see the thousand years more as... Millennialism (or chiliasm), from millennium, which literally means thousand years, is primarily a belief expressed in some Christian denominations, and literature, that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth where Christ will reign prior to the final judgment and future eternal state, primarily derived from the book... Amillenialism [A, Latin meaning in (rather than the commoner none), and Millennialism, referring to the binding of the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan for 1,000 years as described in Revelation chapter 20 verse 2] (also nunc-millennialism or positively realized millennialism) in Christian eschatology...


The majority amillenialist faction referred to the premillenialist interpretation of prophetic scripture as "speculation" and pointed out that though other leaders within the Restoration Movement had so speculated, these earlier leaders had never sought to spread their eschatological views, as they now accused Boll and other contemporary premillenialists of doing.


Non-Institutional churches of Christ

Although the view of rejecting institutional cooperation was shared by the departing "one-Cup, no Sunday school" faction in the 1930s, a separate dispute over the issue took place from 1945 to 1960, producing the group of Churches of Christ known as non-institutional (see the section on disputes within the church.) The non-institutional churches were pejoratively known as "anti" churches in "mainline" Church of Christ circles: this was a revival of the term "anti" as a pejorative, as earlier in their history, the conservative branch of the Restoration Movement had been referred to in this way as an antonym for "progressive," their position being addressed as "anti-instrument" and "anti-Missionary Society". This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... The churches of Christ are a body of autonomous Christian congregations. ...


Other sources of conflict

Further topics which have induced schisms include use of church buildings for purposes other than worship, with a related dispute over the placing of facilities such as kitchens in church buildings; whether to practice closed or open fellowship with other "Christians"; and whether the Bible prohibits the paying of ministers. A kitchen is a room used for food preparation. ...


Many of these related disputes were ramified across schism boundaries in polyphyletic fashion so that seemingly almost any combination of permissability and prohibition for any of the disputed patterns of worship could be found, albeit among some tiny fraction of the whole number of congregations. The internal literature of the period is rife with consternation over the rate of schism and the apparent inability of the various churches to do anything constructive about the various divisions. In mathematics, ramification is a geometric term used for branching out, in the way that the square root function, for complex numbers, can be seen to have two branches differing in sign. ... In biology, a taxon is polyphyletic if it is descended from more than one root form (in Greek poly = many and phyletic = racial). ...


International Churches of Christ

An offshoot of the mainline churches emerged in the late 1970s, when the movement now known as International Churches of Christ were formed. Originally referred to as the "Crossroads Movement," they were led by Chuck Lucas of the Crossroads Church of Christ in Gainesville, Florida. By the late 1980s, leadership had shifted to the Boston Church of Christ, led by Kip McKean. For a number of years it was referred to as the "Boston Movement" before links with other churches of Christ were broken and the name International Church of Christ was assumed. This organization taught much in common with the Church of Christ, while exhibiting patterns of evangelism similar to the Shepherding Movement which arose in charismatic circles around the same time and geographic locale (though evidence of a direct causal link remains elusive.) The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Shepherding Movement was an influential movement within American Charismatic church in the 1970s and early 1980s. ...


Most all members of the churches of Christ today renounce what they see as excessive and overbearing doctrines within the International Church of Christ. Inasmuch as the Church of Christ congregations are autonomous, there was never an endorsement or acceptance of the International Church of Christ nor could there be a corporate denunciation of the group. However, virtually all members of the so-called mainline Churches of Christ would renounce the group and would refuse to support them.


The ICOC also developed an internal hierarchy, which was dissolved in 2003 after the release of a letter to the ICOC elders and Kip McKean entitled "Honest to God". This caused the resignation of Kip McKean from a leadership role in the ICOC. Following recent events, particularly the separation of many ICOC congregations from Kip McKean, meaningful dialogue has taken place between informal though prominent representatives of both groups.


Kip McKean has since started a new movement in Portland, OR, and is planting new congregations in cities throughout the United States.


Church of Christ Emergent

It appears that the response of some congregations to postmodern thought has produced another group within the main group, though this has yet to be formalized as yet another split. See the article on Church of Christ Emergent. Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Church organization

Congregational autonomy

There are no headquarters for the Church of Christ. Typically, individual congregations participate in a loose, informal network of other local Church of Christ congregations. These congregations often work with each other and cooperate among each other for disaster relief, evangelism, and other shared efforts. From the beginning of the Restoration Movement, newspapers and magazines edited by church leaders have been important forces in unifying like-minded churches. Many congregations value the influence of affiliated universities and colleges, while others resist such affiliations. Headquarters (HQ) denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are concentrated. ... A collection of magazines A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising and/or purchase by readers. ... Church of Christ affiliated colleges and universities include these institutions. ...


Congregational Leadership

Each congregation has its own leadership hierarchy. Preeminent among the leadership are Elders, who are seen as the spiritual leaders of the congregation. Assisting in the administration of specific practical functions of the church are Deacons, and usually one or more leaders variously referred to as preachers, ministers, or evangelists. A religious elder (in Greek, πρεσβυτερος [presbyteros]) is valued for his or her wisdom, in part for their age, on the grounds that the older one is then the more one is likely to know. ... Deacon is a role in the Christian Church which is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. ... Preacher is a colloquial term for a clergyman, in particular a local priest, pastor or Minister; one who preaches. ... For other types of minister, see Minister In Christian churches, a minister is a man or woman who serves a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such persons can minister as a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain, Deacon or Elder. ... Evangelism is the proclaiming of the Christian Gospel. ...


Due to passages such as 1 Timothy 2:8-12 regarding the role of women, these leadership positions are reserved to men in most churches (See Teachings regarding gender roles.) In most if not all societies there are prescriptions regarding gender roles. ...


Elders

Elders are spiritually mature Christian men whose religious work may be some specialized capacity of a spiritual nature. They provide moral guidance, and they or their designees approve and establish Bible study curriculum, select Sunday school teachers, and select the Preacher/Evangelist when the position becomes vacant. In some congregations, elders also select the deacons. Morality deals with that which is regarded as right or wrong. ... In education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses and their contents offered by an institution such as a school or university. ... Sunday school, Indians and whites. ...


Elders are also called pastors, shepherds, and bishops (all Biblical terms interpreted as referring to the same office), but the use of "elder" is the most common by far. Elders are selected by the members of a congregation; the method of doing this varies considerably between congregations, but involves confirming that a potential elder does indeed embody all of the characteristics of elders which are listed in the Bible in 1 Timothy 5:17-20, 1 Timothy 3:1-7, and Titus 1:5-9.


In a decreasing number of congregations, the eldership is something of a self-perpetuating board in which its members are the determiners of the qualifications of their successors and announce whom they have selected to join them with little or no congregational input; this practice was at one time fairly widespread but is no longer acceptable to many members of many congregations.


Deacons

Deacons are recognized special servants of the church and most often take care of specialized needs of the congregation as directed by the Elders. Typically, things such as the building in which services are held is overseen by a Deacon, but Deacons also contribute to the spiritual welfare of the congregation. They are more than just the "buildings and grounds caretakers and administrators" as they are normally thought to be. Like Elders, Deacons are generally selected by the congregations in a manner very similar to that of elders. Qualifications of Deacons are listed in the Bible in 1 Timothy 3:8-12.


Preacher, Evangelist, or Minister

The Preacher, Evangelist, or Minister prepares and delivers sermons, teaches Bible classes, performs weddings, preaches or evangelizes the gospel, and performs baptisms (however, it is not believed that baptizing is restricted to ministers). This position is typically paid to allow the evangelist to disentangle himself from secular employment and focus on studies. A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ...


Most members of Churches of Christ do not use the title "pastor" to refer to their pulpit minister, as this term is held to refer to the same position as "elder" or "bishop" in the Bible, which they feel requires a certain set of qualifications outlined above. Main article: Minister of religion A pastor is the head minister or priest of a Christian church. ... For other uses of Ambo, see Ambo, Ethiopia and ambulance. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ...


Typically these ministers are not 'ordained' as is the tradition of many denominational organizations, and do not use the salutation 'Reverend' or 'Rev.' before their name, professing that only God should be recognized as such (Psalm 111:9). Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ... The Reverend is an honorary prefix added to the names of Christian clergy and ministers. ... God is the deity believed by monotheists to be the supreme reality. ...


Not all churches of Christ have a single preacher but instead use all able men in the position. This derives from II Corinthians 3:6, which defines all Christians as "ministers of the new testament."


Other Leaders

Many congregations also employ other paid ministers besides the pulpit minister, such as ministers for youth, and other more specific ministries.


Hermeneutics

Understanding the positions of the Churches of Christ requires an understanding of their historically accepted hermeneutic. This hermeneutic is often summarized in three parts: Command, Example, and Necessary Inference. An additional hermenutic is the principle of silence. This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...


Command

"Command" refers to a direct command found in the Scriptures (this being further complicated by what some mainstream evangelicals would refer to as the dispensation principle; for example, the command to build an ark was directed to Noah specifically, as opposed to being directed to Christians in general. Additionally, commands are classified as 'Specific' or 'Generic' in nature.) The word evangelicalism usually refers to a tendency in diverse branches of conservative Christianity, typified by an emphasis on evangelism, a personal experience of conversion, biblically-oriented faith, and a belief in the relevance of Christian faith to cultural issues. ... Dispensationalism is a school of Bible interpretation that is associated with fundamentalist Christianity; the primary alternative within the evangelical community is covenant theology. ... A painting by the American Edward Hicks (1780–1849), showing the animals boarding Noahs Ark two by two. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépmüvészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ...


Example

"Example" is sometimes phrased as "an approved Apostolic example." The intent here is that the apostles or 1st century Christians performed some action or engaged in some practice that was approved of (or not condemned). The Twelve Apostles (in Koine Greek απόστολος apostolos [1], someone sent forth/sent out, an emissary) were probably Galilean Jewish men (10 names are Aramaic, 4 names are Greek) chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth by Jesus of Nazareth to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles...


Necessary Inference

"Necessary inference" refers to some interpretational conclusion that would be necessary in order to obey a command or example. In other words, all things necessary in order to carry out a clear command would also be authorized. The New Testament is necessarily silent about many other issues, such as orphanages/children's homes, Sunday school, instrumental music, and congregationally-owned houses of worship ("church buildings"). In each case, the "mainstream" group has reasoned that "necessary inference" allows their use as a way of providing for otherwise-homeless children, facilitating study of the Scriptures, and providing for a reasonable and convenient setting for worship services. In applying the "principle of silence", or distinguishing between congregational and individual responsibilities, some consider these practices to be unauthorized; the most prominent of these are the non-institutional churches and the non-class or non-Sunday-School churches. An orphanage is an institution dedicated to caring for orphans (children who have lost their parents). ... A church building (or simply church) is a building used in Christian worship. ...


Principle of Silence

The principle of silence is observed to varying degrees by the Churches of Christ. When the Bible does not specifically or indirectly authorize a practice, it is considered unauthorized. The belief is that the Bible is the authority on all things, and one should not presume to authorize what God has not.


The disagreements within the Churches of Christ over silence often derive from differences in perception of the meaning of the word "necessary" within the phrase "necessary inference" and the conclusions which can be drawn from scripture's "silence". For example, the non-instrumental churches of Christ agree that the absence of references to instrumental music in New Testament worship mean that their use is unauthorized. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ...


What constitutes indirect authorization is also another point of contention. For example, there are numerous commands in the New Testament for churches to meet. Meeting necessitates a place, and there are many ways to obtain a place to assemble. From this line of reasoning, most churches believe that they have authority to buy a building to use to fulfill this command.


Some more liberal churches have begun to abandon a prohibitive principle of silence. The principle of silence has historically sometimes been defined as permissive within the Restoration Movement, beginning with Thomas Campbell's Declaration and Address in 1809. 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


New Testament versus Old Testament

The Churches of Christ historically do not use the Old Testament to authorize practices, relying solely on the New Testament (new covenant) for matters of practice. They believe that the commands of the Old Testament (old covenant) were to Jews (under Mosaic Law) only and were done away with when Christ died, pointing to verses such as Galatians 3:16-29, Ephesians 2:13-16, Colossians 2:13-14, Hebrews 7:12 and Hebrews 7:18-22, and Hebrews 8:6-13. Thus, things used under the Old Testament by Israel in worship (instruments, incense, animal sacrifice, etc.) which are not repeated in the New Testament are not considered authorized for Christians today.


However, since the New Testament has reiterated many of the moral commandments that God said were wrong in the Old Testament (such as not murdering, lying, stealing, incest, homosexual behavior, etc) they are considered to still be wrong today.


Some among the Churches of Christ have begun to draw distinctions between Law (torah in Hebrew meaning instruction) and covenant (berit in Hebrew, diatheke in Greek, testamentum in Latin) and the Christians continued responsibility to the Law (as it is fulfilled by Jesus) within the covenantal relationship to God experienced in the New Covenant. The Law/Gospel relationship is a controversy that spans many evangelical circles.


Divine inspiration of Biblical texts

The Churches of Christ teach that the Bible was written by men who were inspired and guided by God the Father through the Holy Spirit. Some believe in "plenary" inspiration, whereby the inspired author is able to use his language to express divine truth, but the ultimate truthfulness is from God; this contrasts with "mechanical" inspiration, where the Biblical author is just a mortal "typewriter" for an immortal God, or a Divine "secretary" merely taking dictation. In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... This article uses excessive clichés and jargon associated with topic . ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ... An author is the person who creates a written work, such as a book, story, article or the like. ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ...


Bible translations

There is no uniform belief or practice among Churches of Christ regarding Bible translation preferences. This has generally been left to the choice of individual members, although in some congregations elders have established policies restricting which translations may be used in public reading and teaching. More conservative churches generally prefer the King James Version or the American Standard Version (1901). KJV advocates usually base their preference on either tradition and familiarity or their preference for the Majority Text Greek base which was used for the 1611 translation. Few advocate the idea that the translators of the KJV were inspired in their work. The New King James Version is gaining increasing acceptance among traditionalists who recognize the problem of archaic language in the King James Version and the awkwardness of literary style in the American Standard Version. The New American Standard Bible has a strong following, but may be eclipsed by the newer English Standard Version. The New International Version is widely used due to its low cost and widespread availability. However, it remains strongly opposed by both scholars and conservatives who reject dynamic equivalence or paraphrase translations . Opponents believe that dynamic equivalence translations are faulty because the translation assumes the meaning of the passage and delete from or add to the text to support that meaning. A example doctrine found in the New International Version that is not generally believed by members is Original Sin. This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... The Standard American Edition, Revised Version, more commonly known as the American Standard Version (ASV), is a version of the Bible that was released in 1901. ... The New King James Version (NKJV) is a modern Bible translation, published by Thomas Nelson, Inc. ... The Standard American Edition, Revised Version, more commonly known as the American Standard Version (ASV), is a version of the Bible that was released in 1901. ... The New American Standard Bible (NASB) an English translation of the Holy Bible. ... The English Standard Version (ESV) is an English translation of the Bible. ... The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible which is the most popular of the modern translations of the Bible made in the twentieth century. ... The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible which is the most popular of the modern translations of the Bible made in the twentieth century. ... Michelangelos painting of the original sin (the Fall) According to Christian tradition, Original sin describes the condition of sinfulness (lack of holiness) into which human beings are hereditarily born. ...


Specific teachings

Churches of Christ mostly agree with the theology of conservative Evangelical Christian groups, believing in Jesus as the Son of God, the death of Jesus by crucifixion as atonement for sin, and most other basic Christian teachings. However, there are many specific practices that distinguish them from these other bodies. Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason) means reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God. ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE — 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Son of God is a biblical phrase from the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and the New Testament. ... Artistic depiction of the crucifixion of Jesus. ...


The Church of Christ believes that the organization and structure of the church was laid down by Jesus Christ himself through his apostles in the form of the New Testament. Since this church has no headquarters and each congregation is independent, the teachings may vary somewhat, but overall there is a considerable degree of uniformity among Churches of Christ in each region. The common variances are over the institution of Bible classes, the method that the Lord's supper is served (whether the fruit of the vine is served in one cup or many), the role of women in public worship, and whether ministers should be paid professionals or serve on a volunteer basis. The term volunteer is contested — there is no one agreed-to definition, and the term is frequently debated. ...


When a "faithful" member dies, they are not "sentenced" by Christ to heaven or hell until "Judgement Day". There is no means of earthly or spiritual intercession for the soul of one who has died. There will be a resurrection of both the righteous and the unrighteous (Acts 24:15). Image:Michelangelo - Fresco of the Last Judgment. ...


Political endorsements are highly discouraged, if not condemned, as members are expected to make their own choices for suitable political leaders.


Theology

The theology of Churches of Christ is basically Arminian, although not often referred to as such. Original Sin and the idea of Total Depravity from which it ensues are rejected, although the human predilection to sin due to temptations and the limitations of human nature is affirmed. Election and predestination are functions of the exercise of free will – those who freely choose God's way through Christ are elect and hence saved, others are lost. This decision can be changed based on the believer's behavior – he or she can consciously elect to cease following Christ and hence be lost ("fallen from grace"), but can be restored upon repentance. God's sacrifice of Christ provided sufficient grace to save all persons from their sins, but it is imcumbent upon them to accept Christ's will and follow Him for this grace to save them personally. // For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... Michelangelos painting of the original sin (the Fall) According to Christian tradition, Original sin describes the condition of sinfulness (lack of holiness) into which human beings are hereditarily born. ... Total depravity (also called total inability and total corruption) is a theological doctrine that derives from the Augustinian doctrine of original sin and is advocated in many Protestant confessions of faith and catechisms, including those of Lutheranism,1 Anglicanism and Methodism,2 and especially Calvinism. ... Human nature is the fundamental nature and substance of humans, as well as the range of human behavior that is believed to be invariant over long periods of time and across very different cultural contexts. ... Predestination is a religious idea, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ...


Doctrine of Creation

Some members of the Church of Christ believe in Young Earth creationism, based on a literal interpretation of the Genesis, and that the earth was created with the appearance of age. Others such as John N. Clayton advance the theory of intelligent design, although Clayton believes that minor evolutionary changes are evident after the initial creation.[11] Created in Gods image. ... Intelligent design (ID) is the concept that certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection. ...


Theory of Salvation (Soteriology)

The requirements for salvation are commonly presented in the following steps: In religion, salvation refers to being saved from an undesirable state or condition — typically one in which an individual faces the prospect of eternal torment in hell. ...

  • Hearing (the Word of God)
  • Believing (said Word)
  • Repenting (of one's sins)
  • Confessing (that Jesus Christ is the Son of God)
  • Being baptized (by full immersion).
  • Continued faithfulness is enjoined because the Church of Christ denies the doctrine of eternal security.

Because of the high value attached to the necessity of a believer's baptism by immersion, Churches of Christ are sometimes erroneously said to believe in "baptismal regeneration." The shift to emphasis on immersive baptism as an absolute prerequisite to salvation occurred after the death of Alexander Campbell, who opposed the concept, and was advanced by Austin McGary in the pages of his periodical, Firm Foundation: the strictness of McGary's view was opposed by David Lipscomb in his periodical, the Gospel Advocate, but would win out among the conservatives who split from the Disciples of Christ to form the Church of Christ in 1906. Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... Perseverance of the saints (or preservation of the saints or eternal security) is a controversial Christian doctrine which maintains that none who are truly saved can be condemned for their sins or finally fall away from the faith. ... Believer Baptism (also called credobaptism) is the Christian ritual of baptism as given only to adults and children who first proclaim to believe in Jesus as their personal savior, resurrected by the power of God the Father. ... Austin McGary (1846-1928) founded the Firm Foundation in 1884. ...


Members deny that baptism without faith can bring salvation, but point out that the Bible does command believers to be baptized, for example, in Acts 2:38, Mark 16:15-16. In most, if not all respects, their teaching on a believer's baptism mirrors that of the Independent Christian Churches and Churches of Christ. The word faith has various uses; its central meaning is similar to belief, trust or confidence, but unlike these terms, faith tends to imply a transpersonal rather than interpersonal relationship – with God or a higher power. ... The Independent Christian Churches/Churches of Christ are a part of the Restoration Movement and are in the theological middle ground between the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and the Church of Christ (non-instrumental). ...


Eternal condemnation of the "lost"

People who do not obey the Gospel, according to the Church of Christ's view on Biblical salvation, are termed "lost," as are those who they believe choose to turn from ongoing obedience through repetitive and willful sin.


Many members of the Churches of Christ believe that the "lost" will be condemned to an eternity without God. A vast majority believe in a literal hell, while others believe it is a metaphorical eternity outside of the light of God. A few believe in some version of annihilationism, which holds that the fires of hell consume sinners, who then cease to exist. While in the popular mind, eternity often simply means existing for an infinite, i. ... In language, a metaphor (from the Greek: metapherin) is a rhetorical trope defined as a direct comparison between two or more seemingly unrelated subjects. ... Annihilationism is one of several doctrines of hell in the Christian religion. ...


Age (or knowledge) of accountability

The Church of Christ teaches that there is one reprieve from eternal condemnation apart from voluntary submission. Certain classes of people are seen as not lost, due to the fact that they are unable to make proper moral choices due to youth or deficiency in mental capacity.


Children below the age of accountability are considered in a "safe" position in the eyes of God, and would not be condemned to hell if they died before the age of accountability. However, members do not claim that this age is fixed; it can vary by maturity and knowledge, and so sometimes the phrase knowledge of accountability is used, referencing James 4:17. Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180) Hell, according to many religious beliefs, is a place or a state of pain and suffering. ...


Since the Churches of Christ do not practice infant baptism, the baptism for remission of sins of those who have reached the age of accountability and who have chosen baptism has "coming of age" significance similar to that held by the rite of Confirmation in other Christian traditions, the B'nai Mitzvah within Judaism, or rites within other cultures. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A rite is an established, ceremonious, usually religious act. ... Confirmation is a rite used in many Christian Churches. ... When a Jewish child reaches the age of maturity (12 years for girls, 13 years for boys) that child becomes responsible for him/herself under Jewish law. ... This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ... A rite is an established, ceremonious, usually religious act. ...


Under the same principle of "knowledge of accountability", persons lacking the mental capacity to consciously choose between right or wrong are also not lost, as they are incapable of truly choosing wrong.


Views on Satan

Satan is considered to be a literal being, not just a symbolic or allegorical representation of evil. He is seen as literally tempting Christ's followers away from their chosen path, usually by the use of human agents. Satan's power is seen to be considerable, although vastly inferior to that of God, who allows Satan to exist so that God's followers worship and follow Him as a true act of free will, not predestination. There is no standard position over the accuracy of the Lucifer story or Satan as a fallen angel; most churches take no position under the doctrine of silence. This page does not cite its references or sources. ... In religion and ethics, evil refers to the bad aspects of the behaviour and reasoning of human beings —those which are deliberately void of conscience, and show a wanton desire for destruction. ... This page is about the title or the Divine Person. For the Christian figure, see Jesus. ... Free will is the philosophical doctrine that holds that our choices are ultimately up to ourselves. ... Predestination is a religious idea, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ... Lucifer, as depicted in Collin de Plancys Dictionnaire Infernal (1863). ... Statue of the Fallen Angel, Retiro Park (Madrid, Spain) A fallen angel in Abrahamic traditions is an angel that has been exiled or banished from Heaven. ...


Miracles

Miraculous Gifts – Many members of Churches of Christ do not believe supernatural miraculous events occur in the current times. They believe that these gifts died with those that were given supernatural Spiritual gifts during the time of Jesus and the apostles, being that miracles were only needed to establish authority of teaching. Miracles ceased when "that which is perfect" or the completed inspired teachings of the apostles were complete: see 1 Corinthians 13:8-10. (Acts 8:18). A corollary position is that the "direct gifts of the Spirit" were given only to the Apostles and those upon whom they laid their hands with the intent of passing on these gifts. As there is no New Testament example given of these gifts being further transmitted by those upon whom the Apostles had laid their hands, it is contended that this "measure of the Spirit" passed from an earthly existence once the last of these disciples who had received it from the Apostles died, so this power ceased at or about the close of the 1st century. According to many religions, a miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the operations of the ordinary course of Nature are overruled, suspended, or modified. ...


Eschatology

In terms of eschatology, Churches of Christ are generally amillennial, although there are several (fewer than 100) congregations which are premillennial and follow the teachings of the late Robert Henry Boll (1875-1956).[12] This group sponsors several schools in Louisville, Kentucky, under the name Portland Christian School system, including Portland Christian School. It also holds two annual seminar series: the Kentucky/Indiana Christian Fellowship Week and the Central Louisiana Christian Fellowship Week. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Robert Henry Boll (June 7, 1875–1956) was a German-born American preacher in the Church of Christ. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Louisville redirects here. ... Portland Christian School, based in Louisville, Kentucky, is a private Christian school affiliated with the premillennial churches of Christ. ... Official language(s) English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33...


Worship-related practices and beliefs

Suitable place of worship

Worship can take place at any gathering of church members. Baptism can take place in any suitable body of water allowing total immersion, and may be administered by anyone at any time of the day or day of the week. There is disagreement as to whether the person who administers the baptism must also be a church member.


A cappella congregational music

Most Churches of Christ practice a prohibition against instrumental music in services (a cappella). According to them, the early Church of Christ did not use instruments. Therefore, most Churches of Christ today follow this alleged pattern. Ephesians 5:19 is used to show that singing is a matter of the heart.


The view of no instrumental music is not unique to the Churches of Christ: see also Huldrych Zwingli: Music in the Church for an account of the development of the view in Reformation thought and the process of its inheritance by Restoration Movement theology. Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


There are three different historical positions among churches of Christ against instrumental music. The "principle of silence" argument states that since singing and making music with the heart is specified when the New Testament speaks of music in worship, instrumental music is thus unauthorized and excluded; passages such as Hebrews 7:14 (cf. Hebrews 8:4) are cited to demonstrate the exclusive nature of such specificity.


A second argument against instruments in worship is that such would be entertainment and thus worldly and inappropriate, but not necessarily false doctrine.


Other arguments against the use of instruments are that those who were created for the glory of God are commanded to worship to give glory to God, and someone playing an instrument apart from the congregation will inevitably be glorified. Also, not all members have the ability to play instruments, therefore they cannot possibly be commanded to do so in worship.


While some Churches of Christ have historically opposed instrumental music in worship as unauthorized and sinful, more liberal congregations today take the position that it is permitted, though they may not choose to engage in it themselves. Many of these "liberal" groups will not use instruments in music in the corporate worship, but will allow it in other church-related ceremonies not specifically considered direct worship to God.


There are no choruses or choirs in most Church of Christ congregations. Most churches practice only congregational singing with a single song leader. However, many large, progressive congregations have adopted "praise teams," small singing groups that sing special songs in worship, help teach new songs, and provide "sing along" assistance to the congregations.


Notable affiliated composers, publishers, and performers

Acappella is an all-male Contemporary Christian vocal group that was founded in 1982 by Keith Lancaster, who has variously played the role of singer, songwriter, and producer throughout the groups history. ... Stephen Mark Brown has sung with Luciano Pavarotti on the television program Pavarotti and friends and he has also sung at La Scala. ... Albert Edward Brumley was a shape note gospel music composer and publisher. ... Howard Publishing is a Christian publishing company founded in 1969 and based in West Monroe, Louisiana. ... Tillit Sidney Teddlie was a singing school teacher, composer, publisher, and minister of the Church of Christ. ...

"The Lord's Supper" (Communion)

The Church of Christ does not believe in the theology of transubstantiation or consubstantiation. Many Churches of Christ believe that the Lord's Supper is simply a Memorialism of the death, burial, and ressurection of Christ. However, some believe that this view robs the communion of its very communal aspect in that it is not a spiritual communion at all. The former follow Zwingli, while the latter follow something like Transignification. This debate over the Real Presence vs. the signification of Christ's body in the eucharist is transdenominational. A compromise position is that the Holy Ghost is volitionally present in the taking of the Lord's Supper in a way that the Holy Ghost is not normally present. This is the "gift of the Holy Spirit" that is mentioned in Acts 2:38, a non-predestining, ministering spiritual guide who attends the communion of Christ and Christians. Transubstantiation (from Latin transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ, the change that according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church occurs in the Eucharist. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ... Transignification[1] is a doctrine, largely in progressive Roman Catholic circles, which attempts a rational explanation of the Real Presence of Christ at Mass. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament,[1] to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ...


The Lord's Supper can be served anywhere members are gathered on Sunday; no particularly "sanctified" location nor specifically "authorized" individual is needed to administer communion (except that those administering communion are almost invariably male as a matter of belief that the Bible teaches that only men are authorized to lead in the worship service).


The practice is to partake in the Lord's Supper each Sunday (Acts 20:7.) Theologically, members believe in practicing closed communion, but most participate in a form of open communion where it is up to each person to know whether or not they should partake accordingly. This ensures that members who normally attend at another church building are not be precluded from taking part. Communion is generally served to participants in their seats (unlike many churches in which participants come to the front to receive it). Members assert this practice based on 1 Corinthians 11:28, concluding that it is up to each participant to "examine himself," not the church. Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ... Open communion refers to Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive communion (also called the Eucharist or the Lords Supper). ...


Grape juice is used almost exclusively for "The Lord's Supper" in the United States. However, the original practice within Churches of Christ in the Restoration Movement was using wine exclusively. This practice of the majority changed during the Prohibition Era with much controversy that is now mostly forgotten. A significant percentage today think alcohol should be generally forbidden. Grape juice is the liquid formed by crushing grapes. ... This article is about the prohibition of alcoholic beverages; separate articles on the prohibition of drugs in general and writs of prohibition are also available. ...


Nevertheless, a small remnant of pre-Prohibition influenced conservatives and some progressives advocate literal wine as the "fruit of the vine." Wine is still used in some countries, such as Italy, where the drinking of wine is an historically accepted part of the culture.


Racial integration within worship

The Church of Christ's development against the post-Civil War racial backdrop of the American south produced debates on whether African Americans should be "permitted" to worship in "white" congregations. Following the war, some households among the Church of Christ were racially integrated, with white parents raising black children and bringing them to services in predominantly white congregations. This practice alarmed and infuriated critics who railed against it using the racist rhetoric of the period. A common charge was that racial inclusiveness in the context of a single congregation invited division by offended whites and was therefore Biblically forbidden as a divisive practice. The most extreme argued that black people were "beasts" and "without souls," and that black people had a greater tendency to commit rape than people of other races.[13] African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ...


David Lipscomb, while maintaining his generation's attitudes on the social inequality of blacks and whites, militated against the racist position in the pages of the Gospel Advocate in a heated exchange published in 1907. Lipscomb pointed out that racially integrated congregations had been a fact of life for many congregations in the Church of Christ for years, that he himself had grown up with black children, and pointed to both New Testament example and the "principle of silence" in denying that any basis for racial segregation existed: 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

There can be no doubt as to religious duties and rights. "There can be neither Jew nor Greek, there can be neither bond nor free, there can be no male and female, for ye are all one man in Christ Jesus. And if ye are Christ's, then ye are Abraham's seed, heirs according to promise." (Gal. 3:28.) This means the Christians of every different nation, tribe, country, of every social or political position, have equal privileges and rights in the service of God. No one as a Christian or in the service of God has the right to say to another, "Thou shalt not," because he is of a different family, race, social, or political station. While these distinctions exist here, God favors or condemns none on account of them. Jesus Christ personates himself in the least and most despised of his disciples; and as we treat them, we treat him. "Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me." (Matt. 25:40.) To object to any child of God participating in the service on account of his race, social or civil state, his color or race, is to object to Jesus Christ and to cast him from our association. It is a fearful thing to do. I have never attended a church that negroes did not attend.....[14]

The exchange did not write the final chapter on race attitudes in the Churches of Christ. Mirroring much of the surrounding culture of the American south, while some leaders in the Church of Christ supported the concepts of civil rights and attempted to operate schools for black members of the church, others either continued in an overtly racist attitude or, while acknowledging the validity of civil-rights-movement ideals of racial equality, either advocated an approach of gradualism or insisted that the church not involve itself with secular "organized agitation for reform.".[15] For other uses, see Slavery (disambiguation). ... Mohandas K. Gandhi - Freedom can be achieved through inner sovereignty. ... The shield and spear of the Roman God Mars are often used to represent the male sex In heterogamous species, male is the sex of an organism, or of a part of an organism, which typically produces smaller, mobile gametes (spermatozoa) that are able to fertilise female gametes (ova). ... The mirror of the Roman Goddess Venus is often used to represent the female sex. ... This page is about the title or the Divine Person. For the Christian figure, see Jesus. ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE — 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Tomb of Abraham Abraham (ca. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...


According to Richard T. Hughes' Reviving the Ancient Faith: The Story of Churches of Christ in America, white Church of Christ leaders connected civil rights "riots" to Communism. James Bales, a former Harding College (now University) professor, argued that Martin Luther King supported Communism: Harding University Harding University is located in Searcy, Arkansas, in the United States, an hour north-east of Little Rock. ... The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr, Ph. ...

"His contribution to anarchy within the United States, his cooperation with Communists within the United States, and his efforts to render us defenseless in the face of external Communist aggression all add up to defeat for freedom and victory for communism if he and others like him prevail"[16]

On the desegregationist side there is the singular case of African-American slave-descended preacher Marshall Keeble, whose fame as a preacher grew among both white and black congregations in the period preceding the American Civil Rights Movement.[17][18] This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... Marshall Keeble (b. ... The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ...


The legacy of segregation today is mainly seen in the existence of historically black churches (usually differentiated as "Black Churches of Christ") and historically white churches (which constitute the majority of Churches of Christ). The vast majority of churches today are open to integration in theory, though they may not have more than half a dozen members of non-caucasian races.


Common beliefs, practices, and prohibitions

Variations in practice

Because of the autonomous nature of Churches of Christ, practices vary greatly across the diverse body of congregations of the Churches of Christ. As a whole the following sections reflect practices considered to be standard, with a focus on those beliefs that distinguish the Churches of Christ from Protestant groups.


Specialized vocabulary

The Churches of Christ commonly use specialized vocabulary to circumvent common English usage which is in conflict with accepted doctrine. Words and phrases common to most protestant and/or evangelical churches are often absent or modified in the Churches of Christ. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Protestantism is one of three primary branches of Christianity. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a tendency in diverse branches of conservative Christianity, typified by an emphasis on evangelism, a personal experience of conversion, biblically-oriented faith, and a belief in the relevance of Christian faith to cultural issues. ...


The following examples may be helpful in interpreting the list of beliefs, teachings and prohibitions which follows infra. Many of these have the character of euphemism to outside ears, but among many church members the use of these terms is non-negotiable. A euphemism is an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the listener than the word or phrase it replaces, or in the case of doublespeak to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ...

  • "church" - The word is often left uncapitalized in the name "Church of Christ" to emphasize that the churches are not a denomination.
  • "the building/church building" - The purpose-built physical place of meeting of most congregations. The phrase reminds adherents that the unadorned term "church" always refers to the Church as the body of adherents to new testament doctrine, never the physical building in which members of the church meet (see "church," above.)
  • "member of the church" - The majority believe that only members of the Church of Christ are Christians. However, the common-usage English designation of "Christian" means anyone who calls himself a Christian, and so the use of the euphemism, "member of the church." Others maintain that, though Salvation requires baptism followed by continued obedience to God's word to the best of one's ability according to one's conscience, judgment is subsequently reserved for God alone.
  • "religious" - Used instead of the word "Christian." For example, a conservative member of the Church of Christ might say "Religious Book Store," instead of "Christian Book Store," on the premise that only "real Christians", those found within the fellowship of the Church of Christ, would write truly "Christian" books that reflect the doctrine practiced by the Church of Christ. This is not representative of all members of the Churches of Christ.
  • "denomination" - Churches other than the Church of Christ, specifically because of the belief that other churches follow creeds outside the Bible and use names not authorized by example within the New Testament.
  • "Mid-Week Bible Study" - an additional church worship service, generally held on Wednesday evenings by tradition, that includes an invitation to "obey the gospel of Christ". Generally referred to in Protestant denominations as a "prayer meeting."
  • "invitation" - used where other groups would use the term "Altar call": 1. a designated time during worship, usually after the sermon, when the hearers of the sermon are invited to respond to the message of the sermon. 2. The message of the invitation itself.
  • "Sanctuary" becomes "auditorium" because of the belief that there is nothing particularly holy about the building, and that it is merely a meeting place to conduct worship.
  • "Pastor" is never used to mean "minister." The term "preacher," "evangelist," or "minister" is used instead. The term "pastor" (literally "shepherd") connotes a position of spiritual leadership, which in the Church of Christ is exclusively the purview of elders. However, the denotation of the term "pastor" to indicate the pulpit minister in other churches means that the word "pastor" is rarely used within the Church of Christ to refer to elders.
  • "Minister of Music" is "song leader", or in more progressive congregations, "worship leader," or "worship minister."
  • "Revival" becomes "gospel meeting" or "lectureship series."

This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... An altar call is a practice in some Evangelical churches in which those who wish to receive Jesus Christ as their Savior are invited to come forward publicly. ... Sanctuary has multiple meanings. ... An auditorium is the area within a theatre, concert hall or other performance space where the audience is located in order to hear and watch the performance. ... Main article: Minister of religion A pastor is the head minister or priest of a Christian church. ... Preacher is a colloquial term for a clergyman, in particular a local priest, pastor or Minister; one who preaches. ... Evangelism is the proclaiming of the Christian Gospel. ... For other types of minister, see Minister In Christian churches, a minister is a man or woman who serves a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such persons can minister as a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain, Deacon or Elder. ... In a draw in a mountainous region, a shepherd guides a flock of about 20 sheep amidst scrub and olive trees. ...

Resistance to denominationalism

Even though the Churches of Christ have a traceable historical tradition, there is now a general (basically ahistorical) belief that the Churches of Christ are not a denomination or that they are non-denominational. It would be more accurate to say that they are anti-denominational and transhistorical in that they believe that the Church of Christ is a continuation of the original first century church. Most believe denominationalism itself is sinful, and hold that Christ established only one church; that is found in the New Testament.


Closed fellowship

Many members of the Churches of Christ practice "closed fellowship" (fellowshipping only fellow members of the Churches of Christ), however some congregations today are moving towards extending the ties of fellowship to members of various Christian denominations.


The issue of "fellowship" is hotly debated. For examples of advocacy of the closed fellowship position, see the Archives for Banner of Truth (Walter W. Pigg, editor.) For an instance of and published exchange specific to this debate see Jubilee 2000 Revival. John William Dale serves as the pulpit minister at Glendale Road Church of Christ in Murray, Kentucky, one of the Church of Christs largest congregations. ...


Teachings regarding gender roles

In most Church of Christ congregations, women are not allowed to hold positions of spiritual authority over grown men (e.g., serve as elders, deacons, or preachers) based on 1 Timothy 2:12. Most churches forbid women from leading public worship or teaching a bible study when grown men are present. They are generally permitted, however, to teach young men and male children, speak and ask questions in a bible class setting. This may be viewed as chauvinistic, but women are not viewed as lesser than men outside of the church. Both men and women have specific roles and responsibilities that are outlined according to the New Testament pattern. Chauvinism is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ...


The practice of excluding women from leadership roles however, is being reexamined in more and more Church of Christ congregations. Women sometimes serve as coordinators of various ministries, including youth and education. Women also serve the communion in larger, more liberal urban and suburban churches. These congregations point out that 1 Timothy 2:12 is not a blanket rule for all women of all churches.


In contrast to some other conservative Christian traditions, the details of the command for women to dress modestly in the text surrounding 1 Timothy 2:12, such as the braiding of hair, and the wearing of gold, pearls or expensive clothes is understood to be a de-emphasis on these things and not prohibition. (Historical research suggests that such adornments either were associated with the arrogance and pride (read: lack of modesty) of the upper classes or that such flashy attire and adornment was characteristic of prostitutes of the time and thus to be avoided.) A braid Step by step creation of a basic braid using three strings To braid is to interweave or twine three or more separate strands of one or more materials in a diagonally overlapping pattern. ... Young Girl Fixing her Hair, by Sophie Gengembre Anderson Hair is a filamentous outgrowth from the skin, found mainly in mammals. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... For other things called pearl, see pearl (disambiguation). ... Men and women wearing suits, an example of one of the many modern forms of clothing (from the 1937 Chicago Woolen Mills catalog) Clothing is defined, in its broadest sense, as coverings for the torso and limbs as well as coverings for the hands (gloves), feet (socks, shoes, sandals, boots...


No ordained clergy

There are no clergy and laity; all members are considered to be priests (1 Peter 2:9). Certain male members specialize in the field of teaching. These men are often called "Preachers," "Ministers," or "Evangelists". A preacher's title is not to be confused or equated with "Pastor", which denotes someone who shepherds a flock, a responsibility given to the congregation's elders. If not self supported as Paul was, preachers are generally supported by the congregation in which they work. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ...


Mid-Week Bible Study

Most Church of Christ congregations have an additional "Mid-Week Bible Study," which is most commonly held on Wednesday evenings. Many congregations view this as an expedient to the commands to study the scriptures and evangelize the Christian religion. (Hebrews 10:25)


Vacation Bible School

In the United States, many congregations have "Vacation Bible School," a week-long series of daytime or evening church services geared toward teaching children, which take place during the summer and which include social and recreational activities. Like the Mid-Week Bible Studies, "VBS" (as it is commonly known) is viewed as an expedient to the commands to study the scriptures and evangelize the Christian religion. Vacation Bible School, or VBS for short, is the term for a special type of religious education which caters toward children, usually in the summer. ...


Disfellowship (Withdrawal)

Disfellowship of a member, a form of church discipline which is similar to excommunication, is announced to the congregation by the elders, along with the basis of the decision to disfellowship the member. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Disfellowship is rare because typically those at variance become alienated from the congregation and either remove themselves voluntarily, or submit to other forms of discipline and return to compliance with Church of Christ doctrine. Disfellowship is performed at the congregational level, as there is no hierarchy above that level to enforce discipline.


The scriptures the Church of Christ uses as justification for this pattern of disfellowship are Matthew 18:15-17 and 2 Thessalonians 3:6.


Religious versus secular observance of holidays

Celebration of religious holidays (such as Christmas and Easter) as such is often discouraged, although secular observance of such days is usually tolerated. In recent years, this belief is in decline in many liberal or institutional churches, and it is not unheard of for a church to have special events for such holidays or even to celebrate them with traditional religious significance. A number of conservative or non-institutional churches, though, continue to practice a complete rejection of religious holidays. The practice stems from the belief that remembrance of significant events should be continuous instead of only at a certain time. As an example, while the general celebration of Easter observes Jesus' resurrection from the dead and its significance with respect to salvation, some Christian groups believe that the observance of Jesus' resurrection should occur every day and more specifically on the first day of the week when the communion is taken. Some churches use holidays for gospel meetings but it is not in observance of the holiday, but as an opportunity to call the unsaved and preach to them on a day that they do not work and have a chance to listen to the Gospel. Fishers of Men, oil on panel by Adriaen van de Venne (1614) Various religious symbols Religion is a human phenomenon that defies easy definition. ... The word holiday has related but different meanings in English-speaking countries. ... Christmas is a Christian holiday held on December 25 which celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...


Prohibition against social dance

Much social dancing is condemned as lewd and lascivious behavior. Dancing with sexual overtones is especially frowned upon. The acceptability of social dance varies from congregation to congregation and is dependent on region of country and type of dance. A Church of Christ wedding ceremony is almost never followed by a reception with dancing or alcohol.


Divorce

Exception Churches

Divorce, except for reasons of fornication, is condemned. Hebrews 13:4 Remarriage in these cases is considered adultery, as usually is remarriage of the unfaithful spouse. 1 Corinthians 7:10-11 Exceptions are sometimes made when severe marital abuse or deception are present, but such interpretations differ between congregations. In addition, some churches (particularly among the non-institutional branch) differ in particulars relating to divorce and remarriage. The issue of divorce in the Churches of Christ is often an area of disagreement and criticism. Some say this is due to the growing trend of divorce today. There are over twelve different points of view on this subject among members of the Church of Christ.[citation needed] Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse, which can be contrasted with an annulment, which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody... Man and woman undergoing public exposure for adultery in Japan, around 1860 Adultery is generally defined as consensual sexual intercourse by a married person with someone other than his or her lawful spouse. ...


Non-Exception Churches

Divorce is condemned for all reasons. Matthew 19:4-6 A separation may occur under extraordinay circumstances as in 1 Corinthians 7:10-11. Remarriage is condemned under any circumstances. Mark 10:10-12 Luke 16:18


Abortion

Abortion in most circumstances is considered to be the sin of murder. Some institutional congregations participate in organizations that promote adoption as an alternative to the practice. But nearly all congregations strongly condemn abortion because of the belief that the unborn child has a soul. Some, however, make exceptions for cases of rape and incest, because these scenarios constitute situations under which moral obligations are placed upon an individual against that individual's volition; people are not normally condemned to bear the burden of another person's sin; therefore, the morning after pill may be appropriate in matters of rape and incest, especially because this prevents rather than terminates pregnancy. However, the vast majority of the members and clergy of the Churches of Christ are against abortion in any form for any reason, and many equate the fertilzed, non-implanted egg with human life. The morning-after pill, also known as emergency contraception or emergency birth control, is a pill regimen that a woman can take up to three days after she has had sexual intercourse to prevent the implantation of a fertilized egg in her uterus. ...


Homosexuality

Homosexual activity is seen as sin. Churches generally differentiate homosexual activity from homosexuality itself or homosexual people, sometimes espousing the idea that while mere sexual orientation is not sinful per se, all homosexual acts are a choice. Many see homosexual proclivity as not inherent in a person's nature but rather a result of personal choices or life events that have pushed the person toward such feelings. Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... The word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings over time. ...


Conscientious objection

Several members of the Churches of Christ have claimed conscientious objector status during wartime. This opinion was mainstream, at least in some circles, in the late 19th century and was the viewpoint frequently published in mainstream Church of Christ publications such as David Lipscomb's Gospel Advocate. This movement lost most of its currency in the Churches of Christ during World War II when 199[19] members registered as conscientious objectors and served in Civilian Public Service camps, and has been fairly uncommon since World War II. A conscientious objector is a person whose beliefs are incompatible with military service - perhaps with any role in the armed forces (in which case he or she is either pacifist or antimilitarist) - or who objects to a particular war. ... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union United States United Kingdom and others Axis Powers: Germany Japan Italy and others Commanders Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry S. Truman Winston Churchill Adolf Hitler Hideki Tojo Benito Mussolini Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military... Civilian Public Service (CPS) provided conscientious objectors in the United States an alternative to military service during World War II. From 1941 to 1947 nearly 12,000 draftees, unwilling to do any type of military service, performed work of national importance in 152 CPS camps throughout the United States and...


The contemporary Church of Christ is not a historical peace church, but it is still listed as such by the US military for consideration of conscientious objector status. Most churches in the UK consisted overwhelmingly of objectors. One notable post-WWII American conscientious objector is author William Kay Moser, who served two years in prison rather than serve in the Korean War. Peace churches are Christian groups in the pacifist tradition. ... Combatants Western Allied/UN combatants: South Korea United States United Kingdom Communist combatants: North Korea Peoples Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Douglas MacArthur, Jeong Il-Gwon Kim Il-sung, Peng Dehuai Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ...


Other Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement bodies

United States

The Churches of Christ were advanced during the American Restoration Movement of the 19th century. As in the New Testament, this movement recognized the body as "The Churches of Christ" or "Christian Churches."


After the Civil War, there began to be divisions in this body over the issues of missionary societies and instrumental music in worship which reached a head in 1906 when the two groups formally split, agreeing to be listed separately in the religious census then conducted by the Bureau of the Census. Those holding to the prohibition of instrumental music are the Churches of Christ of today. The first Church to use the name was Knob Creek Church of Christ in Dukedom, Kentucky, which was founded in 1834 and still exists today. A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Knob Creek Church of Christ was the first Restoration Church to use the name Church of Christ. Some of the early Settlers arriving in Graves County, Kentucky brought with them the teachings of some of the great Restoration preachers, and wanted to have a local church where they could worship. ... Dukedom, Kentucky is a small town in Graves County in western Kentucky. ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


After the schism between the Church of Christ and the Disciples of Christ in 1906, and hence separately from (although in some ways in parallel with) the subsequent development of the Churches of Christ, the Disciples of Christ experienced further schism. Independent Christian Churches/Churches of Christ (instrumental) congregations began to divide from the Disciples of Christ in the 20th century during the fundamentalist response to modernism. This division had solidified by the time of the 1960s. Fundamentalism is a movement to maintain strict adherence to founding principles. ... Modernism is a cultural movement that generally includes the progressive art and architecture, music, literature and design which emerged in the decades before 1914. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ...


Other groups related to the Restoration Movement were the Christian Connexion and The Christian Church, both of which merged into the Congregational Church during the 1930s: these denominations were comprised primarily of congregations in the northeastern United States. Separately in the 1930s, the Evangelical and Reformed Church formed from a merger of German Protestant denominations. These two merged groups eventually merged in the 1950s to become the United Church of Christ, a group now part of the Protestant Mainline and unrelated to the Churches of Christ. Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Evangelical and Reformed Church was an American Protestant denomination formed by the merger (1934) of the Reformed Church in the United States and the Evangelical Synod of North America. ... The 1950s were the decade that traditionally speaking, spanned the years 1950 through 1959. ... The United Church of Christ (UCC) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination principally in the United States, generally considered within the Reformed tradition, and formed in 1957 by the merger of two denominations, the Evangelical and Reformed Church and the Congregational Christian Churches. ... Mainline is also rail terminology for the main and often most transited portion of a railroad, which is usually double- or more track. ...


Some churches have associated themselves with an "emergent conversation/movement". It is unclear at present how significant this ideology is or what its impact will be in the future. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Elsewhere

The Churches of Christ in Australia are the Australian Stone-Campbell group, and are named after the movement's name at the time of its founding. Of the three current US groups, they are closest in belief and practice to the Disciples of Christ. A similar New Zealand group is the Associated Churches of Christ in New Zealand. The Churches of Christ in Australia is part of the Restoration Movement. ...


Most of the Churches of Christ in the UK became part of the United Reformed Church in 1981. Most of the remaining became the Fellowship of Churches of Christ. Logo of The United Reformed Church The United Reformed Church (URC) is a Christian denomination (church) in the United Kingdom. ...


The Australian and New Zealand groups planted churches throughout the Pacific Islands, the United Kingdom group planted churches throughout the British Empire, and the American groups planted churches throughout the Americas and the rest of the world. These groups often used the name "Church of Christ" and were affiliated with the other churches of that name. While a few such churches still exist, many have merged with other groups. The Pacific Ocean has an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number has not been precisely determined. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... World map showing the Americas America or the Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Disputes within the Church

See also: Post 1906 schisms

Institutions

A major disagreement over the establishment of "institutions" at a level over that of the local congregations in order to serve works such as children's homes came to a head in the 1950s and 1960s. Today, those who disagree with this idea are referred to as the non-institutional or often by the pejoratives "anti-cooperation" or "anti." They represent approximately 15% of United States membership and are also represented by missionaries in other countries as well. The churches of Christ are a body of autonomous Christian congregations. ...


Rebaptism controversy

The validity of believer baptisms performed by other religious groups such as Baptists is sometimes questioned. The debate is centered on whether or not a person must believe that baptism is in order to be saved rather than the response of one already saved. Many within the Churches of Christ consider such an understanding to be essential, although whether this position currently is or historically was held by the majority of members is hard to determine. Acts 19:1-5 is often cited as the scriptural authority for the practice, as well as Acts 2:38 in which the apostle Peter's command to be baptized is qualified; he tells the crowd they must "be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins" (emphasis added).


The Gospel Advocate publishing house based in Tennessee, as well as its long-time editor David Lipscomb and many Church of Christ and Restoration Movement leaders before him considered it not essential, and that a voluntary baptism done to obey the command to be baptized was valid whether further beliefs about the point of salvation were correct or incorrect.


The Firm Foundation, an influential publishing house based in Texas, was founded by Austin McGary in part to promote the opposite position, that a baptism without prior belief that baptism was the point of salvation was not valid at all.


Many congregations have and continue to fully support rebaptism as argued by McGary, though very few make such a belief a test of fellowship. The issue was not resolved per se, as both opinions still exist within the mainstream churches.


The issue generally opens when a Baptist or related Evangelical converts to the Church of Christ, and their particular congregation reflects more than one opinion on whether rebaptism is needed.


Liberalism and conservatism

Use of the terms "liberal" to describe those churches and members that are more progressive and more willing to accept doctrines of the mainline Protestant denominations, and the term "conservative" to describe those churches who hold to the more traditional teachings of the Church of Christ, is common but sometimes controversial. In some circles one or both of these labels may be offensive. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In other religious contexts, "liberal" carries the connotation of a rejection of traditional Christian doctrines, such as the Incarnation. When used within the Church of Christ it generally does not carry that meaning, but it can be offensive because of that association. Look up Incarnation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Incarnation, which literally means enfleshment, refers to the conception, and live birth of a sentient creature (generally human) who is the material manifestation of an entity or force whose original nature is immaterial. ...


Some members reject all of these labels, either because in their opinion it confuses issues of right and wrong with matters of preference or because of the perception that it contributes to division within the church. Others within the church may be proud of their conservative or liberal labels. Some may use alternate terms to show their point of view of the factions: "progressive," "faithful," "unfaithful," "old fashioned," "anti".


Within the non-institutional churches, the term "conservative" is generally taken to refer only to those churches that hold the non-institutional conviction, while the term "liberal" is often applied to all mainline churches of Christ that do not, even those that otherwise consider themselves to be "conservative."


International Churches of Christ

The group called the International Churches of Christ (ICOC) (sometimes called "The Boston Movement"), which was grounded in the Church of Christ "Crossroads Movement", is often labeled a cult by mainstream congregations. This movement had its origins in certain congregations of the Church of Christ. Since the late 1980s, however, some Church of Christ leaders have repudiated the ICOC as an apostatized, schismatic cult; the ICOC in turn has declared itself to be a faithful remnant being called out of a dead or dying church, namely the mainstream Churches of Christ. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that cult debate be merged into this article or section. ...


The ICOC saw tremendous percentage growth in comparison to the congregations led by the mainstream Churches of Christ, reaching approximately 134,000 members (compared to the over one million members of mainstream churches of Christ). ICOC subsequently suffered a series of internal debates on matters ranging from the central authority claimed by founder Kip McKean to financial impropriety. ICOC is in a period of change that may not end for several years. Thomas Kip McKean was an influential leader in the Boston Movement which evolved into the International Churches of Christ. ...


Representatives of the ICOC and some members of the mainstream Churches of Christ attended reconciliation meetings at the 2004 Abilene Christian University lectureships. Abilene Christian University (ACU) is a private university located in Abilene, Texas, affiliated with Churches of Christ. ...


See the Russell Paden thesis for a fairly impartial examination of this subject.


Notable Members of the Church of Christ

See also List of famous people with ties in the Church of Christ There are many politicians, writers, thinkers, athletes, entertainers as well as other well-known people associated with the Restoration Movement churches. ...

Batsell Barrett Baxter ( September 23, 1916 Cordell, Oklahoma – March 31, 1982 Nashville, Tennessee) was an influential preacher and writer within the Churches of Christ. ... Robert Henry Boll (June 7, 1875–1956) was a German-born American preacher in the Church of Christ. ... This article specifically relates to Premillennialism in Christian eschatology; for political millenarianism and other uses of the word see Millenarianism Premillennialism in Christian eschatology is the interpretation of chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation in the Bible which sees Christs second coming as occurring before or pre- his... Alexander Campbell is one of the most prevalent personal names in Scotland and among Scottish emigrant populations. ... Johnny Chavis (born October 16, 1956 in Dillon, SC ), is the Defensive Coordinator, Linebacker Coach and Associate Head football coach at the University of Tennessee, where he has been since 1989. ... Sherri Coale is the current womens basketball for the University of Oklahoma Sooners. ... Tolbert Fanning Tolbert Fanning (1810-1873) was born in Cannon County, Tennessee. ... The Gospel Advocate is a religious magazine published monthly in Nashville, Tennessee. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881), and the second U.S. President to be assassinated. ... Nicholas Brodie Hardeman (1874-1965} was an educator, debator and gospel preacher within the Church of Christ. ... Lester Holt on left on Weekend Today Lester Holt (born March 8, 1959) is co-anchor of Weekend Today television show on NBC in the United States. ... Marshall Keeble (b. ... David Lipscomb (1831-1917) David Lipscomb (1831–1917) was an important minister, editor, and educator in the American Restoration Movement and one of the leaders of the theologically conservative faction of that movement, which by 1906 had formalized the division between itself as the Church of Christ and the more... Austin McGary (February 6, 1846- June 15, 1928 was an American Restoration Movement evangelist and publisher of a periodical entitled The Firm Foundation. ... John Byron Nelson, Jr. ... Ira Lutts North (August 31, 1922 Ethridge, Tennessee – January 15, 1984 Nashville, Tennessee) was a well known preacher and author within the Churches of Christ. ... Fess Parker (born August 16, 1924) is an American film and television actor. ... Kenny Perry (born August 10, 1960 in Elizabethtown, Kentucky) is an American professional golfer. ... Lloyd Ted Poe (born September 10, 1948 in Temple, Texas) is an American politician and judge currently serving in the United States House of Representatives as a member of the Republican Party for Texas District 2. ... Pat Sajak on Wheel of Fortune. ... Tom Sellecks lead character on Magnum, P.I. portrayed him as a moustached private investigator. ... Gene Stallings (born March 2, 1935) is a former college and professional football coach best known for winning an NCAA Division I National Championship at the University of Alabama in 1992. ... Randy Travis sings his chart-topping song Three Wooden Crosses, at the DoD-sponsored salute to Korean War veterans at the MCI Center in Washington, July 26, 2003. ... Thomas Hawley Tommy Tuberville, (born September 18, 1954) is an American college football coach and current head coach of the Auburn Tigers football team. ... R. Gerald Turner graduated from Abilene Christian University with a BS in Psychology and from the University of Texas with a PhD. He served as the chancellor of The University of Mississippi, and is current president of Southern Methodist University. ... Southern Methodist University (also known as SMU) is a private, coeducational university in University Park, Texas, (an enclave of Dallas). ... Don Williams Don Williams is a country music singer and songwriter born May 27, 1939, in Floydada, Texas. ... Alfred Matthew Weird Al Yankovic (born October 23, 1959) is an American musician best known for his parodies of contemporary radio hits. ...

See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... There are many politicians, writers, thinkers, athletes, entertainers as well as other well-known people associated with the Restoration Movement churches. ...

Notes

  1. ^ U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2004-2005 No. 67. Self-Described Religious Identification of Adult Population 1990 and 2001 and No. 68. Religious Bodies -- Selected Data
  2. ^ Paden 1994 (Abstract)
  3. ^ Rollmann, Hans. "In Essentials Unity: The Pre-history of a Restoration Movement Slogan", Restoration Movement Quarterly, 39:3. Abilene, Texas: Abilene Christian University.
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Miles, Larry (September 10, 1889). Reflections on the Restoration Movement pp. 44-45. Christian Leader.
  6. ^ Illinois Supreme Court (October 1905). Documents of Sand Creek: The Sand Creek Church Case (Supreme Court). Gospel Advocate.
  7. ^ United States Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of the Census, Religious Bodies, 1906 (United States Printing Office, 1910), 236.
  8. ^ A Brief History of the One-Cup and Non-Sunday School Movement
  9. ^ FRUIT OF THE VINE by Lonnie Kent York.
  10. ^ Kevin James Gilbert 1999
  11. ^ God's Revelation in His Rocks and in His Word, John N. Clayton
  12. ^ Robert Henry Boll page from the Restoration Movement pages at the Memorial University of Newfoundland
  13. ^ Lipscomb, D. (1901) Editorial: The Negro His Crime and Treatment (Gospel Advocate, 19 September 1901, 600)
  14. ^ Lipscomb, David, et. al (1907) THE NEGRO IN THE WORSHIP--A CORRESPONDENCE
  15. ^ ACU Today - Spring 2000 "An Angry Peace: Race and Christian Education"
  16. ^ (297-8 qtd. in Hughes).
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ [3]
  19. ^ Gingerich, Melvin (1949), Service for Peace, A History of Mennonite Civilian Public Service, p. 452, Mennonite Central Committee.

Abilene Christian University (ACU) is a private university located in Abilene, Texas, affiliated with Churches of Christ. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Supreme Court of Illinois is the apex court of judicature of the state of Illinois, United States of America. ... The Gospel Advocate is a religious magazine published monthly in Nashville, Tennessee. ... Memorial University of Newfoundland, popularly known as MUN, is a comprehensive university located in St. ...

External links

Please refer to this page's link policy prior to posting links. < Back to Church of Christ article Link policy In order that the Church of Christ article remain useful, it regular editors have come to a concensus on a link policy. ...


General Websites

Online Print Media

  • Renewed in Spirit - Renewed in Spirit is designed to help meet the spiritual needs of Christians around the world.
  • Christian Courier - Investigating biblical apologetics, religious doctrine, and ethical issues.
  • Apologetics Press - Publishes materials defending a literal interpretation of creation in the Bible.
  • Seek the Old Paths - An online/printed magazine used to defend the Truth and teach others.
  • House to House/Heart to Heart - An online/printed magazine used to teach both Christians and non-Christians.
  • New Wineskins - The Believers' Magazine (from what would be regarded within the CofC as an extremely 'liberal' viewpoint)
  • The Christian Chronicle - A newspaper of the Churches of Christ.
  • Restoration Quarterly - Magazine devoted to study of the Restoration Movement and Churches of Christ.
  • The Light - A monthly publication representing the "one cup, no-exception" brotherhood.
  • Truth Magazine - A bimonthly publication from what would be regarded as a "conservative" or "non-institutional" viewpoint

Online TV/Radio Stations

  • WSOJ - Gospel Radio
  • Gospel Broadcasting Network (GBN) - "A satellite network, broadcasting the truth and nothing but the truth, 24 hours a day, seven days a week."

Directories

  • "ChurchZip - Global Directory of 38,822 Churches of Christ with maps and geographical search capabilities."
  • Churches of Christ Online - Locate local US Church Websites with Thumbnail views by State. Just click on the map.
  • Church of Christ Online Network - An Online directory of US Churches of Christ web pages
  • Singapore Churches of Christ -
  • Global Directory of Christian Universities Affiliated with the Churches of Christ
  • Worldwide Church of Christ Locator

History and Sources

  • Historical Texts, Images, and Interpretations of the Restoration Movement: Disciples of Christ, Christian Churches, Churches of Christ

Former members and internal critical views

  • Ex-Church of Christ support group
  • Present and former members speak out in favor of reform in Churches of Christ.
  • Freedom's Ring: Moving from Legalism to God's Grace and Unity
  • Grace-Centered Magazine

Miscellaneous

  • Online Academy of Biblical Studies
  • Preacher's Files - "Building the church of Christ worldwide"
  • Executable Outlines
  • Executable Preacher
  • World Evangelist

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