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Encyclopedia > Church Slavonic language
Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic.

Church Slavonic or Church Slavic (Bulgarian: църковнославянски език, tsarkovnoslavyanski ezik; Macedonian: црковнословенски јазик, crkovnoslovenski jazik; Russian: церковнославя́нский язы́к, tserkovnoslavyánskiy yazík; Serbian: Црквенословенски језик, crkvenoslovenski jezik; Czech: církevní slovanština; Polish: cerkiewnosłowiański) is the liturgical language of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church and other Slavic Orthodox Churches. Historically, this language is derived from Old Church Slavonic by adapting pronunciation and orthography and replacing some old and obscure words and expressions with their vernacular counterparts (for example from the Old Russian language). Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Kiev_psalter. ... Image File history File links Kiev_psalter. ... A page from the psalter illustrating creation of Adam and his life in the Paradise. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... The Macedonian Orthodox Church (Macedonian: Македонска Православна Црква, Transliteration: Makedonska Pravoslavna Crkva) is the body of Christians who are united under the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church Unknown flag, seen offten in public. ... Slavic Orthodox Churches are to be found in Russia, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro, and Macedonia, and they employ the Church Slavonic language in their liturgy. ... Old Church Slavonic (pol. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The name Old Russian language has been applied to different things. ...


Before the eighteenth century, Church Slavonic was in wide use as a general literary language in Russia. Although it was never spoken per se outside church services, members of the priesthood, poets, and the educated tended to slip its expressions into their speech. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it was gradually replaced by the Russian language in secular literature and retained its use only in church. Although as late as the 1760s, Lomonosov argued that Church Slavonic was the so-called "high style" of Russian, within Russia itself this point of view largely vanished during the nineteenth century. Elements of its style may have survived longest in speech among the Old Believers after the late-seventeenth century schism in the Russian Orthodox Church. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , IPA: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... Events and Trends King George III ascends the British throne in 1760. ... The name Lomonosov may refer to: Mikhail Lomonosov, a polymath and writer of Imperial Russia Lomonosov Gold Medal, an annual award given by the Russian Academy of Sciences Lomonosov, Russia, a city named for Mikhail Lomonosov (formerly Oranienbaum) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... In the context of Russian Orthodox church history, the Old Believers (Russian: ) separated after 1666 - 1667 from the hierarchy of the Russian Orthodox Church as a protest against church reforms introduced by Patriarch Nikon. ...


Church Slavonic (in various modifications) was also used as a liturgical and literary language in other Orthodox countries — Belarus, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria and Macedonia — until it was replaced by national languages (but the liturgical use may continue). Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Many words have been borrowed from Church Slavonic into Russian. While both Russian and Church Slavonic are Slavic languages, some early Slavic sound combinations evolved differently in each branch. As a result, the borrowings into Russian are similar to native Russian words, but with South Slavic variances, e.g. (the first word in each pair is Russian, the second Church Slavonic): золото / злато (zoloto / zlato), город / град (gorod / grad (disambiguation)), горячий / горящий (goryačiy / goryaščiy), рожать / рождать (rožat’ / roždat’). Since the Russian Romantic era and the corpus of work of the great Russian authors (from Gogol to Chekhov, Tolstoy, and Dostoevsky), the relationship between words in these pairs has become traditional. Where the abstract meaning hasn't commandeered the Church Slavonic word completely, the two words are often synonyms related to one another much as Latin and native English words were related in the nineteenth century: one is archaic and characteristic of written high style, while the other is common and found in speech. Look up grad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (Russian: ; IPA: ; Ukrainian: ) (April 1, 1809 — March 4, 1852) was a Russian-language writer of Ukrainian origin. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: , IPA: ) was a Russian short story writer and playwright. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, IPA: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821–February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and lasting effect...

An example of Church Slavonic typography

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1278x1120, 70 KB) Summary An example of modern Church Slavonic typography (Luke 20:20-26). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1278x1120, 70 KB) Summary An example of modern Church Slavonic typography (Luke 20:20-26). ...

Pronunciation

In most cases, Church Slavonic is pronounced like the modern vernaculars; consequently, its pronunciation today differs considerably in the different Slavic nations.


In Russia, Church Slavonic is pronounced in the same way as Russian, with some exceptions:

  • Church Slavonic features okanye and yekanye, i.e., the absence of vowel reduction in unstressed syllables. That is, о and е in unstressed positions are always read as IPA [o] and [jɛ]/[jɛ] respectively (like in northern Russian dialects), whereas in standard Russian pronunciation they have different allophones when unstressed.
  • There should be no de-voicing of final consonants, although in practice there often is.
  • The letter е [je] is never read as ё [jo]/[jo] (the letter ё does not exist in Church Slavonic writing at all). This is also reflected in borrowings from Church Slavonic into Russian: in the following pairs the first word is Church Slavonic in origin, and the second is purely Russian: небо / нёбо (nebo / nëbo), одежда / одёжа (odežda / odëža), надежда / надёжный (nadežda / nadëžnyj).
  • The letter Γ is read as voiced fricative velar sound [ɣ] (just as in Southern Russian dialects), not as occlusive [g] in standard Russian pronunciation. When unvoiced, it becomes [x]; this has influenced the Russian pronunciation of Бог (Bog) as Boh [box]. In modern Russian Church Slavonic occlusive [g] is also used and considered acceptable; however Бог (nominative) is pronounced "Boh" [box] as in Russian.
  • The adjective endings -аго/-его/-ого/-яго are pronounced as written ([–ago], [–jego], [–ogo], [–jago]), whereas Russian -его/-ого are pronounced with [v] instead of [g] (and with the reduction of unstressed vowels).

In Serbia, Church Slavonic is today generally pronounced according to the Russian, not the Slavoserbian model. Possible differences from the Russian variant are limited by the lack of certain sounds in Serbian phonetics (there are no sounds corresponding to letters ы and щ, and the palatalization of consonants is impossible in certain cases, like ть pronounced as т etc.). Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... O (О, о) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /o/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Ye, or E (Е, е), is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Ye, or E (Е, е), is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up Г, г in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The Slavoserbian language (славяносербскій [slavjanoserbskij], словенскій [slovenskij]; in Serbian славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) is a form of the Serbian language which was predominantly used at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century by educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina, and the Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ...


The difference between Russian and (Western) Ukrainian versions of Church Slavonic lies in the pronunciation of the letter yat (Ѣ). The Russian pronunciation is the same as е [je]/[je] whereas the Ukrainian is the same as и [i]. Greek Catholic variants of Church Slavonic books printed in the Latin alphabet (a method used in Austro-Hungary and Czechoslovakia) just contain letter "i" for yat. Yat or Jat (, ) is the name of the thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet, or of the sound it represents. ... Ye, or E (Е, е), is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... I or Y (И, и) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet, pronounced in Russian, or in Ukrainian. ...


Grammar and style

Although the various recensions of Church Slavonic differ in some points, they share the tendency of approximating the original Old Church Slavonic to the local Slavic speech. Old Church Slavonic (pol. ...


Inflexion tends to follow the ancient patterns with few simplifications. All original six verbal tenses, seven nominal cases, and three numbers are intact in most frequently used traditional texts (but in the newly-composed texts, authors avoid most archaic constructions and prefer variants that are closer to modern Russian syntax and therefore are better understandable by the Russian-speaking people).


The fall of the yers is fully reflected, more or less to the Russian pattern, although the terminal ъ continues to be written. The yuses are often replaced or altered in usage to the sixteenth- or seventeenth-century Russian pattern. The yat continues to be applied with greater attention to the ancient etymology than it was in nineteenth-century Russian. The letters ksi, psi, omega, ot, and izhitsa are kept, as are the letter-based denotation of numerical values, the use of stress accents, and the abbreviations or titla for nomina sacra. The letter (Ъ, ÑŠ) of the Cyrillic alphabet is known as the hard sign (твёрдый знак ) in the modern Russian alphabet and as er golyam (ер голям, big yer) in the Bulgarian alphabet. ... Little Yus and Big Yus , or Jus, are the letters representing two Common Slavonic nasal vowels, in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets. ... Yat or Jat (, ) is the name of the thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet, or of the sound it represents. ... Ksi (Ñ®, ѯ) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet, descended from the Greek letter Xi. ... Psi (Ñ°, ѱ) is a letter in the early Cyrillic alphabet, derived from the Greek letter psi (Ψ, ψ). It represents the sound /ps/, as in English naps, and was used largely in loan words from foreign languages. ... Omega (Ѡ, ѡ) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet, descended from the Greek Omega (Ω, ω). These early letters were called Archaic letters. ... Ot (Ѿ, Ñ¿) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet, a ligature of the letters Omega and Te. ... Izhitsa (Ñ´, ѵ) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet. ... Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol first used in old Cyrillic manuscripts, e. ... Nomina sacra means Sacred names in Latin, and can be used to refer to traditions of abbreviated writing of several frequently occurring divine names or titles in early Greek language Holy Scripture. ...


The vocabulary and syntax, whether in scripture, liturgy, or church missives, are generally somewhat modernised in an attempt to increase comprehension. In particular, some of the ancient pronouns have been eliminated from the scripture (such as етеръ /jeter/ "a certain (person, etc.)" → нѣкій in the Russian recension). Many, but not all, occurrences of the imperfect tense have been replaced with the perfect.


Miscellaneous other modernisations of classical formulae have taken place from time to time. For example, the opening of the Gospel of John, by tradition the first words written down by Saints Cyril and Methodius, искони бѣаше слово "In the beginning was the Word", were set down as въ началѣ бѣ слово in the Ostrog Bible of Ivan Fedorov (1580/1581) or in the recently used Elizabethan Bible (the first printing in 1751). For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... Monument to Sts. ... The Ostrog Bible The Ostrog Bible (Russian: ) was one of the earliest East Slavic translations of the Bible and the first complete printed edition of the Bible in Old Church Slavonic, published in Ostrog, in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, by the Russian printer Ivan Fyodorov in 1581 with the assistance... The name may refer to Ivan Fedorov (printer) -- the first Russian printer Ivan Fedorov (navigator) -- Russian navigator, commanding officer of the expedition to northern Alaska in 1732. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ...


See also

Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ... Old Church Slavonic (pol. ...

External links

  • Learn Church Slavonic
  • Bible in Church Slavonic language (PDF) (Russian)
  • Problems of computer implementation (Russian)
  • Full Church Slavonic Dictionary (with Old Russian words) (Russian)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Church Slavonic language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (890 words)
Historically, this language is derived from the Old Church Slavonic language by adapting pronunciation and orthography and replacing some old and obscure words and expressions by their vernacular counterparts (for example from the Old Russian language).
Before the eighteenth century, the Church Slavonic language was in wide use as a general literary language in Russia.
Church Slavonic (in various modifications) was also used as a liturgical and literary language in other Orthodox countries — Belarus, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria and Macedonia — until it was replaced by national languages (but the liturgical use may continue).
Church Slavonic language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (418 words)
The Church Slavonic language (ru: церковнославя́нский язы́к) is the liturgical language of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Before the 18th century, the Church Slavonic language was in wide use as a general literary language in Russia.
However, as both languages are Slavic, the borrowings are usually thought of as variants of Russian words, e.g.: золото/злато, город/град, горячий/горящий, рожать/рождать (the first word in each pair is Russian, the second Church Slavonic).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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