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Encyclopedia > Chumash (tribe)
Rafael, a Chumash in the 1800s
Pre-contact distribution of the Chumash

The Chumash are a Native American tribe who historically inhabit mainly the southern coastal regions of California, in the vicinity of what is now Santa Barbara and Ventura, extending as far south as Malibu. They also occupied three of the Channel Islands Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and San Miguel; the smaller island of Anacapa was unihabited. Modern place names with Chumash origins include Malibu, Lompoc, Ojai, Point Mugu, Piru, Lake Castaic, and Simi Valley. Rafael, a Chumash who shared cultural knowledge with Anthropologists in the 1800s Source: http://www. ... Rafael, a Chumash who shared cultural knowledge with Anthropologists in the 1800s Source: http://www. ... Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1805 - 1815). ... Image File history File links Chumash_langs. ... Image File history File links Chumash_langs. ... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Nickname: Santa Barbara is situated on the southward-facing coast at far right. ... Coordinates: Country United States State California County Ventura Mayor Carl Morehouse Area    - City 84. ... Location of Malibu in California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1991-03-28 [2] Government  - Mayor Ken Kearsley [1] Area  - City  100. ... The eight Channel Islands of California, off the west coast of the United States. ... Location of Malibu in California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1991-03-28 [2] Government  - Mayor Ken Kearsley [1] Area  - City  100. ... Lompoc, the City of Arts and Flowers Lompoc (pronounced Lahm pac) is a city in Santa Barbara County, California, United States. ... Downtown Ojai Ojai (pronounced ) is a city in Ventura County, California, United States. ... Point Mugu is a geographical promontory on the Pacific coast in Ventura County, California, near the cities of Port Hueneme and Oxnard. ... Piru is a census-designated place located in Ventura County, California. ... Castaic Lake Castaic Lake Panorama Castaic Lake is a lake on Castaic Creek formed by Castaic Dam, in northwestern Los Angeles County, California, near the town of Castaic. ... Simi Valley is an incorporated city located in the extreme southeast corner of Ventura County, California, bordering the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles in the Greater Los Angeles Area. ...

Contents

Population

Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. (See Population of Native California.) Alfred L. Kroeber (1925:883) thought that the 1770 population of the Chumash might have been about 10,000. Alan K. Brown concluded that the population was not over 15,000. Sherburne F. Cook (1976a, 1976b) at various times estimated the aboriginal Chumash as 8,000, 13,650, 20,400, and 18,500. Native California Population, according to Cook 1978. ... Alfred Louis Kroeber Alfred Louis Kroeber (June 11, 1876–October 5, 1960) was one of the most influential figures in American anthropology in the first half of the twentieth century. ... Sherburne Friend Cook was a physiologist by training, and served as professor and chairman of the department of physiology at the University of California, Berkeley. ...


By 1900, their numbers had declined to just 200. According to some reports, there are now some 5,000 people who identify themselves as Chumash.[1]


Lifestyle

The Chumash were hunter-gatherers and were adept at fishing. They are one of the relatively few New World peoples who regularly navigated the ocean (the other was the Tongva, a neighboring tribe located to the South). Some settlements built plank boats called tomols, which facilitated the distribution of goods, and could even be used for whaling. Remains of a developed Chumash culture, including rock paintings (petroglyphs) apparently depicting the Chumash cosmology, can still be seen. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Gabrieleno Native American women Tongva may also refer to the Tongva language. ... Petroglyphs on Newspaper Rock State Historic Monument, southern Utah, USA Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surfaces by incising, pecking, carving, and abrading. ...


Artifacts

Anthropologists eagerly sought Chumash baskets as prime examples of the craft, and two of the finest collections are at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC and the Musée de l’Homme (Museum of Mankind) in Paris, France. The Museum of Natural History at Santa Barbara is believed to have the largest collection of Chumash baskets. Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the comparative study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... Four styles of household basket. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History The Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History is the oldest museum in Santa Barbara, founded in 1916. ... Nickname: Santa Barbara is situated on the southward-facing coast at far right. ...


Languages

Several related Chumashan languages were spoken. There are no longer any living native speakers, although some current place names are derived from Chumash, at least parts of some dialects are preserved. Pre-contact distribution of Chumashan languages Chumashan is a family of languages that were spoken on the southern California coast (from San Luis Obispo to Malibu), in neighboring inland regions (San Joaquin Valley), and on three nearby islands (San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Cruz). ...


Modern times

The first modern Tomol was launched in 1976 as a result of a joint venture between Chumash descendants from The Coastal Band of the Chumash Nation and The Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History. The Tomol was named Helek, the Chumash word for Falcon. The descendants reformed The Brotherhood of the Tomol, paddled around the Santa Barbara Channel Islands on a ten day journey, stopping on each island. The second Tomol the Elye'wun ("swordfish") was launched in 1997. On September 9, 2001 by The Chumash Maritime Association. Several Chumash bands and decendants came together to paddle from the mainland to Santa Cruz Island in the Elye'wun. The Elye'wun was reported to have been circled by a pod of at least 30 dolphins during part of their voyage. 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History The Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History is the oldest museum in Santa Barbara, founded in 1916. ... Species About 37; see text. ... The eight Channel Islands of California, off the west coast of North America. ... Binomial name Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill in contrast to the smooth, round bill of the marlins. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Genera See article below. ...


The Santa Ynez Band of Chumash run a casino on their reservation in Santa Ynez, California. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Santa Ynez is a census-designated place located in Santa Barbara County, California. ...


See also

Chumash traditional narratives include myths, legends, tales, and oral histories preserved by the Chumash people of southern Californias Transverse Range, Santa Barbara-Ventura coast, and Channel Islands. ...

Sources

  • Anderson, Atholl. 2006. "Polynesian Seafaring and American Horizons: A Response to Jones and Klar". American Antiquity 71:759-763.
  • Applegate, Richard. 1972. Ineseño Chumash Grammar and Dictionary. PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
  • Brown, Alan K. 1967. "The Aboriginal Population of the Santa Barbara Channel". University of California Archaeological Survey Reports 69:1-99.
  • Cook, Sherburne F. 1976a. The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Cook, Sherburne F. 1976b. The Population of the California Indians, 1769-1970. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Jones, Terry L., and Kathryn A. Klar. 2005. "Diffusionism Reconsidered: Linguistic and Archaeological Evidence for Prehistoric Polynesian Contact with Southern California". American Antiquity 70:457-484.
  • Jones, Terry L., and Kathryn A. Klar. 2006. "On Open Minds and Missed Marks: A Response to Atholl Anderson". American Antiquity 71:765-770.
  • Klar, Kathryn A., and Terry L. Jones. 2005. "Linguistic Evidence for a Prehistoric Polynesia-Southern California Contact Event". Anthropological Linguistics 47:369-400.
  • Kroeber, A. L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D.C.
  • Nabokov, Peter. Autumn, 1989. "Reconstituting the Chumash: A Review Essay". American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 4, Special Issue: The California Indians. pp. 535-543.

References

External links

Population groups of Native California

Achomawi · Atsugewi · Bay Miwok · Cahuilla · Chemehuevi · Chimariko · Chumash · Coast Miwok · Cupeño · Eel River Athapaskans (Lassik, Nongatl, Sinkyone, Wailaki) · Esselen · Gabrielino (Tongva) · Halchidhoma · Hupa (Chilula, Whilkut) · Karuk · Kato · Kawaiisu · Kitanemuk · Kumeyaay (Diegueño, Ipai, Tipai) · Lake Miwok · Luiseño · Maidu · Mattole (Bear River) · Modoc (Klamath) · Mohave · Mono (Monache, Owens Valley Paiute) · Nomlaki · Northern Paiute · Ohlone (Costanoan) · Patwin · Pomo · Quechan (Yuma) · Salinan · Serrano · Shasta (Konomihu, Okwanuchu) · Tataviam · Tolowa · Tubatulabal · Valley and Sierra Miwok · Wappo · Washoe · Western Shoshone · Wintu · Wiyot · Yana · Yokuts · Yuki · Yurok The California Department of Parks and Recreation manages the California state parks system, which contains 1. ... Achomawi basket_maker in 1923 The Achomawi were Native Americans who lived in northern California. ... The Atsugewi were native Americans residing in what is now northern California, in the vicinity of Mount Shasta. ... Miwok—also spelled Miwuk or Me-Wuk—refers to native Californians who lived in what is now Northern California. ... The Cahuilla are a group of Native Americans that have inhabited California for more than 2000 years, originally covering an area of about 2,400 square miles (6,200 km²). Evidence shows that when the Cahuilla first moved into the area a large body of water now called Lake Cahuilla... The Chemehuevi (chem-a-wa-ve) are a Native American tribe who live with the Mohave in and near the Colorado River Reservation in Arizona. ... Pre-contact distribution of Chimariko Chimariko is an extinct language isolate formerly spoken in Trinity County in northwestern California by Chimariko peoples. ... Bodega Bay as viewed from present-day Dillon Beach, was ancient homeland of the Coastal Miwok. ... Cupeño. ... The Eel River Athapaskans include the Wailaki, Lassik, Nongatl, and Sinkyone groups of Native Americans that traditionallly lived on or near the Eel River of northwestern California. ... Esselen The Esselen were the Native American inhabitants of what is now known as Big Sur on the Central Coast of California. ... Gabrieleno Native American women Tongva may also refer to the Tongva language. ... The Halchidhoma were an Indian tribe living along the lower Colorado River in California and Arizona when first contacted by Europeans. ... A smoky day at the Sugar Bowl Edward Curtis, photographer The Hupa are an Athabaskan tribe which inhabit northwestern California. ... Karuk Karuk (also Karok) are an indigenous people of California in the United States. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Kawaiisu Family The Kawaiisu lived in the Tehachapi Valley and in the mountains to the north, toward Lake Isabella and Walker Pass. ... Kitanemuk was a Northern Uto-Aztecan language of the Takic branch. ... The Kumeyaay, also known as the Diegueño and sometimes confused with the Luiseño, are a Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. ... Clear Lake, California, is the homeland of the Lake Miwok. ... The Luiseño are a Native American people who at the time of the first contacts with the Spanish in the 16th century inhabited the coastal area of southern California, ranging 50 miles from the southern part of Los Angeles County, California to the northern part of San Diego County... The Maidu are a group of Native Americans who lived in Northern California. ... Bear River Indians are a group of Athabascan Indians living along Bear River in the present Humboldt County, California, closely connected with the Mattole, Sinkyone, and Nongatl tribes. ... For other uses, see Modoc (disambiguation). ... Two Mohave men dressed in loincloths, western Arizona Judith, a young Mohave woman about eighteen years of age The Mohave are a Native American tribe, many of whom live on or near the Colorado River Indian Tribes, Chemehuevi and Fort Mojave Indian Reservations on the Colorado River in California and... The Mono are a Native American people who traditionally lived in the southern Sierra Nevada mountains (generally south of Bridgeport, California) and adjacent areas of the Great Basin. ... The Nomlaki (also Noamlakee, Central Wintu) are a Wintun people native to the area of the Sacramento Valley extending westward to the Coast Range in Northern California. ... Paiute (sometimes written as Piute) refers to two related groups -- Northern Paiute and Southern Paiute--of Native North Americans speaking languages belonging to the Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan family of Native American languages. ... For the college of the same name, see Ohlone College. ... The Patwin (also Patween, Southern Wintu) are a Wintun people native to the area in Northern California. ... The Pomo people are a Native American people of Northern California. ... Yumas. ... The Salinan Native Americans lived in what is now Northern California, in the Salinas Valley. ... The Serrano are a Native American tribe of Southern California. ... The Shasta (or Chasta) are an indigenous people of Northern California and Southern Oregon in the United States. ... The Tataviam language is an extinct Uto-Aztecan language that was spoken in southern California. ... The Tolowa language (also called Smith River) is a language of the Tolowa-Galice language group. ... Tubatulabal (also Tübatulabal) is an endangered Uto-Aztecan language spoken by some elders in southern California. ... The Valley and Sierra Miwok (also called the Plains and Sierra Miwok), were the largest group of Miwok Native American people. ... The Wappo were a group of Native Americans who lived in the Napa and Russian River areas of Northern California. ... Washoe (Washo) The Washoe (also Washo) are a Native American people who originally lived around Lake Tahoe and adjacent areas of the Great Basin. ... Western Shoshone is a Native American tribe that is endemic to the Great Basin and have lands identified in the Treaty of Ruby Valley 1863 In Idaho, Nevada, California and Utah. ... The Wintu (also Northern Wintun) are Native Americans who lived in what is now Northern California. ... This page deals with the Wiyot people. ... Yana The Yana people were a group of Native Americans indigenous to Northern California in the central Sierra Nevada Mountains, on the western side of the range. ... Yokutsan (also Yokuts) is a family of languages spoken in the interior of southern California in and around the San Joaquin valley. ... [[Image:YukiTribe. ... Reconstruction of a Yurok Native American plankhouse constructed of redwood boards. ...


 
 

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