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Encyclopedia > Chu (state)
State of Chu(small seal script, 220 BC)
State of Chu
(small seal script, 220 BC)

Chu (楚) was a kingdom in what is now southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 BCE) and Warring States Period (481-212 BCE). This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 《尋隱者不遇》—賈島 松下問童子 言師採藥去 隻在此山中 雲深不知處 Seeking the Master but not Meeting by Jia Dao Beneath a pine I asked a little child. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC 221 BC - 220 BC - 219 BC 218 BC... The Spring and Autumn Period (ch. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (Traditional Chinese: 戰國時代; Simplified Chinese: 战国时代; Pinyin: Zhànguó Shídài) covers the period from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part...


It was originally known as Jing (荆) and then as Jingchu (荆楚). At the height of its power, the Chu empire occupied vast areas of land, including the present-day provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Henan, Shanghai, and parts of Jiangsu. The Chu capital was at Ying (郢). Hunan (Chinese: 湖南; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning south of the lake). Hunan is sometimes called 湘 (pinyin: Xiāng) for short, after the Xiang River which runs through the province. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: 重庆; Traditional Chinese: 重慶; Pinyin: Chóngqìng; Wade-Giles: Chung-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Shanghai (Chinese: 上海; pinyin: ; Shanghainese: ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is Chinas largest city by population. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ...

Contents


History

The land of Jing was inhabited by the native Chu people. The early Chu state was ruled by an aristocracy with close affinity to the Zhou kings, with its capital at Danyang. Prior to the dissolution of Zhou's power, the territory was transferred by authority of the Zhoucheng Wang of Eastern Zhou to Xiong Yi. The Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: 周朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: chou chao; 11th century BC to 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... King Cheng of Zhou (ch 周成王 zhōu chéng wáng) or King Cheng of Chou was the second sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. ...


In its early years, Chu was a successful expansionist and militaristic state. Chu developed a reputation for coercing and absorbing its allies. Chu grew from a small, dependent state into a large empire worthy of contention, even attaining the traditional title of one of "The Five Overlord States of the Spring and Autumn Period" (春秋五霸). Chu first consolidated its power by absorbing the lesser states within its immediate vicinity in Hubei; then, it expanded into the north towards the North China Plain. The threat from Chu resulted in multiple northern alliances against Chu and its allies; these alliances successfully kept Chu in check, with its first major victory at the Battle of Chengpu. Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The North China Plain (Chinese: 华北平原; Pinyin: HuábÄ›i Píngyuán), also called the Central Plain (Chinese: 中原; Pinyin: Zhōngyuán), is based on the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... The Battle of Chengpu (城濮之戰) was a conflict between the states of Jin against Chu and its allies in China in 632 BC during the Spring and Autumn Period. ...


The kingdom's power continued even after the end of the Spring and Autumn period in 481. Chu overran Cai to the north in 447 BCE. During the Warring States Period, Chu was increasingly pressured by Qin to its west. Chu's size and power made it the key state in alliances against Qin. As Qin expanded into Chu territory, Chu was forced to expand southwards and eastwards, absorbing local cultural influences along the way. In 333 BCE, Chu and Qi partitioned and annexed the coastal state of Yue. The Spring and Autumn Period (ch. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC - 440s BC - 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC Years: 452 BC 451 BC 450 BC 449 BC 448 BC - 447 BC - 446 BC 445 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 338 BC 337 BC 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC - 333 BC - 332 BC 331 BC 330... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period. ...


By the late Warring States period (ca. late 300s BCE), however, Chu's prominent status had fallen into decay. As a result of several invasions headed by Zhao and Qin, Chu was eventually subjugated by Qin. Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part of the Eastern... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC Years: 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: 赵, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ...


In 278 BCE, Qin general Bai Qi marched on the capital Yingdu, threatening to invade. Following the fall of Yingdu, Shouchun (in today's Anhui province) became the state's capital-in-exile. Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Culture

State of Chu(bronzeware script, ca. 800 BC)
State of Chu
(bronzeware script, ca. 800 BC)

Based on archaeological finds, Chu's culture was initially quite similar to that of other Zhou states. Later on, Chu culture absorbed indigenous elements as the state expanded to the south and east, developing a distinct culture from the traditional Northern Zhou states. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Bronzeware script (金文 pinyin jin wen or 鐘鼎文 pinyin zhong1 ding3 wen2) is a family of scripts found on Chinese bronzes such as zhong (bells) and ding (tripods), since bronze artifacts with Chinese characters span many centuries and they have been found in many areas of China. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC - 800s BC - 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC Events and Trends 804 BC - Hadad-nirari IV of Assyria conquers Damascus. ...


Early Chu burial offerings consisted primarily of bronze vessels in the Zhou style. Later Chu burials, especially during the Warring States Period, featured distinct Chu burial objects, such as colorful lacquerware, iron and silk, accompanied by a reduction in bronze vessel offerings. In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or colored coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles. ...


A common Chu motif was the depiction of snakes, dragons and serpent-like beings. Some archaeologists speculate that Chu may have had cultural connections to the vanished Shang dynasty, since many motifs used by Chu appeared earlier at Shang sites, such as motifs depicting serpent-tailed gods. In art, a motif is a repeated idea, pattern, image, or theme. ... The Shāng Dynasty (Chinese: 商朝) or Yīn Dynasty (殷代) (ca. ...


Later Chu culture was known for its affinity for employing shamanistic rituals. Chu was also known for its distinct music; archaeological evidence shows that Chu music was annotated differently from Zhou music; Chu music also showed an inclination for using different performance ensembles, as well as unique instruments; In Chu, the se was preferred over the qin, while both instruments were equally preferred in the northern Zhou states. The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... The se 瑟 (pinyin: sè) is an ancient Chinese stringed instrument. ... The guqin (Chinese: 古琴; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: ku-chin; literally ancient stringed-instrument) is the modern name for a plucked seven-string Chinese musical instrument of the zither family (中華絃樂噐/中华弦乐器). It has been played since ancient times, and has traditionally been favored by scholars and literati as an instrument of great...


Chu came into frequent contact with other people in the south, most notably the Ba, Yue and the Hundred Yue. Numerous burials and burial objects in the Ba and Yue styles were discovered throughout the territory of Chu, co-existing with Chu-style burials and burial objects. Ba (巴) was an ancient state in eastern Sichuan, China. ... Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Yue (pinyin: Yuè, Wade-Giles: Yüeh, also Yuet, Viet) refers to ancient non-Sinicized or semi-Sinicized Chinese peoples of southern China, originally those along the eastern coastline of present-day Zhejiang province and Shanghai. ...


The early rulers of the Han Dynasty romanticized the culture of Chu, sparking a renewed interest in Chu cultural elements such as the Chu Ci. After the Han dynasty, Chu developed an undeserved reputation for being a barbarian state; Confucian scholars considered Chu culture with distaste, criticizing the "lewd" music and shamanistic rituals associated with Chu culture. The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 漢朝; Simplified Chinese: 汉朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Han Chau; 206 BC–AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... Portrait of Qu Yuan, the central figure of Chu Ci, by Australian Chinese artist Zhang Cuiying Chu Ci (Simplified Chinese: 楚辞; Traditional Chinese: 楚辞; Pinyin chǔ cí), also known as Songs of the South or Songs of Chu, is an anthology of Chinese poems by Qu Yuan and Song Yu... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means...


Famous people

  • Famed poet Qu Yuan hailed from Chu. A government minister and a patriot, he had advocated uniting with the other states to combat the rising hegemon Qin, yet to no avail; he was banished by the king of Chu. According to tradition, such was his grief upon learning of the Qin invasion, reportedly committed suicide.
  • Warrior King Xiang Yu also known as "Overlord of Western Chu", he destroyed every single Qin army and also was rival to Han Dynasty founder Liu Bang. He was fearsome in the battlefield but somewhat arrogant that lead to his downfall.

Qu Yuan Qu Yuan (Simplified Chinese: 屈原; Traditional Chinese: 屈原; Pinyin: qÅ« yúan) (c. ... Chu could refer to: The Chu river valley in modern Kyrgyzstan. ... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... Xiang Yu é …ç¾½ Simplified: 项羽 (Wade-Giles: Hsiang Yü; pinyin: Xiàng YÇš; 232 BC - 202 BC) was a prominent general during the fall of the Qin Dynasty. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 漢朝; Simplified Chinese: 汉朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Han Chau; 206 BC–AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... Emperor Gao (256 BC or 247 BC–June 1, 195 BC), commonly known inside China as Gaozu, personal name Liu Bang, was the first emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling over China from 202 BC until 195 BC, and one of only two dynasty founders who emerged from the...

See also

Portrait of Qu Yuan, the central figure of Chu Ci, by Australian Chinese artist Zhang Cuiying Chu Ci (Simplified Chinese: 楚辞; Traditional Chinese: 楚辞; Pinyin chǔ cí), also known as Songs of the South or Songs of Chu, is an anthology of Chinese poems by Qu Yuan and Song Yu... King Zhuang of Chu (楚莊王) (died 591 BC) was leader in the state of Chu in the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. ... Song Yu (Simplified Chinese: 宋玉) was a well-known Chinese poet in the State of Chu during the third century BCE. He is commonly said to be a nephew of Qu Yuan, but no reliable biographical information is available (He is also said to be a student of Qu Yuan). ... Wu Qi (died 381 BC) was a Chinese military leader and politician in the warring states period. ... Mawangdui (馬王堆) is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China. ... The Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng (曾侯乙墓) is a an important archaeological site in Suizhou, Hubei, China, dated sometime after 433 BC. The tomb contained the remains of Marquis Yi of Zeng. ...

References

  • Defining Chu: Image And Reality In Ancient China, Edited by Constance A. Cook and John S. Major, ISBN 0824829050
  • So, Jenny F., Music in the Age of Confucius, ISBN 0295979534

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chu (state) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (775 words)
The early Chu state was ruled by an aristocracy with close affinity to the Zhou kings, with its capital at Danyang.
Chu overran Cai to the north in 447 BCE.
In 333 BCE, Chu and Qi partitioned and annexed the coastal state of Yue.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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