FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Chthonic" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Chthonic
See also: Life-death-rebirth deities

Chthonic (from Greek χθόνιος-pertaining to the earth; earthy) designates, or pertains to, gods or spirits of the underworld, especially in relation to Greek religion. Chthon may mean: Chthon (comics), a demon in the Marvel Comics universe Chthon (novel), a science fiction novel by Piers Anthony Chthon may also mean: Chthonian (Cthulhu Mythos), a fictional race, created by Brian Lumley, from the Cthulhu Mythos Chthonian planet, a type of planet Chthonic, a term in Greek... The category life-death-rebirth deity also known as a dying-and-rising god is a convenient means of classifying the many divinities in world mythology who are born, suffer death or an eclipse or other death-like experience, pass a phase in the underworld among the dead, and are... Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, the World or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath. ... // In the study of mythology and religion, the underworld is a generic term approximately equivalent to the lay term afterlife, referring to any place to which newly dead souls go. ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ...


Greek khthon is one of several words for "earth"; it typically refers to the interior of the soil, rather than the living surface of the land (as gaia or ge does) or the land as territory (as khora does). It evokes at once abundance and the grave. Loess field in Germany Soil horizons are formed by combined biological, chemical and physical alterations. ... Gaia (pronounced // or //) (land or earth, from the Greek ; variant spelling Gaea—see also Ge from ) is a Greek goddess personifying the Earth. ...

Greek deities
series
Primordial deities
Titans and Olympians
Aquatic deities
Personified concepts
Other deities
Chthonic deities
Hades and Persephone,
Gaia, Demeter, Hecate,
Iacchus, Trophonius,
Triptolemus, Erinyes
Heroes and the Dead

Its pronunciation is somewhat awkward for English speakers—for this reason, many American dictionaries recommend that the initial "ch" should be silent. However, most other dictionaries, such as the OED, state that the first two letters should be pronounced [k]. Note though that the pronunciation of the Greek word "χθόνιος" is [xθonios]. [1] The Oricoli bust of Zeus, King of the Gods, in the collection of the Vatican Museum. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek Τιτάν, plural Τιτάνες) were a race of powerful deities that ruled during the legendary Golden Age. ... The twelve gods of Olympus. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... MuSE is an acronym that stands for Multiple Streaming Engine. ... Asclepius (Greek also rendered Aesculapius in Latin and transliterated Asklepios) was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. Hades (from Greek , HaidÄ“s, originally , HaidÄ“s or , AïdÄ“s; of uncertain origin[1], although it has been ascribed to Greek unseen[2]) refers... Persephone and Hades In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, PersephónÄ“) was the queen of the Underworld, the Kore or young maiden, and the daughter of Demeter— and Zeus, in the Olympian version. ... Gaia (pronounced // or //) (land or earth, from the Greek ; variant spelling Gaea—see also Ge from ) is a Greek goddess personifying the Earth. ... Ceres (Demeter), allegory of August: detail of a fresco by Cosimo Tura, Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara, 1469-70 Dêmêtêr (or Demetra) (Greek: , mother-earth or perhaps distribution-mother, perhaps from the noun of the Indo-European mother-earth *dheghom *mater) is the Greek goddess of grain and agriculture... Hecate, Hekate (HekátÄ“), or Hekat was originally a goddess of the wilderness and childbirth originating from Thrace, or among the Carians of Anatolia. ... In Greek mythology, Iacchus is an uncertain person. ... Trophonius (the Latinate spelling) or Trophonios (in the transliterated Greek spelling) was a Greek hero or daimon or god - it was never certain which one - with a rich mythological tradition and an oracular cult at Lebadaea in Boeotia. ... Triptolemus (threefold warrior; also Buzyges), in Greek mythology always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica, or, according to Apollodorus (Library I.v. ... In Greek mythology the Erinyes (Ερινύες) or Eumenides (the Romans called them the Furies) were female personifications of vengeance. ... From the Greek , in mythology and folklore, a hero (male) or heroine (female) usually fulfills the definitions of what is considered good and noble in the originating culture. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A dictionary is a list of words with their definitions, a list of characters with their glyphs, or a list of words with corresponding words in other languages. ... In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the words pronunciation. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is generally regarded as the most comprehensive and scholarly dictionary of the English language. ...

Contents

Chthonic and Olympian

While terms like "Earth deity" have rather sweeping implications in English, the words khthonie and khthonios had a more precise and technical meaning in Greek, referring primarily to the manner of offering sacrifices to the god in question.


Some chthonic cults practiced ritual sacrifice. When the sacrifice was a living creature, the animal was placed in a bothros "pit" or megaron "sunken chamber". In some Greek chthonic cults, the animal was sacrificed on a raised bomos "altar". Offerings were usually burned whole or buried rather than being cooked and shared among the worshippers. Not all Chthonic cults were Greek, nor did all cults practice ritual sacrifice, some performed sacrifices in effigy or burnt vegetal offerings. Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


References in popular culture

Horror author Brian Lumley applied the term "Chthonian" for a fictional species in his contributions to H. P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos.

The ancient alien race in the Battlezone computer game is called The Cthonians. They are split into two factions, the Olympians and the Hadeans. Acording to the game, this alien race is responsable for the Greek mythos. Brian Lumley (born December 12, 1937) is a writer of horror fiction. ... A chthonian is a fictional character in the Cthulhu mythos. ... This is a complete list of the Pokémon which appear in the National Pokédex as of Pokémon Diamond and Pearl. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction. ... Cthulhu Mythos is the term coined by the writer August Derleth to describe the shared elements, characters, settings, and themes in the works of H. P. Lovecraft and associated writers. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ...


In Ralph Ellison's novel Invisible Man, the meeting place of the Brotherhood is "the Chthonian".


Cult type versus function

While chthonic gods and goddesses had a general association with fertility, they did not have a monopoly on it, nor were Olympian gods wholly unconcerned from the earth's prosperity. Thus Demeter and Persephone both watched over aspects of the fertility of land, yet Demeter had a typically Olympian cult while Persephone had a chthonic one. Fertility is the ability of people or animals to produce healthy offspring in abundance, and of the earth to bear fruit. ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ... Ceres (Demeter), allegory of August: detail of a fresco by Cosimo Tura, Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara, 1469-70 Dêmêtêr (or Demetra) (Greek: , mother-earth or perhaps distribution-mother, perhaps from the noun of the Indo-European mother-earth *dheghom *mater) is the Greek goddess of grain and agriculture... Persephone and Hades In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, Persephónē) was the queen of the Underworld, the Kore or young maiden, and the daughter of Demeter— and Zeus, in the Olympian version. ...


Even more confusingly, Demeter was worshipped alongside Persephone with identical rites, and yet was occasionally classified as an "Olympian" in poetry and myth. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


In between

The categories Olympian and Chthonic were not, however, hard and fast. Some Olympian gods, like Hermes and Zeus, also received chthonic sacrifices and tithes in certain locations. The deified heroes Heracles and Asclepius might be worshipped as gods or chthonic heroes, depending on the site. Hermes bearing the infant Dionysus, by Praxiteles Hermes (Greek IPA: ), in Greek mythology, is the Olympian god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators and wit, of literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures and invention and commerce in general... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Ζεύς Zeús, genitive: Διός Díos), is... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) In roman mythology, Heracles or Herakles (glory of Hera, or Alcides, original name) + , ) was a divine hero, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, stepson of Amphitryon[1] and great-grandson of Perseus. ... Asclepius (Greek also rendered Aesculapius in Latin and transliterated Asklepios) was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ...


Moreover, a few deities are not easily classifiable under these terms. Hecate, for instance, was typically offered puppies at crossroads — not an Olympian sacrifice, to be sure, but not a typical offering to Persephone or the heroes, either. But because of her underworld functions, Hecate is generally classed as chthonic. Hecate, Hekate (HekátÄ“), or Hekat was originally a goddess of the wilderness and childbirth originating from Thrace, or among the Carians of Anatolia. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog is a mammal in the order Carnivora. ... A crossroads (the word rarely appears in singular) is another word for road junction, where two or more roads meet (there are three or more arms). ...


References

  1. ^ See Modern Greek phonology.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chthonic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (442 words)
Greek khthon is one of several words for "earth"; it typically refers to the interior of the soil, rather than the living surface of the land (as does gaia or ge) or the land as territory (as does khora).
Chthonic deities also tended to favor fl victims over white ones, and their offerings were usually burned whole or buried rather than being cooked and shared among the worshippers.
While chthonic gods and goddesses had a general association with fertility, they did not have a monopoly on it, nor were Olympian gods wholly unconcerned from the earth's prosperity.
S Y N T H E S I S - Chthonic: From Beast to Godhead - By Vadge Moore (3802 words)
Chthonic is of the earth or under the earth.
To be chthonic means to be rooted in the ground sunk into the earth where all things die decompose and rejoin the primal elements.
This is an ideal chthonic representation, embracing the depths symbolized by the serpents rising to the human and achieving solar transcendence as depicted by the rooster head.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m