FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Chronology of Jesus' birth and death
Jump to: navigation, search
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Detailed timeline for Jesus. (Discuss)
Topics related to Jesus

The chronology of Jesus' birth and death is heavily contested and impossible to ascertain exactly. Many sources contest on which day, month, and in which year major events in Jesus' life occurred. This assumes that these events occurred at all (see historicity of Jesus). Image File history File links Merge-arrows. ... Among historians who are Christian Biblical scholars, the literature suggests the following detailed timeline for Jesus. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jesus (Greek: Ιησους Iēsoûs), also known as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is Christianitys central figure, both as Messiah and, for most Christians, as God incarnate. ... The existence of Jesus is accepted by two major world religions, Christianity and Islam, based on their respective scriptures, the Bible and the Quran. ... The status of Jesus in theology varies widely from religion to religion. ... Among historians who are Christian Biblical scholars, the literature suggests the following detailed timeline for Jesus. ... This article concerns critical reconstructions of the Historical Jesus. ... This article presents a description of Jesus life, as based on the four gospels. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus of Nazareth, also called the Christ by Christians, worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... Jump to: navigation, search According to the New Testament, especially the Gospels, Jesus, also called Christ, had the power to lay his life down and to take it up again, being both human and God as well as the Promised Messiah. ... A large variety of names and titles have been used to describe Jesus, many of which reflect various theological understandings or different beliefs about him. ... As historian E. P. Sanders has observed, of all the religions that existed within the Roman Empire, only two have widespread followings today: Rabbinic Judaism and Christianity, both of which have their origins in Roman-occupied Palestine, both of which claim to be based on the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament... There are many relics of Jesus that people believe or believed to be authentic relics of the Gospel accounts. ... Various authors and filmmakers have created dramatic portrayals of Jesus and his life. ... There are no undisputed historical images of Jesus; he sat for no portraits which are preserved and of unquestioned authenticity and undoubted provenance. ... Chronology is the science of locating events in time. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jesus (Greek: Ιησους Iēsoûs), also known as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is Christianitys central figure, both as Messiah and, for most Christians, as God incarnate. ... The existence of Jesus is accepted by two major world religions, Christianity and Islam, based on their respective scriptures, the Bible and the Quran. ...

Contents


Background

Due to a miscalculation made by Dionysius Exiguus in 525, it was long held that Jesus was born in the year 1 BC, making the following year, AD 1, the first throughout which he was alive—hence the anno domini dating system. Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ... Events Bernicia settled by the Angles Ethiopia conquers Yemen The Daisan river, a tributary of the Euphrates, floods Edessa and within a couple of hours fills the entire city except for the highest parts. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 // Events Births December 25 - Jesus (died about... // Events The first full year in the life of Jesus as assigned by Dionysius Exiguus in his Anno Domini era. ... Anno Domini (Latin: In the Year of the Lord), or more completely Anno Domini Nostri Iesu Christi (In the Year of Our Lord Jesus Christ), commonly abbreviated AD or A.D., is the designation used to number years in the dominant Christian Era in the world today. ...


The primary events in Jesus' life are believed to have occurred around these times:

c. 6 BC – Suggested birth (earliest)
c. 4 BC – Herod's death
c. AD 6 – Suggested birth (latest); Quirinius census
c. AD 26/27Pontius Pilate appointed governor of Judea
c. AD 27 – Suggested death (earliest)
c. AD 36 – Suggested death (latest)
c. AD 36/37 – Pilate removed from office

For a more detailed timeline of all the events in Jesus' life, see detailed timeline for Jesus. For a timeline of Christianity in general, see detailed Christian timeline. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1... The Son of God - 12th century image of Jesus from Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Jesus as Christ and Messiah is the Christian account of Jesuss life (which is represented both in texts and in images). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 Events Archelaus becomes... Herod was the name of several members of the Herodian dynasty of Roman Judea: Herod the Great (c. ...   This article is about the year 6. ... Publius Sulpicius Quirinius (rendered in Greek Κυρήνιος Kyrenios, c. ... Events Pontius Pilate is appointed as Prefect of Judaea. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s 10s - 20s - 30s 40s 50s 60s 70s Years: 22 23 24 25 26 - 27 - 28 29 30 31 32 Events The Emperor Tiberius retires to Capri, leaving the praetorian prefect Sejanus in charge of... Jump to: navigation, search Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus of Nazareth to the people of Jerusalem Pontius Pilate (Latin Pontius Pilatus) was the governor of the small Roman province of Judea from AD 26 until around AD 36. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided between Israel, Jordan and the West Bank. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s 10s - 20s - 30s 40s 50s 60s 70s Years: 22 23 24 25 26 - 27 - 28 29 30 31 32 Events The Emperor Tiberius retires to Capri, leaving the praetorian prefect Sejanus in charge of... The Son of God - 12th century image of Jesus from Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Jesus as Christ and Messiah is the Christian account of Jesuss life (which is represented both in texts and in images). ... For alternate uses, see Number 36. ... For alternate uses, see Number 36. ... Events March 18 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius will and proclaims Caligula Roman Emperor. ... Among historians who are Christian Biblical scholars, the literature suggests the following detailed timeline for Jesus. ... Timeline of Christianity (1AD-Present) The purpose of this chronology is to give a detailed account of Christianity from 1AD to the present. ...


Year of birth

Relying on the Gospels for determining Jesus' year of birth is problematic, because they offer two accounts that chronologists find incompatible. The Gospel of Matthew states that Jesus was born while Herod the Great was still alive, and that Herod ordered the slaughter of infants that were two years old and younger (Matt. 2:16). However, the Jewish historian Josephus reports a lunar eclipse shortly before the death of Herod. Astronomers have pinpointed that eclipse to the year 4 BC, which would imply that Herod died in that year as well (contra Dionysius Exiguus). Thus, many chronologists conclude that the year 6 BC is the most likely year of Jesus' birth. Consequently, Jesus would have been about four to six years old in the year AD 1. For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Gospel of Matthew (literally: according to Matthew, Greek: Κατα Μαθθαιον) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... Herod I, also known as Herod the Great was a Roman client-king of Judaea. ... Jump to: navigation, search Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. ... Josephus (ca. ... An eclipse occurs whenever the Sun, Earth and Moon line up exactly. ... Astrometry: the study of the position of objects in the sky and their changes of position. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 Events Archelaus becomes... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1... // Events The first full year in the life of Jesus as assigned by Dionysius Exiguus in his Anno Domini era. ...


On the other hand, Luke's account places Jesus' birth during a census conducted under the governorship of Quirinius, who, according to Josephus, conducted the census in AD 6. In order to reconcile the two Gospel accounts, some have suggested that Josephus was mistaken, that Quirinius had a separate period of rule under Herod, or that Josephus reported the date of the completion of the census rather than of the entire duration of it. In any case, the actual date of his birth remains historically unverifiable. Luke was, according to legend, the painter of the first icon Luke the Evangelist (Greek Λουκας Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... Publius Sulpicius Quirinius (rendered in Greek Κυρήνιος Kyrenios, c. ...   This article is about the year 6. ...


In recent years, East Asian historians have attempted to match the birth of Jesus with special events in their history. They found that, according to the oldest record of the Comet Halley during the Han Dynasty, "The comet heads east with its tail pointing west at night, and was appearing in the sky for more than 70 days" in 6 BC. This has been suggested as an independent record of the "Star" described in Matthew 2. If accepted, this suggestion would place the birth date of Jesus in summer rather than winter. Modern astronomers calculate the closest date for the perihelion of Halley's comet to have been October of 12 BC, so if the mentioning of a Star are accurate and refers to a comet at all, it is likely based on the sighting of a different comet. East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... Comet Halley as taken with the Halley Multicolor Camera on the ESA Giotto mission. ... Jump to: navigation, search Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1... The Pleiades star cluster A star is a massive body of plasma in outer space that is currently producing or has produced energy through nuclear fusion. ... Summer is a season, defined by convention in meteorology as the whole months of June, July and August in the Northern hemisphere and the whole months of December, January and February in the Southern hemisphere. ... In many parts of the world, winter is associated with snow. ... elements of an orbit. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC... Photo of the comet Hale-Bopp above a tree. ...


In the 6th century, Dionysius Exiguus proposed making the birth date of Jesus the basis for the calendar. However, he miscalculated the death of Herod by several years. Years reckoned by Dionysius' system are labeled "BC" and "AD", which stand for Before Christ and Anno Domini (meaning "in the year of the Lord" in Latin). This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ... Anno Domini (Latin: In the Year of the Lord), or more completely Anno Domini Nostri Iesu Christi (In the Year of Our Lord Jesus Christ), commonly abbreviated AD or A.D., is the designation used to number years in the dominant Christian Era in the world today. ... Jump to: navigation, search Latin is an Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


Day of birth

Determining the exact day of Jesus' birth is even more problematic than the year. Some say that the birth could not have happened in the deep winter, because the Bible says that shepherds spent the night outdoors with their flocks when Jesus was born (Luke 2:8), though others dispute this as insufficient evidence of the season. In many parts of the world, winter is associated with snow. ...


Originally, Christmas' date was set to correspond with the Roman festival of the birth of the Sun God Mithras, which coincided with the "return of the sun" after the shortest day of the year. As early as A.D. 354, Jesus' birth was celebrated on December 25 in Rome. Other cities had other traditional dates. The history of Christmas is closely associated with that of the Epiphany. If the currently prevailing opinion about the compilation of the gospels is accepted, the earliest body of gospel tradition, represented by Mark no less than by the primitive non-Marcan document (Q document) embodied in the first and third gospels, begins, not with the birth and childhood of Jesus, but with His baptism; and this order of accretion of gospel matter is faithfully reflected in the time order of the invention-of feasts. The church in general adopted Christmas much later than Epiphany, and before the 5th century there was no consensus as to when it should come in the calendar, whether on January 6, or March 25, or December 25. Mithra and the Bull: fresco from Dura Europos late 2nd–early 3rd century Mithras was the central savior god of Mithraism, a syncretic Hellenistic mystery religion of male initiates that developed in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC and was practiced in the Roman Empire from... Jump to: navigation, search December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost... This article is about the Christian feast. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Gospel of Mark is traditionally the second of the New Testament Gospels. ... The Q document or Q (Q for German Quelle, source) is a postulated lost textual source for the Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke. ... Jump to: navigation, search Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and has its origins with the Jewish ritual of tahara. ... // Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Jump to: navigation, search January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ...


The earliest identification of the 25th of December with the birthday of Jesus is in a passage, otherwise unknown and probably spurious, of Theophilus of Antioch (171-183), preserved in Latin by the Magdeburg centuriators, to the effect that the Gauls contended that as they celebrated the birth of the Lord on the December 25, whatever day of the week it might be, so they ought to celebrate Easter on the 25th of March when the resurrection occurred. There is also a Theophilus of Alexandria ( A.D. 412). ... Events Mesopotamia becomes a province of the Roman Empire Births Deaths Categories: 171 ... Events Failed assassination attempt on Roman Emperor Commodus. ... Jump to: navigation, search Latin is an Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Easter is considered the most important religious holiday of the Christian liturgical year, observed in March, April, or May to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus from the dead after his death by crucifixion (see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year around AD 30-33. ... Resurrection of the Flesh (1499-1502) Fresco by Luca Signorelli Chapel of San Brizio, Duomo, Orvieto Resurrection is most commonly associated with the consisting of the reuniting of the spirit and the body of an individual, or the raising of a person from death back to life. ...


The next mention of December 25 is in Hippolytus' (c. 202) commentary on Daniel. Jesus, he says, was born at Bethlehem on December 25, a Wednesday, in the forty-second year of Augustus. This passage also is almost certainly interpolated. In any case he mentions no feast, nor was such a feast congruous with the orthodox ideas of that age. As late as 245 Origen, in his eighth homily on Leviticus, repudiates as sinful the very idea of keeping the birthday of Jesus "as if he were a king Pharaoh." The first certain mention of December 25 is in a Latin chronographer of A.D. 354, first published in complete form by Mommsen. It runs thus in English: "Year I after Christ, in the consulate of Augustus Caesar and Paulus, the Lord Jesus Christ was born on the 25th of December, a Friday and 15th day of the new moon." Here again no feastal celebration of the day is attested. In Greek mythology, Hippolytus was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte. ... Events Roman law bans female gladiators Deaths Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon (martyred) Perpetua (martyred) Felicitas (martyred) Yuan Shao, Chinese warlord Categories: 202 ... Jump to: navigation, search Daniel (דָּנִיֵּאל, Standard Hebrew Daniyyel, Tiberian Hebrew Dāniyyêl) is the name of two people from the Bible. ... The Church of the Nativity, a Bethlehem Landmark Bethlehem (Arabic بيت لحم Bayt Laḥm house of meat; Standard Hebrew בית לחם house of bread, Bet léḥem / Bet láḥem; Tiberian Hebrew Bêṯ léḥem / Bêṯ lāḥem) is a city on the West Bank and a hub of Palestinian cultural and tourism... Wednesday is considered either the third or the fourth day of the week, between Tuesday and Thursday. ... Augustus (plural Augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The greek equivalent is sebastos, or a mere grecization (by changing of the ending) augustos. ... Events Roman emperor Philip the Arabian entrusted future emperor Gaius Messius Quintus Trajanus with an important command on the Danube Trieu Thi Trinh Vietnamese warrior women begins her three year resistance against the invading Chinese. ... Origen ( 182– 251) was a Christian scholar and theologian and one of the most distinguished of the Fathers of the early Christian Church. ... Jump to: navigation, search Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... Pharaoh (Hebrew פַּרְעֹה (without niqqud: פרעה), Standard Hebrew ParÊ¿o, Tiberian Hebrew Parʿōh, Arabic فرعون) is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ... Events Gallus deposed, executed at Antioch. ... Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (30 November 1817 - 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar and historian, generally regarded as the greatest classicist of the 19th century. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... Paulus is a name. ... Fifth day of the week, falling between Thursday and Saturday. ... Traditionally, the lunar phase new moon begins with the first visible crescent of the Moon, after conjunction with the Sun. ...


There were, however, many speculations in the 2nd century about the date of Jesus' birth. Clement of Alexandria, towards its close, mentions several such, and condemns them as superstitions. Some chronologists, he says, alleged the birth to have occurred in the twenty-eighth year of Augustus, on the 25th of Pachon, the Egyptian month (May 20). These were probably the Basilidian gnostics. Others set it on the 24th or 25th of Pharmuthi (19th or 20th of April). Clement himself sets it on November 17, 3 B.C. The author of a Latin tract, called the De Pascha computus, written in Africa in 243, sets it by private revelation, ab ipso deo inspirali, on March 28. He argues that the world was created perfect, flowers in bloom, and trees in leaf, therefore in spring; also at the equinox, and when the moon just created was full. Now the moon and sun were created on a Wednesday. The 28th of March suits all these considerations. Jesus, therefore, being the Sun of Righteousness, was born on the 28th of March. Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... Jump to: navigation, search 20 May is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... November 17 is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece. ... // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day... Events Gordian III defeats Shapur I of Persia at Resaena Births Deaths Categories: 243 ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in Leap years). ... Spring is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ... It has been suggested that Equinoctial point be merged into this article or section. ... The Galileo spacecraft took this composite image on 7 December 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. ... Crust composition Oxygen 43% Silicon 21% Aluminium 10% Calcium 9% Iron 9% Magnesium 5% Titanium 2% Nickel 0. ... The Sun is the star at the centre of our Solar system. ...


The same symbolic reasoning led Polycarp (before 160) to set his birth on Sunday, when the world's creation began, but his baptism on Wednesday, for it was the analogue of the sun's creation. On such grounds certain Latins as early as 354 may have transferred the human birthday from January 6 to December 25, which was then a Mithraic feast and is by the chronographer above referred to, but in another part of his compilation, termed Natalis invicti solis, or birthday of the unconquered Sun. (Under the Julian Calendar, the winter solstice occurs on December 24, so starting with December 25, the days begin to get longer again.) Cyprian invokes Christus Sol verus, Ambrose Sol novus noster, and such rhetoric was widespread. The Syrians and Armenians, who clung to January 6, accused the Romans of sun-worship and idolatry, contending with great probability that the feast of the 25th of December had been invented by disciples of Cerinthus and its readings by Artemon to commemorate the natural birth of Jesus. Ambrose, On Virgins, writing to his sister, implies that as late as the papacy of Liberius 352 - 356, the Birth from the Virgin was feasted together with the Marriage of Cana and the Feeding of the 4000, which were never celebrated on any other day but January 6. Polycarp of Smyrna (martyred in his 87th year, ca. ... For other uses, see number 160. ... Events Gallus deposed, executed at Antioch. ... Mithraism was an ancient mystery religion prominent from the 1st century BCE to the 5th century CE. It was based on worship of the god Mithras and derives from the Persian and Indic god Mithra and other Zoroastrian deities. ... The Julian calendar was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, taking force in 45 BC or 709 ab urbe condita. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of winter solstice on northern hemisphere In astronomy, the winter solstice is the moment when the earth is in a point of its orbit at which the northern hemisphere is most inclined away from the sun. ... Jump to: navigation, search December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... Saint Cyprian (Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus) (died September 14, 258) bishop of Carthage and an important early Christian writer, was born probably at the beginning of the 3rd century in North Africa, perhaps at Carthage, where he received an excellent pagan education; having converted to Christianity, he became a Bishop (249... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Cerinthus was the leader of a late first-century or early 2nd century sect, an offshot of the Ebionites yet similar to Gnosticism in some respects, interesting in that it demonstrates the wide range of conclusions that could be drawn from the life and teachings of Jesus. ... Jump to: navigation, search Artemon (fl. ... Saint Ambrose, mosaic in church St. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Liberius, pope from May 17, 352 to September 24, 366, was the earliest pope who did not become a saint. ... Events Liberius becomes Pope Earliest sighting of a supernova occurs in China Births Deaths Pope Julius I. Bishop Nicholas of Myra, Roman priest (or 345). ... Events February 8 - Roman authorities make an attempt to arrest Athanasius on the accusation of supporting the usurper Magnentius. ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ...


Chrysostom, in a sermon preached at Antioch on December 20, 386 or 388, says that some held the feast of December 25 to have been held in the West, from Thrace as far as Cádiz, from the beginning. It certainly originated in the West, but spread quickly eastwards. In 353 - 361 it was observed at the court of Constantius II. Basil of Caesarea (died 379) adopted it. Honorius, emperor (395 - 423) in the West, informed his mother and brother Arcadius (395 - 408) in Byzantium of how the new feast was kept in Rome, separate from January 6, with its own troparia and sticharia. They adopted it, and recommended it to Chrysostom, who had long been in favour of it. Epiphanius of Crete was won over to it, as were also the other three patriarchs, Theophilus of Alexandria, John II of Jerusalem, Flavian I of Antioch. This was under Pope Anastasius I, 398 - 400. Jump to: navigation, search The city of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (modern Antakya; Greek Αντιοχεια ἡ επι Δαφνη; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is located in what is now Turkey. ... Jump to: navigation, search December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the processor, see Intel 80386. ... // Events Bahram IV becomes king of Persia. ... City nickname: Tacita de plata (little silver cup) Location Location within Spain Government Province Cádiz Mayor Teófila Martínez Physical characteristics Area      Land      Water 12. ... Events Battle of Mons Seleucus - Constantius II defeats the usurper Magnentius. ... Events Emperor Ai succeeds Emperor Mu as emperor of China. ... emperor Constantius II Constantius II, Roman Emperor (7 August 317 - 3 November 361, reigned 337 - 361), was the middle of the three sons of Constantine I the Great and Fausta. ... Basil (ca. ... Events January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Events On the death of Honorius, the primicerius notariorum Joannes seizes the throne of the Western Roman Empire, and is declared emperor. ... Arcadius, holding a labarum, defeating an enemy. ... Events Theodosius II succeeds his father Arcadius as Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire In the summer of this year, the usurper Constantine III captures Spain, destroying the loyalist forces defending it. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centred at its capital in Constantinople. ... A troparion (also tropar, plural: troparia) in Byzantine music and in the religious music of Eastern Orthodoxy is a short hymn of one stanza, or one of a series of stanzas (this may carry the further connotation of a hymn interpolated between psalm verses). ... Epiphanius (clearly manifested) was the name of several early Christian scholars and ecclesiastics: Epiphanius of Salamis, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, died 410, author of Panarion Epiphanius of Constantinople, died 535, Patriarch of Constantinople 520—535 Epiphanius Scholasticus, known only as the assistant of Cassiodorus who compiled the Historiae Ecclesiasticae... Greece and Crete Crete, sometimes spelled Krete (Greek Κρήτη / Kriti; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... Categories: Patriarchs of Alexandria | Christianity-related stubs ... Flavian I of Antioch (ca 320-February 404) was a bishop or patriarch of Antioch from 381 until his death. ... Anastasius I was pope from November 27, 399-401. ... Events John Chrysostom becomes bishop of Constantinople. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ...


John or Wahan of Nice, in a letter printed by Combefis in his Historia monoizeii tarurn, affords the above details. The new feast was communicated by Proclus, patriarch of Constantinople (434 - 446), to Sahak, Catholicos of Armenia, about 440. The letter was betrayed to the Persian king, who accused Sahak of Greek intrigues, and deposed him. However, the Armenians, at least those within the Byzantine pale, adopted it for about thirty years, but finally abandoned it together with the decrees of Chalcedon early in the 8th century. Many writers of the period 375 - 450, e.g. Epiphanius, Cassian, Asterius, Basil, Chrysostom and Jerome, contrast the new feast with that of the Baptism as that of the birth after the flesh, from which we infer that the latter was generally regarded as a birth accoding to the Spirit. Instructive as showing that the new feast travelled from West eastwards is the fact (noticed by Usener) that in 387 the new feast was reckoned according to the Julian calendar by writers of the province of Asia, who in referring to other feasts use the reckoning of their local calendars. As early as 400 in Rome an imperial rescript includes Christmas among the three feasts (the others are Easter and Epiphany) on which theatres must be closed. City motto: Nicæa civitas. ... Proclus Lycaeus (February 8, 412 – April 17, 487), surnamed The Successor (Greek Πρόκλος ὁ Διάδοχος Próklos ho Diádokhos), was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher. ... Jump to: navigation, search Map of Constantinople. ... Events Aetius a general in the service of emperor Valentinian III holds power in Rome for twenty years. ... Events A synod is held by Turibius of Astorga. ... His Holiness, the Catholicos of Armenia and of All Armenians (plural Catholicoi, due to its Greek origin) is the head bishop of Armenias dominant church, the Armenian Apostolic Church. ... Events September 29 - Leo succeeds Sixtus as Pope. ... Chalcedon (Χαλκεδον, sometimes transliterated by purists as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Ãœsküdar). ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Events The Huns invade Europe. ... Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... Epiphanius (clearly manifested) was the name of several early Christian scholars and ecclesiastics: Epiphanius of Salamis, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, died 410, author of Panarion Epiphanius of Constantinople, died 535, Patriarch of Constantinople 520—535 Epiphanius Scholasticus, known only as the assistant of Cassiodorus who compiled the Historiae Ecclesiasticae... Cassian, or Saint Cassian of Imola was a Christian saint of the 4th century. ... This article is about the figure in Greek mythology. ... Basil (ca. ... , by Albrecht Dürer Jerome (ca. ... Events The widowed Roman Emperor Theodosius I marries Galla, sister of his colleague Valentinian II Births Deaths Flaccilla, wife of the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. Categories: 387 ... The Julian calendar was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, taking force in 45 BC or 709 ab urbe condita. ... Jump to: navigation, search World map showing Asia (geographically) Asia is the central and eastern part of Eurasia and worlds largest continent. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... Easter is considered the most important religious holiday of the Christian liturgical year, observed in March, April, or May to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus from the dead after his death by crucifixion (see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year around AD 30-33. ...


Death

Year of death

The understanding of the Gospels is difficult to reconcile with the tradition that holds the Last Supper took place on the first night of Passover, which is defined in the Torah as occurring on the 14th of Nisan. Furthermore, at that time, the date of Passover was set by the court in Jerusalem based upon testimony of witnesses. It was not until AD 500 that the calendar was changed to base the holiday's date on calculation. Therefore, it is not possible to state on which day of the week the 14 of Nisan occurred for any year before 500 without access to historical documents. This article relates the event related in the New Testament of the Bible, see The Last Supper (disambiguation) for other uses, including a list of famous works of art with this name. ... Events Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon army that may have been led by the bretwalda Aelle of Sussex (approximate date; suggested dates range from 490 to 510) Note: This battle may have influenced the legend of King Arthur. ...


Assuming the validity of the chronology of John, the most important information attested to in all the Gospels is that Jesus' death occurred under the administration of Pontius Pilate. Pontius Pilate held his position from 2636, and the only years in which Nisan 14 fell on a Friday are 27, 33 and 36, and possibly in 30, depending on when the new moon would have been visible in Jerusalem. Different scholars have defended all of these dates. Jump to: navigation, search Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus of Nazareth to the people of Jerusalem Pontius Pilate (Latin Pontius Pilatus) was the governor of the small Roman province of Judea from AD 26 until around AD 36. ... Events Pontius Pilate is appointed as Prefect of Judaea. ... For alternate uses, see Number 36. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s 10s - 20s - 30s 40s 50s 60s 70s Years: 22 23 24 25 26 - 27 - 28 29 30 31 32 Events The Emperor Tiberius retires to Capri, leaving the praetorian prefect Sejanus in charge of... Events The following Christian chronology uses traditional dates set by biblical scholars; 30 is also suggested as a date for the Messianic events. ... For alternate uses, see Number 36. ... Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus... Traditionally, the lunar phase new moon begins with the first visible crescent of the Moon, after conjunction with the Sun. ... Jerusalem (31° 46′ N, 35° 14′ E; Hebrew:   יְרוּשָׁלַיִם [?]; Yerushalayim; Arabic:   القُدس[?] al-Quds; see also names of Jerusalem) is an ancient Middle Eastern city of key importance to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ...


The most commonly cited dates are April 7, 30 and April 3, 33. In the Gospel of Luke, it is stated that Jesus was about 30 years old when he started his public ministry, which would seem to support one of these dates. However, if Jesus' birth was in 6 BC, then this points to the beginning of the public ministry some time around AD 26. April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus... Jump to: navigation, search April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... Events The following Christian chronology uses traditional dates set by biblical scholars; 30 is also suggested as a date for the Messianic events. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1... Events Pontius Pilate is appointed as Prefect of Judaea. ...


Another fact to be considered is Luke's statement that John the Baptist's ministry began in the fifteenth year of the reign of emperor Tiberius. Tiberius' reign began on Augustus' death on August 19, 14 AD, placing John's appearance in 29 by official Roman reckoning (counting 14 as an accession year and 15 as the first full year), too late for the beginning of Jesus's ministry as calculated above. On the other hand, Tertullian writes in his Adversus Marcionem of a Roman tradition that placed the crucifixion in the twelfth year of Tiberus' rule. The Baptism of Christ, by Piero della Francesca, 1449 John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... A bust of younger Emperor Tiberius For the city in Israel, see Tiberias. ... August 19 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... 29 is my favourite colour!!!!!!!! Events Romans captured Sofia. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicized as Tertullian, (ca. ...


Evidence in the Gospel of John points to three separate Passovers during Jesus' ministry, which would tip the scales toward 33. This is strengthened by details of the reign of Sejanus in Rome. Sejanus had ordered the suppression of the Jews throughout the empire, and after his death in 32, Tiberius had repealed those laws. This would fit with the Gospel accounts that seem to indicate that Pilate did not want to crucify Jesus, but was forced into it by the Jewish leaders. Jump to: navigation, search The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the sequence of the canon as printed in the New Testament, and scholars agree it was the fourth to be written. ... Events The following Christian chronology uses traditional dates set by biblical scholars; 30 is also suggested as a date for the Messianic events. ... Lucius Aelius Sejanus (or Seianus) (20 BC– October 18, 31 AD) was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of Tiberius, and for a time the most influential and feared citizen of Rome. ... For alternate uses, see Number 32. ...


Nonetheless, proponents of the year 30 point out that Tiberius was already co-regent emperor several years before the death of Augustus, making it possible that the beginning of his reign would be counted from 11 or 12, which would put the beginning of John's ministry in about AD 26. This is consistent with the "thirty years old" statement in the Gospel of Luke as well. Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus... Augustus (plural Augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The greek equivalent is sebastos, or a mere grecization (by changing of the ending) augustos. ... Events Germania Inferior and the Rhine secured by Germanicus Artabanus III of the Arsacid Dynasty becomes ruler of Parthia Births April 4 - Drusilla, daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina the younger. ... For other uses, see number 12. ... Events Pontius Pilate is appointed as Prefect of Judaea. ...


Book of Daniel prophecy

One other source which has been used in attempts to find the date is the prophecies of the Book of Daniel. In the Prophecy of Seventy Weeks, chapter 9, verse 25, Daniel states, according to the most likely interpretation, that from the decree to rebuild the city of Jerusalem until the city is fully rebuilt will be forty-nine years, and from that point until the coming of the Messiah there would be 434 years. Some time later, the Messiah would then be executed. This article is about the Biblical book. ... The Prophecy of Seventy Weeks appears in the ninth chapter of the Book of Daniel, a work included in both the Christian and Jewish Bible. ...


According to the Old Testament, there were four separate decrees issued by the Persian kings. Based on the reckoning of Ptolemy, the first decree, described at the end of 2 Chronicles and also at the beginning of the Book of Ezra, was issued by Cyrus around 537 BC. The second was issued by a certain Darius. Debate ranges whether this refers to Darius I or Darius II. The two kings reigned about 100 years apart. Two other dates have been recorded in Biblical writings: the one issued to Ezra in the seventh year of Artaxerxes, and the one issued to Nehemiah in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes. Which Artaxerxes was being referred to is unknown, as there were three separate kings named "Artaxerxes". Nehemiah's decree is generally agreed to have been written sometime between 446 and 444 BC, depending on the method used to calculate the dates, and Ezra's decree may have been made either during the reign of Artaxerxes I (459-457 BC) or that of Artaxerxes II (398-397 BC). The Old Testament or the Hebrew Scriptures (also called the Hebrew Bible) constitutes the first major part of the Bible according to Christianity. ... (Redirected from 2 Chronicles) The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650 BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC - 529 BC — See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the Younger, brother to the Persian king... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Darius II, originally called Ochus and often surnamed Nothus (from Greek νοθος, meaning bastard), was emperor of Persia from 423 BC to 404 BC. Artaxerxes I, who died shortly after December 24, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a half Xerxes was murdered... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC - 440s BC - 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC Years: 451 BC 450 BC 449 BC 448 BC 447 BC - 446 BC - 445 BC 444 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC - 440s BC - 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC Years: 449 BC 448 BC 447 BC 446 BC 445 BC - 444 BC - 443 BC 442 BC... Artaxerxes I was king of Persia from 464 BC to 424 BC. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. He is mentioned in two books of the Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah. ... Artaxerxes II (c. ...


The event designating Christ's "coming" has also been disputed. The birth, baptism, Transfiguration, and entry into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday have all been suggested. The birth year of Jesus is generally now rarely held to be accurate, since it is too early for the chronology set by the prophecy to work. The word Transfiguration means a changing of appearance or form. ...


Using Nehemiah's decree, counting 483 solar years would result in the range AD 37–39, probably too late for any event in Jesus' life. If Ezra's decree is dated from the reign of the first Artaxerxes, Jesus' coming would be in the range AD 25–27. If, as it is usually held by proponents, this is when the Baptism occurred, the result would be a date of AD 30 for the Crucifixion. Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus...


On the other hand, Revelation and Daniel both imply that the Great Tribulation would last three and a half years, and elsewhere in these books it is stated that the exact length would be 1,260 days. This would imply a year of 360 days. Ezra's decree gives a date of AD 18–20 for the first Artaxerxes and AD 79–80 for the second range in the reign of Artaxerxes II. Both of these dates are way outside of Pontius Pilate's procuratorship. Instead, counting from Nehemiah's decree produces the range AD 31–33. If either the Transfiguration (AD 31 or 32) or Triumphant Entry (AD 33) is used as the event signalling Jesus' coming, AD 33 would be the date implied for the crucifixion. Hence, prophecy leaves no conclusive information unless an event can be agreed to as Christ's coming or a correct decree date can be determine. For information on the last book of the New Testament see the Book of Revelation. ...


Day of death

Michelangelo's Pietà, depicting the dead body of Jesus in the arms of his mother Mary.
Michelangelo's Pietà, depicting the dead body of Jesus in the arms of his mother Mary.

Calculation of Jesus' date of death is complicated by apparent inconsistencies in the reports in the Synoptic Gospels as compared to the Gospel of John. In the Synoptic Gospels, the Last Supper is clearly a Passover meal, and so would have taken place on a Thursday, the 15th of the Jewish month of Nisan (the Jewish calendar counts the day as beginning with the evening), with the crucifixion on the next day, Friday, still the 15th of Nisan. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x766, 141 KB) Pietà by Michelangelo, St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x766, 141 KB) Pietà by Michelangelo, St. ... Pietà by Michelangelo The Pietà (1498–99) by Michelangelo is a marble sculpture in St. ... The Synoptic Gospels is a term used by modern New Testament scholars for the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke of the New Testament in the Bible. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the sequence of the canon as printed in the New Testament, and scholars agree it was the fourth to be written. ... This article relates the event related in the New Testament of the Bible, see The Last Supper (disambiguation) for other uses, including a list of famous works of art with this name. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search Thursday, by international standard, is the fourth day of the week, falling between Wednesday and Friday. ... This figure, in a detail of a medieval Hebrew calendar, reminded Jews of the palm branch (Lulav), the myrtle twigs, the willow branches, and the citron (Etrog) to be held in the hand and to be brought to the synagogue during the holiday of sukkot, near the end of the... Nisan (נִיסָן, Standard Hebrew Nisan, Tiberian Hebrew Nîsān: from Akkadian nisānu, from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, in which the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden cross (Latin: crux) and left to hang there until dead. ... Fifth day of the week, falling between Thursday and Saturday. ...


According to John, however, the Passover meal was to be eaten on the last evening before Jesus was crucified, so that the Last Supper was eaten on the evening of 14th of Nisan and the crucifixion was on the 14th, at the same time that the lambs for the Passover were being slaughtered in the Temple of Jerusalem, so that the Jews could celebrate the Passover that evening. Various attempts have been made to harmonize the two reports. Perhaps the most likely theory is that Jesus, knowing he was to be dead at the appointed time for the Passover meal, chose to hold the Passover meal with his disciples a day early, thus holding to the account of John. Some scholars have recently suggested rejecting Thursday as the day of the Last Supper and support a non-Passover Last Supper on Tuesday or Wednesday, thus providing more time for the events that occurred between the Last Supper and the Crucifixion. Yet others say that the Last Supper was indeed on the Passover, but nonetheless on the evening of the 13th/14th, as according to certain historical writings some Jews celebrated Passover starting on the fourteenth for eight days. Jump to: navigation, search Thursday, by international standard, is the fourth day of the week, falling between Wednesday and Friday. ... Tuesday is considered either the second or the third day of the week, between Monday and Wednesday. ... Wednesday is considered either the third or the fourth day of the week, between Tuesday and Thursday. ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m