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Encyclopedia > Chronology of Jesus
A series of articles on

Jesus Christ and Christianity
Chronology
Virgin Birth
MinistryMiraclesParables
Death and resurrection
Second Coming
Christology
Names and titles
Relics Image File history File links JesusYeshua. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... The parables of Jesus, found in the synoptic gospels, embody much of Jesus teaching. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... A large variety of names and titles are used in the New Testament to describe Jesus. ... There are many relics attributed to Jesus that people believe or believed to be authentic relics of the Gospel accounts. ...

Cultural and Historical Background
AramaicGreekRace
Genealogy of Jesus This article — a part of the Jesus and history series of articles — discusses the cultural and historical background of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity, without regard to his divinity, or to his existence as an actual historical figure. ... Most scholars believe that Jesus primarily spoke Aramaic, with some Hebrew and Greek, although there is some debate in academia as to what degree. ... “Black Jesus” redirects here. ... Lukes genealogy of Jesus, from the Book of Kells transcribed by Celtic monks circa 800 The genealogy of Jesus through either one or both of his earthly parents (Mary and Joseph) is given by two passages from the Gospels, Matthew 1:2–16 and Luke 3:23–38. ...

Perspectives on Jesus
Biblical Jesus
Religious perspectives
ChristianJewishIslamic
Historicity • Non-historicity
Historical perspective
Homosexual readings of Jesus and John
Mythographic perspective
This article presents a description of Jesus life, as based on the four gospels. ... Religious perspectives on Jesus is the specific significance some religions place on Jesus. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Judaism has no special or particular view of Jesus, and very few texts in Judaism directly refer to or take note of Jesus. ... Islam holds Jesus (Arabic: `Īsā) to have been a messenger and a prophet of God. ... This article is about the veracity of Jesus existence. ... This article is about the hypothesis of Jesus as a myth. ... This article is about Jesus the man, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ... A tradition that has developed since the 16th century has interpreted the story of Jesus and John the Apostle as an erotic romance and their love has been held up as an exemplar of same sex love that created a social and ethical space in which other men and youths... The study of Jesus from a mythographical perspective is the examination of the narrative of Jesus, the Christ (the Anointed) of the gospels, Christian theology and folk Christianity as a central part of Christian mythology. ...

Jesus in culture
Cultural depictions of Jesus
Images
Jesus has inspired artistic and cultural works for nearly two millennia. ... There are no undisputed historical images of Jesus; he sat for no portraits which are preserved and of unquestioned authenticity and undoubted provenance. ...

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Major events in Jesus' life in the Gospels

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The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). Among historians who are Christian Biblical scholars, the literature suggests the following detailed timeline for Jesus. The timeline records Jesus as Christ and Messiah from biblical and historical accounts of his life. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Nativity by Caravaggio, 1609. ... In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... The temptation of Christ in Christianity, refers to the temptation of Jesus by the devil as detailed in each of the Synoptic Gospels, at Matthew 4:1-11, Mark 1:12-13, and Luke 4:1-13. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Sermon... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... Despite recording many Miracles of Jesus, particularly in Capernaum, the Gospels also record some Rejection of Jesus. ... Icon of the Transfiguration (15th century, Novgorod) The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus was transfigured upon a mountain (Matthew 17:1-9, Mark 9:1-8, Luke 9:28-36). ... Palm Sunday is a moveable feast in the Christian calendar which falls on the Sunday before Easter. ... The narrative of Jesus and the Money Changers occurs in both the Synoptic Gospels and in the Gospel of John, although it occurs close to the end of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 11:15-19, 11:27-33, Matthew 21:12-17, 21:23-27 and Luke 19:45... For the plant species, see Ficus. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... Mary Magdalene is traditionally depicted with a vessel of ointment, in reference to the Anointing of Jesus, in reality the jar is more likely to have been an Amphora, a much larger object. ... The Last Supper in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Look up Paraclete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... Gethsemane by Wassilij Grigorjewitsch Perow The Arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical Gospels, in which Jesus is arrested. ... The Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus is an event reported by all the Canonical Gospels, in Mark 14:53–65, Matthew 26:57–68, Luke 22:63–71 and John 18:12-24. ... Pontius Pilate (Latin Pontius Pilatus) was the governor of the small Roman province of Judea from 26 until 36? AD although Tacitus believed him to be the procurator of that province. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment - an image from the Pericopes of Henry II In the Gospels, the empty tomb is the first sign of the Resurrection of Jesus. ... In the Supper at Emmaus, Caravaggio depicted the moment the disciples recognise Jesus The Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported in the New Testament to have occurred after his death and burial. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ...

Contents

Introduction

The chronology of Jesus is uncertain, disputed, and perhaps impossible to ascertain definitively based on available evidence. The texts used in chronological reconstruction, the four canonical gospels, provide few clear dates — including the year of Jesus's birth, death, and age at death. (Dates for rulers and high priests are known from other sources). Moreover, the material unique to each gospel further complicates the discernment of one, harmonized chronology. Lastly, some commentators have questioned their historicity (see Historicity of Jesus). Historicity refers to the historical authenticity of a person, event, or place. ... This article is about the veracity of Jesus existence. ...


One crucial issue is that of whether the three synoptic gospels were composed to follow the liturgical calendar — in other words, intended to be read aloud section-by-section throughout the church year, with each section illuminating a theme found in the Torah readings for that day. (Church lectionaries follow the same principle.) If so, then any attempt to tease out a chronology would be fundamentally misguided, as episodes from Jesus's life and teachings would have been re-arranged to fit a one-year period. The Synoptic Gospels are the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke. ... The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ... The Jewish ritual of Torah reading (in Hebrew: קריאת התורה, Kriat HaTorah; Reading [of] the Torah) involves the public reading of a set of passages from a Torah scroll. ... A Lectionary is a book or listing that contains a collection of scripture readings for Christian worship. ...


In brief, the primary events in Jesus' life are believed to have occurred around these times:[1]

c. 8 BC – Suggested birth (earliest estimate)
c. 5 BC/4 BC – Herod the Great's death
c. 6 – Suggested birth (latest), Census of Quirinius
c. 26/27 – Suggested death (earliest), Pontius Pilate appointed governor of Iudaea Province
c. 28/29John the Baptist begins mission in "15th year of Tiberius" (Luke 3:1-2)
c. 36/37 – Suggested death (latest), Pilate removed from office[2]

Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC - 8 BC - 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC Births... The Nativity by Caravaggio, 1609. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 Events Births... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 Events Archelaus becomes... Herod the Great. ... For other uses, see 6 (disambiguation). ... The Census of Quirinius refers to the enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus when Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was appointed governor of Syria. ... Events Pontius Pilate is appointed as Prefect of Judaea. ... Events The Emperor Tiberius retires to Capri, leaving the praetorian prefect Sejanus in charge of both Rome and the Empire. ... Entombment of Christ by Pieter Lastman The death of Jesus is an event described by the New Testament, as occurring after the Passion of Jesus, as a result of his crucifixion. ... Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus to the people of Jerusalem. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... For other uses, see number 28. ... 29 is my favourite colour!!!!!!!! Events Romans captured Sofia. ... Bold text St. ... For alternate uses, see Number 36. ... Events March 18 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius will and proclaims Caligula Roman Emperor. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Biblical Timeline

c. 6 BC This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

Suggested birth (Earliest) : Bethlehem

c. 5 BC This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ...

Visit by shepherds : Bethlehem
Presentation at the Temple : Jerusalem
Visit by the Magi : Bethlehem
Escape to Egypt : Nile Delta
Return to Nazareth : Lower Galilee

c. 4 BC Shepherd in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Please note: This page is an Abrahamic interpretation of candlemas. To avoid dispute between religious groups please see Imbolc for a non-Abrahamic view. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... Hebrew נָצְרַת (Natzrat) (Standard) Náẓərat Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Name Meaning Ancient word in Hebrew Government City District North Population 64,800[1] (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ...

Herod the Great's death
John the Baptist is born.

c. 3/2 BC Herod the Great. ... Bold text St. ...

Traditional birth

c. AD 1 This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

Suggested birth : Bethlehem

c. 6 Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

Suggested birth (Latest). Quirinius census

c. 7 The Virgin and St Joseph register for the census before Governor Quirinius. ...

Visit to temple as a boy : Jerusalem

c. 26 This 15th century page from a Book of Hours shows the typical medieval composition Depiction of Jesus at age twelve from Jesus and the doctors of the Faith, a painting by the entourage of Giuseppe Ribera. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...

Baptized : Jordan River
Tempted by Satan : Negev Desert
Cleansing of the temple : Jerusalem
Jesus and Nicodemus  : Jerusalem

c. 26 / 27 This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... Rock face in the Negev Desert near Beersheba on the way to Eilat. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Nicodemus (Greek: Νικόδημος) was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin, who, according to the Gospel of John, showed favour to Jesus. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...

Pilate appointed Iudaea governor

c. 27 Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus to the people of Jerusalem. ... Iudaea was the name of a Roman province, which extended over Judaea (Palestine). ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

Talks to Samaritan woman : Samaria
Turning water into wine at the wedding feast ("first miracle") : Cana
Heals nobleman's son: Cana
Four fishermen become followers : Sea of Galilee
Heals Peter's mother-in-law  : Capernaum
Town attempts to kill Jesus : Nazareth
First preaching trip : Galilee
Matthew joins Jesus : Capernaum
Suggested death (Earliest) : Golgotha

c. 28 For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... “Shomron” redirects here. ... This article refers to a place mentioned in the New Testament. ... This article refers to a place mentioned in the New Testament. ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... “St Peter” redirects here. ... Catholic church built over the house of Saint Peter Capernaum (pronounced k-pûrn-m; Hebrew כפר נחום Kefar Nachum, Nahums hamlet) was a settlement on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. ... Hebrew נָצְרַת (Natzrat) (Standard) Náẓərat Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Name Meaning Ancient word in Hebrew Government City District North Population 64,800[1] (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... Matthew the Evangelist (מתי, Gift of the LORD, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew: Mattay; Septuagint Greek: Ματθαίος, Matthaios), most often called Saint Matthew, is an important Christian figure, and one of Jesus Twelve Apostles. ... Catholic church built over the house of Saint Peter Capernaum (pronounced k-pûrn-m; Hebrew כפר נחום Kefar Nachum, Nahums hamlet) was a settlement on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. ... The Son of God - 12th century image of Jesus from Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Jesus as Christ and Messiah is the Christian account of Jesuss life (which is represented both in texts and in images). ... Calvary (Golgotha) was the hill outside Jerusalem on which Jesus was crucified. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

Chooses 12 disciples : Capernaum
Ministry begins : Galilee
Preaches "Sermon on the Mount" : Capernaum
Sinful woman anoints Jesus : Capernaum
Travels through Galilee : Galilee
Teaches parables about kingdom : Galilee
Calms the storm : Sea of Galilee
Jairus's daughter back to life : Capernaum
Sends disciples to preach and heal : Capernaum
John the Baptist killed by Herod : Machaerus

c. 29 Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other... Catholic church built over the house of Saint Peter Capernaum (pronounced k-pûrn-m; Hebrew כפר נחום Kefar Nachum, Nahums hamlet) was a settlement on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Sermon... Catholic church built over the house of Saint Peter Capernaum (pronounced k-pûrn-m; Hebrew כפר נחום Kefar Nachum, Nahums hamlet) was a settlement on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... Catholic church built over the house of Saint Peter Capernaum (pronounced k-pûrn-m; Hebrew כפר נחום Kefar Nachum, Nahums hamlet) was a settlement on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... (Jairus is also an ancient Jewish man, a synagogue official, recorded in the Biblical Gospel account whose ill daughter dies and is resurrected to life by Jesus Christ; see Mark ch. ... Catholic church built over the house of Saint Peter Capernaum (pronounced k-pûrn-m; Hebrew כפר נחום Kefar Nachum, Nahums hamlet) was a settlement on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. ... Catholic church built over the house of Saint Peter Capernaum (pronounced k-pûrn-m; Hebrew כפר נחום Kefar Nachum, Nahums hamlet) was a settlement on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. ... Bold text St. ... Machaerus is a fortress fifteen miles southeast of the mouth of the Jordan river, in the wild and desolate hills that overlook the Dead Sea from the east. ...

Feeds 5,000 people : Bethsaida
Walks on water : Bethsaida
Travels to Tyre/Sidon
Feeds 4,000 people : Tyre/Sidon
Peter states Jesus is "Son of God" : Tyre/Sidon
States soon he will die : Caesarea Philippi
Transfigured : Caesarea Philippi
Pays temple taxes : Capernaum
Attends the Feast of the Tabernacles : Jerusalem
Heals a man who was born blind : Jerusalem

c. 30 Bethsaida (beth-sā´i-da; Βηθσαΐδά, BeÌ„thsaidá, “house of fishing”) // Bethsaida Julias A city east of the Jordan River, in a “desert place” (that is, uncultivated ground used for grazing) at which Jesus miraculously fed the multitude with five loaves and two fishes (Mark 6:32; Luke 9:10). ... Not to be confused with Walk on Water . ... Bethsaida (beth-sā´i-da; Βηθσαΐδά, BeÌ„thsaidá, “house of fishing”) // Bethsaida Julias A city east of the Jordan River, in a “desert place” (that is, uncultivated ground used for grazing) at which Jesus miraculously fed the multitude with five loaves and two fishes (Mark 6:32; Luke 9:10). ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Caesarea Philippi is the name of a town 95 miles north of Jerusalem, 35 miles southwest from Damascus, 1150 feet above sea level. ... The upper part of The Transfiguration (1520) by Raphael, depicting Christ miraculously discoursing with Moses and Elijah The word Transfiguration means a changing of appearance or form. ... Caesarea Philippi is the name of a town 95 miles north of Jerusalem, 35 miles southwest from Damascus, 1150 feet above sea level. ... Catholic church built over the house of Saint Peter Capernaum (pronounced k-pûrn-m; Hebrew כפר נחום Kefar Nachum, Nahums hamlet) was a settlement on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Son of God - 12th century image of Jesus from Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Jesus as Christ and Messiah is the Christian account of Jesuss life (which is represented both in texts and in images). ...

Second preaching trip : Galilee
Begins last trip : Jerusalem
Blesses little children : Jordan
Talks to rich and young man : Jordan
Tells about death and resurrection : Jordan
Heals blind Bartimaeus : Jericho
Talks to Zacchaeus : Jericho
Visits Martha and Mary : Bethany
Raises Lazarus from the dead : Bethany
The Triumphal Entry : Jerusalem
Curses the fig tree : Jerusalem
Cleanses the temple : Jerusalem
Authority of Jesus questioned : Jerusalem
Teaches in the temple : Jerusalem
Anointed : Bethany
The plot against Jesus : Bethany
The Last Supper : Bethany
Comforts the disciples : Bethany
Gethsemane : Bethany
Possible Arrest and trial : Bethany
Possible Crucifixion and death : Golgotha
The burial of Jesus : Joseph's Tomb
The empty tomb : Jerusalem
Mary Magdalene : Jerusalem
Appears to the two travelers : Emmaus
Appears to 11 disciples : Jerusalem
Talks with some disciples : Sea of Galilee
Possible Ascension : Mount of Olives

c. 33 Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bartimaeus (more accurately Bar Timaeus, Son of Timaeus) is the name given in the Gospel of Mark to a blind man healed by Jesus as he exited Jericho (Mark 10:46-52). ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... Mary anoints Jesus in Bethany in this icon. ... Mary anoints Jesus feet in Bethany in this modern Greek icon. ... Bethany was a village on the southeastern slope of the Mount of Olives, less than two miles (3 km) from Jerusalem, remembered by Christians as the home of Mary, Martha and Lazarus in the New Testament. ... Resurrection of Lazarus by Juan de Flandes, around 1500 For other uses, see Lazarus (disambiguation). ... Bethany was a village on the southeastern slope of the Mount of Olives, less than two miles (3 km) from Jerusalem, remembered by Christians as the home of Mary, Martha and Lazarus in the New Testament. ... Palm Sunday is a moveable feast in the Christian calendar which falls on the Sunday before Easter. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Look up Curse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... To anoint is to apply perfumed oil. ... Bethany was a village on the southeastern slope of the Mount of Olives, less than two miles (3 km) from Jerusalem, remembered by Christians as the home of Mary, Martha and Lazarus in the New Testament. ... Bethany was a village on the southeastern slope of the Mount of Olives, less than two miles (3 km) from Jerusalem, remembered by Christians as the home of Mary, Martha and Lazarus in the New Testament. ... The Last Supper was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ... Bethany was a village on the southeastern slope of the Mount of Olives, less than two miles (3 km) from Jerusalem, remembered by Christians as the home of Mary, Martha and Lazarus in the New Testament. ... Bethany was a village on the southeastern slope of the Mount of Olives, less than two miles (3 km) from Jerusalem, remembered by Christians as the home of Mary, Martha and Lazarus in the New Testament. ... The Garden of Gethsemane. ... Bethany was a village on the southeastern slope of the Mount of Olives, less than two miles (3 km) from Jerusalem, remembered by Christians as the home of Mary, Martha and Lazarus in the New Testament. ... The Son of God - 12th century image of Jesus from Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Jesus as Christ and Messiah is the Christian account of Jesuss life (which is represented both in texts and in images). ... Bethany was a village on the southeastern slope of the Mount of Olives, less than two miles (3 km) from Jerusalem, remembered by Christians as the home of Mary, Martha and Lazarus in the New Testament. ... The Son of God - 12th century image of Jesus from Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Jesus as Christ and Messiah is the Christian account of Jesuss life (which is represented both in texts and in images). ... Calvary (Golgotha) was the hill outside Jerusalem on which Jesus was crucified. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment - an image from the Pericopes of Henry II In the Gospels, the empty tomb is the first sign of the Resurrection of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Mary Magdalene is described, both in... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Supper at Emmaus by Caravaggio, 1601 Emmaus is the name of two places in Palestine. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... The Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the Old City The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: ‎, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: ‎, Jebel ez-Zeitun, Jebel et-Tur, Mount of the Summit) is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. ... The Son of God - 12th century image of Jesus from Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Jesus as Christ and Messiah is the Christian account of Jesuss life (which is represented both in texts and in images). ...

Suggested death (Friday, April 3, 3:00 pm). [1]
Possible Resurrection : Mount of Olives

c. 36 The Son of God - 12th century image of Jesus from Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Jesus as Christ and Messiah is the Christian account of Jesuss life (which is represented both in texts and in images). ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Son of God - 12th century image of Jesus from Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Jesus as Christ and Messiah is the Christian account of Jesuss life (which is represented both in texts and in images). ... The Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the Old City The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: ‎, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: ‎, Jebel ez-Zeitun, Jebel et-Tur, Mount of the Summit) is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

Suggested death (Latest);
Possible Resurrection : Mount of Olives

c. 36 / 37 The Son of God - 12th century image of Jesus from Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Jesus as Christ and Messiah is the Christian account of Jesuss life (which is represented both in texts and in images). ... The Son of God - 12th century image of Jesus from Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Jesus as Christ and Messiah is the Christian account of Jesuss life (which is represented both in texts and in images). ... The Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the Old City The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: ‎, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: ‎, Jebel ez-Zeitun, Jebel et-Tur, Mount of the Summit) is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. ...

Pilate removed from office.

Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus to the people of Jerusalem. ...

Birth

Year of birth

See also: Nativity of Jesus and Census of Quirinius

Our only sources of information on Jesus' birth are the gospels of Matthew and Luke. Matthew describes a "Massacre of the Innocents" under Herod the Great, which Jesus's parents avoid through a Flight into Egypt. Luke dates the event according to a pan-Roman census supposedly organized during the rule of Quirinius, in which tax-payers had to return to the homes of their ancestors. While the former is not known outside the gospels, a more limited census under Quirinius is mentioned by the Jewish historian Josephus. The Nativity by Caravaggio, 1609. ... The Census of Quirinius refers to the enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus when Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was appointed governor of Syria. ... The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Census of Quirinius refers to the enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus when Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was appointed governor of Syria. ... The Virgin and St Joseph register for the census before Governor Quirinius. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and...


Furthermore, the accounts of Matthew and Luke are difficult to reconcile with one another. The Gospel of Matthew states that Jesus was born while Herod was still alive, and that Herod ordered the slaughter of infants that were two years old and younger (Matt. 2:16). Using Josephus' account of Herod, scholars have calculated a year of death for Herod c. 4 BC. The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 Events Archelaus becomes...


Luke also implies that the conception of Jesus took place under Herod the Great (Luke 1:5), but later places Jesus' birth during a census conducted under the governorship of Quirinius, who, according to Josephus, conducted the census in 6 AD. Most scholars have concluded that Luke made a simple error in dating, although a few have attempted to reconcile the two Gospel accounts. Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see 6 (disambiguation). ... The Census of Quirinius refers to the enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus when Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was appointed governor of Syria. ...


Numerous commentators have attempted to identify the Star of Bethlehem with some known astronomical object, thereby providing a clear date. There are, however, too many possible phenomena — including astrological conjunctions — to single out one of them with certainty. Others suggest that the star was a literary invention of the author of the Gospel of Matthew, to claim fulfillment of an Old Testament prophecy (Numbers 24:17).[3] Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ...


In the 6th century, Dionysius Exiguus made the birth date of Jesus the basis for his chart of Easter dates. Dionysius' labeled the years since Jesus' birth "AD", which stands for Anno Domini (meaning "in the year of the Lord" in Latin), a system later supplemented by the term "BC", which stands for Before Christ. In his calculations, Dionysius miscalculated the death of Herod by four years, resulting in the awkward situation that Jesus' birth is usually dated into the years "BC" (Before Christ). Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... “AD” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Day of birth

Determining the exact day of Jesus' birth is even more problematic than the year. Some say that the birth could not have happened in the deep winter, because the Bible says that shepherds spent the night outdoors with their flocks when Jesus was born (Luke 2:8). [4]


November/January

Mediterranean climates such as Judea's have mild winters reaching their coolest in late February. [2] Thus December nights can be quite balmy and warm enough to graze sheep. Moreover, December/January would have been an ideal time to graze sheep to take advantage of the winter rains. During the hot months, conditions can be quite barren and the grasses dry. But the end of December was the time when the perennial grasses began to turn green again and the annual grasses had sprouted anew. Thus, climatically the ecclesiastical practice of placing Christ's birth between December 25 and January 6 is possible. Controversy over whether Christmas ought to be celebrated on December 25 or January 6 underscores the perceived importance of the day of Christ's birth and the determination of church fathers to be accurate.  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


It is believed that Christmas' date was chosen to take advantage of the imperial holiday of the birth of the Sun God Mithras, more specifically Sol Invictus, which coincided with the "return of the sun" after the shortest day of the year. According to this theory, the reason was to replace the popular pagan holiday with a Christian celebration of holy communion. For example, the Catholic Encyclopedia states: "Natalis Invicti, celebrated on 25 December, has a strong claim on the responsibility for our December date."[5] This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


According to one tradition [citation needed], Jesus was born during Hanukkah (25 Kislev into the beginning of Tevet). Under the old Julian calendar, the popular choice of 5 BC for the year of Jesus' birth would place 25 Kislev at November 25. Grand Rabbi Israel Abraham Portugal of the Hasidic group Skullen lighting Hanukkah lights Hanukkah (‎, also spelled Chanukah), also known as the Festival of Lights, is an eight-day Jewish holiday beginning on the 25th day of the month of Kislev, which may fall anytime from late November to late December. ... Kislev (or Chisleu) (Hebrew: כִּסְלֵו, Standard Kislev Tiberian  ; from Akkadian kislimu) is the third month of the ecclesiastical year and the ninth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Tevet (טֵבֵת, Standard Hebrew Tevet, Tiberian Hebrew Ṭēḇēṯ: from Akkadian ṭebētu) is the fourth month of the ecclesiastical year and the tenth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Early Christians sought to calculate the date of Christ's birth based on the idea that Old Testament prophets died either on an anniversary of their birth or of their conception. They reasoned that Jesus died on an anniversary of his conception, so the date of his birth was nine months after the date of Good Friday, either December 25 or January 6. Additional calculations are made based on the six-year almanac of priestly rotations, found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. Some believe that this almanac lists the week when John the Baptist's father served as a high priest. As it is implied that John the Baptist could only have been conceived during that particular week, and as his conception is believed to be tied to that of Jesus, it is claimed that an approximate date of December 25 can be arrived at for the birth of Jesus. However, most scholars (e.g. Catholic Encyclopedia in sources) believe this calculation to be unreliable as it is based on a string of assumptions. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term Early Christianity... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Good Friday is the Friday before Easter (Easter always falls on a Sunday). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dead Sea Scrolls comprise roughly 900 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West Bank. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The apparition of the angel Gabriel to Zechariah, announcing that he was to be the father of John the Baptist, was believed to have occurred on Yom Kippur. This was due to a belief (not included in the Gospel account) that Zechariah was a high priest and that his vision occurred during the high priest's annual entry into the Holy of Holies. If John's conception occurred on Yom Kippur in late September, then his birth would have been in late June (the traditional date is June 24). If John's birth was on June 24, then the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, said by the Gospel account to have occurred three month's before John's birth, would have been in late March. (Tradition fixed it on March 25.) The birth of Jesus would then have been on December 25, nine months after his conception. As with the previous theory, proponents of this theory hold that Christmas was a date of significance to Christians before it was a date of significance to pagans. This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ... According to the Gospel of Luke, Zechariah (Zacharias in the King James Version of the Bible) was a priest of the line of Abijah, during the reign of King Herod the Great, and was the father of John the Baptist and husband of Elizabeth, a woman from the priestly family... Bold text St. ... Yom Kippur (Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר ) is a Jewish holiday, known in English as the Day of Atonement. ... A Holy of Holies is the most sacred place within a sacred building. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At least as early as A.D. 354, Jesus' birth was celebrated on December 25 in Rome. Other cities had other traditional dates. The history of Christmas is closely associated with that of the Epiphany. If the currently prevailing opinion about the compilation of the gospels is accepted, the earliest body of gospel tradition, represented by Mark no less than by the primitive non-Marcan document (Q document) embodied in the first and third gospels, begins, not with the birth and childhood of Jesus, but with His baptism; and this order of accretion of gospel matter is faithfully reflected in the time order of the invention-of feasts. The church in general adopted Christmas much later than Epiphany, and before the 5th century there was no consensus as to when it should come in the calendar, whether on January 6 or December 25. is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article is about the Christian feast. ... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... The Q document or Q (from the German Quelle, source) is a postulated lost textual source for the Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The earliest identification of 25 December with the birthday of Jesus is in a passage, otherwise unknown and probably spurious, of Theophilus of Antioch (171-183), preserved in Latin by the Magdeburg centuriators, to the effect that the Gauls contended that as they celebrated the birth of the Lord on the December 25, whatever day of the week it might be, so they ought to celebrate Easter on 25 March when the resurrection occurred. Theophilus, Patriarch of Antioch (Eusebius Ecclesiastical History iv. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The next surviving mention of December 25 is in Hippolytus' (c. 202) commentary on Daniel. Jesus, he says, was born at Bethlehem on December 25, a Wednesday, in the forty-second year of Augustus. This passage also is almost certainly interpolated. In any case he mentions no feast, nor was such a feast congruous with the orthodox ideas of that age. As late as 245, Origen, in his eighth homily on Leviticus, repudiates as sinful the very idea of keeping the birthday of Jesus "as if he were a king Pharaoh." Thus it was important to the early Christians not to have indecorous parties on that day, but to keep it a time of devotion, reflection, and communion. is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In Greek mythology, Hippolytus was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte. ... This article is about the Biblical figure called Daniel. ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ...


The first early mention of December 25 is in a Latin chronographer of A.D. 354, first published in complete form by Mommsen. It runs thus in English: "Year I after Christ, in the consulate of Augustus Caesar and Paulus, the Lord Jesus Christ was born on 25 December, a Friday and 15th day of the new moon." Here again no festal celebration of the day is attested. is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (November 30, 1817–November 1, 1903) was a Danish/German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician, archaeologist[1] and writer[2], generally regarded as the greatest classicist of the 19th century. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... The name Paulus is a nomen of ancient Rome, while also appearing as the cognomen for other Romans. ... The lunar phase depends on the Moons position in orbit around Earth. ...


October

Another argument (Reference), convincing because it relies on dates named solely in the Bible, places Jesus' birth on the 15th day of the seventh Jewish month during Sukkot, the Feast of Tabernacles. This is based on the time when Zechariah, father of John the Baptist, was ministering in the temple, and received an announcement from God of a coming son. The Bible states that Zecariah's term of ministry was in the "eighth course of Abia", a period dated according to Hebrew calendar in the Old Testament. If John was conceived soon after, and Jesus' conception was six months after John, then Jesus was born during the first day of the feast of the tabernacles. This is an engimatic reference because the Gospel of John introduces Jesus in this manner: "the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us" (KJV). The word used for "dwelt" literally means "tabernacled" - i.e. God's Word became flesh and put his tent up among ours. (Reference)


Other Dates

There were many speculations in the 2nd century about the date of Jesus' birth. Clement of Alexandria, towards its close, mentions several such, and condemns them as superstitions. Some chronologists, he says, alleged the birth to have occurred in the twenty-eighth year of Augustus, on the 25th of Pachon, the Egyptian month (May 20). These were probably the Basilidian gnostics. Others set it on the 24th or 25th of Pharmuthi (19th or 20 April). Clement himself sets it on November 17, 3 B.C. Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ...


The same symbolic reasoning led Polycarp (before 160) to set his birth on Sunday, when the world's creation began, but his baptism on Wednesday, for it was the analogue of the sun's creation. On such grounds certain Latins as early as 354 may have transferred the human birthday from January 6 to December 25 and is by the chronographer above referred to, but in another part of his compilation, termed Natalis invicti solis, or birthday of the unconquered Sun. (Under the Julian Calendar, the winter solstice occurs on December 24, so starting with December 25, the days begin to get longer again.) Cyprian invokes Christus Sol verus, Ambrose Sol novus noster, and such rhetoric was widespread. The Syrians and Armenians, who clung to January 6, accused the Romans of sun-worship and idolatry, contending with great probability that the feast of 25 December had been invented by disciples of Cerinthus and its readings by Artemon to commemorate the natural birth of Jesus. Ambrose, On Virgins, writing to his sister, implies that as late as the papacy of Liberius 352 - 356, the Birth from the Virgin was feasted together with the Marriage of Cana and the Feeding of the 4000, which were never celebrated on any other day but January 6. For other uses, see Polycarp (disambiguation). ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the northern hemisphere winter solstice Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the southern hemisphere winter solstice In astronomy, the winter solstice is the moment when the earth is at a point in its orbit where one hemisphere is... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is about Cyprian, bishop of Carthage. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Cerinthus was the leader of a late first-century or early 2nd century sect, an offshoot of the Ebionites yet similar to Gnosticism in some respects, interesting in that it demonstrates the wide range of conclusions that could be drawn from the life and teachings of Jesus. ... Artemon (fl. ... For other uses, see Ambrose (disambiguation). ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Liberius, pope from May 17, 352 to September 24, 366, was the earliest pope who did not become a saint. ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Chrysostom, in a sermon preached at Antioch on December 20, 386 or 388, says that some held the feast of December 25 to have been held in the West, from Thrace as far as Cádiz, from the beginning. It certainly originated in the West, but spread quickly eastwards. In 353 - 361 it was observed at the court of Constantius II. Basil of Caesarea (died 379) adopted it. Honorius, emperor (395 - 423) in the West, informed his mother and brother Arcadius (395 - 408) in Byzantium of how the new feast was kept in Rome, separate from January 6, with its own troparia and sticharia. They adopted it, and recommended it to Chrysostom, who had long been in favour of it. Epiphanius of Crete was won over to it, as were also the other three patriarchs, Theophilus of Alexandria, John II of Jerusalem, Flavian I of Antioch. This was under Pope Anastasius I, 398 - 400. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Theodosius I concludes peace with Persia, dividing Armenia between them. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Basil (ca. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... Idealising bust of Arcadius in the Theodosian style combines elements of classicism with the new hieratic style (Istanbul Archaeology Museum) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Arcadius For the Greek grammarian, see Arcadius of Antioch. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A troparion (also tropar, plural: troparia) in Byzantine music and in the religious music of Eastern Orthodoxy is a short hymn of one stanza, or one of a series of stanzas (this may carry the further connotation of a hymn interpolated between psalm verses). ... Epiphanius (clearly manifested) was the name of several early Christian scholars and ecclesiastics: Epiphanius of Salamis, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, died 410, author of Panarion Epiphanius of Constantinople, died 535, Patriarch of Constantinople 520—535 Epiphanius Scholasticus, known only as the assistant of Cassiodorus who compiled the Historiae... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Theophilus and the Serapeum Theophilus of Alexandria, (died 412) was the Nicene patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt (385 - 412). ... John II was patriarch of Jerusalem during the 4th century, from 386 to 417. ... Flavian I of Antioch (ca 320-February 404) was a bishop or patriarch of Antioch from 381 until his death. ... Anastasius I was pope from November 27, 399-401. ...


John or Wahan of Nice, in a letter printed by François Combefis in his Historia monoizeii tarurn, affords the above details. The new feast was communicated by Proclus, patriarch of Constantinople (434 - 446), to Sahak, Catholicos of Armenia, about 440. The letter was betrayed to the Persian king, who accused Sahak of Greek intrigues, and deposed him. However, the Armenians, at least those within the Byzantine pale, adopted it for about thirty years, but finally abandoned it together with the decrees of Chalcedon early in the 8th century. Many writers of the period 375 - 450, e.g. Epiphanius, Cassian, Asterius, Basil, Chrysostom and Jerome, contrast the new feast with that of the Baptism as that of the birth after the flesh, from which we infer that the latter was generally regarded as a birth accoding to the Spirit. Instructive as showing that the new feast travelled from West eastwards is the fact (noticed by Usener) that in 387 the new feast was reckoned according to the Julian calendar by writers of the province of Asia, who in referring to other feasts use the reckoning of their local calendars. As early as 400 in Rome an imperial rescript includes Christmas among the three feasts (the others are Easter and Epiphany) on which theatres must be closed. Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat  (UMP) (since 1995) Statistics Land area¹ 71. ... François Combefis is a French patrologist, born at Marmande in November 1605 and died in Paris on 23 March 1679. ... This article is about Proclus Diadochus, the Neoplatonist philosopher. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... His Holiness, the Catholicos of Armenia and of All Armenians (plural Catholicoi, due to its Greek origin) is the head bishop of Armenias dominant church, the Armenian Apostolic Church. ... Chalcedon (Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Ãœsküdar). ... Epiphanius (clearly manifested) was the name of several early Christian scholars and ecclesiastics: Epiphanius of Salamis, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, died 410, author of Panarion Epiphanius of Constantinople, died 535, Patriarch of Constantinople 520—535 Epiphanius Scholasticus, known only as the assistant of Cassiodorus who compiled the Historiae... For the martyr of Tingis, see Marcellus the Centurion. ... This article is about the figure in Greek mythology. ... Basil (ca. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Hermann Karl Usener (23 October 1834-1905) was a German scholar in the fields of philology and comparative religion. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... This article is about the Christian festival. ...


Death

Day of death

Tradition holds that the Last Supper took place on the first night of Passover, which is defined in the Torah as occurring on the 14th of Nisan (Lev 23:5). However, in order to determine theGregorian date of Jesus' death, one needs to know the year, because the 15th of Nisan – corresponding to one of the first two full moons after Vernal Equinox – can occur on any date in late March or April in the western calendar. The Last Supper in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Pasch redirects here. ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of God, traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... Quartodecimanism (fourteenism) was the practice of fixing the date of Easter (in the Bible called Pesach) to the 14th day of Nisan in the Bibles Hebrew Calendar which, according to the Gospels, was the time Jesus was crucified in Jerusalem. ... For information on the calendar, see: Gregorian Calendar For the music style, see: Gregorian chant For medieval usage see: Gregorian reform For the music group see: Gregorian (music group) For the University in Rome: Gregorian University This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise... Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ...


All Gospels agree that Jesus died and was taken off the cross on the day before the Jewish sabbath (Friday before sunset), around the time of Passover, (the Jewish calendar counts the day as beginning with the evening). However, before the year 500, the calendar was changed yearly to align with astronomical observations. Therefore, it is not possible to state on which day of the week the 14 of Nisan occurred for any year before 500 without historical documents that attest to a particular day of the week. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Pasch redirects here. ...


More precise calculation of Jesus' date of death is complicated by apparent inconsistencies in the reports in the Synoptic Gospels as compared to the Gospel of John. In the Synoptic Gospels, the Last Supper is clearly a Passover meal, and appears to have taken place on Thursday after sunset, making it the 15th of Nisan, with the crucifixion on the next day, Friday, still the 15th of Nisan. In this case Passover would have started on Thursday night. This is highly problematic from historical standpoint - first day of Passover is a holy day for Jews, during which no work can be performed and many rituals of Shabbat are observed, so many events described by Gospels (particularly, the trial and the execution) could not have taken place. In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... The Last Supper in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Pasch redirects here. ... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the condemned is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang until dead. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


According to John, however, the Passover meal was to be eaten on the last evening before Jesus was crucified, so that the Last Supper was eaten on the evening of 14th of Nisan and the crucifixion was on the 14th, with Jesus dying approximately at the same time that the lambs for the Passover were being slaughtered in Herod's Temple of Jerusalem -- around 3 PM ("at the ninth hour"), so that the Jews could celebrate the Passover that evening (starting Friday night). Quartodecimanism (fourteenism) was the practice of fixing the date of Easter (in the Bible called Pesach) to the 14th day of Nisan in the Bibles Hebrew Calendar which, according to the Gospels, was the time Jesus was crucified in Jerusalem. ... Model of Herods Temple - currently in the Israel Museum View from east to west of the model of Herods Temple Herods Temple in Jerusalem was a massive expansion of the Second Temple along with renovations of the entire Temple Mount. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Various attempts have been made to harmonize the two reports. Perhaps the most likely theory is that Jesus, knowing he was to be dead at the appointed time for the Passover meal, chose to hold the Passover meal with his disciples a day early, thus holding to the account of John. Some scholars have recently suggested rejecting Thursday as the day of the Last Supper and support a non-Passover Last Supper on Tuesday or Wednesday, thus providing more time for the events that occurred between the Last Supper and the Crucifixion.


According to Orthodox theology, the Last Supper celebrated on Thursday evening was not the Jewish Passover meal. This can be seen from the Biblical text itself since Jesus gave a piece of (leavened) bread to Judas, which would have been a direct violation of Jewish Passover regulations, also since, as the article mentions, Jesus dies the next day at the same time that the Passover lambs are slaughtered (no Passover meal without Passover lamb). Instead, Jesus as God's Passover Lamb puts an end to the old and institutes a new concept, the Christian Eucharist.


Year of death

The most important information attested to in all the Gospels is that Jesus' death occurred under the administration of Pontius Pilate. Pontius Pilate held his position from 2636, during which the only years in which Nisan 14 fell on a Friday were 27, 33, 36, and possibly also 30, depending on when the new moon would have been visible in Jerusalem. Different scholars have defended all of these dates. Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus to the people of Jerusalem. ... Events Pontius Pilate is appointed as Prefect of Judaea. ... For alternate uses, see Number 36. ... Events The Emperor Tiberius retires to Capri, leaving the praetorian prefect Sejanus in charge of both Rome and the Empire. ... For other uses, see 33 (disambiguation). ... For alternate uses, see Number 36. ... Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus... The lunar phase depends on the Moons position in orbit around Earth. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


The most commonly cited dates are April 7, 30 and April 3, 33. In the Gospel of Luke, it is stated that Jesus was "about 30 years old"[citation needed] when he started his public ministry, which would seem to support one of these dates. However, if Jesus' birth was in 6 BC, then this points to the beginning of the public ministry some time around 26. April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 33 (disambiguation). ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... Events Births Possible birthdate of Jesus, April 17. ... Events Pontius Pilate is appointed as Prefect of Judaea. ...


Another fact to be considered is Luke's statement that John the Baptist's ministry began in the fifteenth year of the reign of emperor Tiberius.[citation needed] Tiberius' reign began after Augustus' death on August 19, 14, placing John's appearance in 29 by official Roman reckoning (counting 14 as an accession year and 15 as the first full year), too late for the beginning of Jesus's ministry as calculated above. On the other hand, Tertullian writes in his Adversus Marcionem of a Roman tradition that placed the crucifixion in the twelfth year of Tiberus' rule. Bold text St. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... 29 is my favourite colour!!!!!!!! Events Romans captured Sofia. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ...


Evidence in the Gospel of John points to three separate Passovers during Jesus' ministry, which would tip the scales toward 33. This is strengthened by details of the reign of Sejanus in Rome. Sejanus had ordered the suppression of the Jews throughout the empire, and after his death in 32, Tiberius had repealed those laws. This would fit with the Gospel accounts that seem to indicate that Pilate did not want to crucify Jesus, but was forced into it by the Jewish leaders. For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 33 (disambiguation). ... Lucius Aelius Seianus (or Sejanus) (20 BC – October 18, 31 AD) was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. ... For alternate uses, see Number 32. ...


Nonetheless, proponents of the year 30 point out that Tiberius had become co-regent emperor several years before the death of Augustus, making it possible that the beginning of his reign would have been counted from 11 or 12, putting the beginning of John's ministry in about 26. This is consistent with the "thirty years old" statement in the Gospel of Luke as well. Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year 11. ... This article is about the year 12. ... Events Pontius Pilate is appointed as Prefect of Judaea. ...


References

  1. ^ John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, v.1, ch. 11.
  2. ^ Josephus' Antiquities 18.4.2: "But when this tumult was appeased, the Samaritan senate sent an embassy to Vitellius, a man that had been consul, and who was now president of Syria, and accused Pilate of the murder of those that were killed; for that they did not go to Tirathaba in order to revolt from the Romans, but to escape the violence of Pilate. So Vitellius sent Marcellus, a friend of his, to take care of the affairs of Judea, and ordered Pilate to go to Rome, to answer before the emperor to the accusations of the Jews. So Pilate, when he had tarried ten years in Judea, made haste to Rome, and this in obedience to the orders of Vitellius, which he durst not contradict; but before he could get to Rome Tiberius was dead."
  3. ^ Joseph J. Walsh, Were They Wise Men or Kings?, Westminster John Knox Press, (2001), p. 40
  4. ^ Paul L. Maier, In the Fullness of Time: A Historian Looks at Christmas, Easter, and the Early Church, Kregel Publications (1998), p28
  5. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Christmas

John Paul Meier is a prominent Biblical scholar and Catholic priest. ...

See also

Biblical Jesus is the man Jesus Christ as described by the canonical books of the Bible. ... This article is about Jesus the man, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ... Timeline of Christianity (1AD-Present) The purpose of this chronology is to give a detailed account of Christianity from 1AD to the present. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chronology of Jesus' birth and death - Definition, explanation (2647 words)
Calculation of Jesus' date of death is complicated by apparent inconsistencies in the reports in the Synoptic Gospels as compared to the Gospel of John.
Assuming the chronology of John, the other important datum for the dating is the fact, attested to in all the Gospels, that Jesus' death occurred under the administration of Pontius Pilate.
If Jesus' birth was in 6 BC, then this points to the beginning of the public ministry some time around 26 A.D. Another datum to be considered is the statement in Luke's, that John the Baptist's ministry began in the 15th year of the reign of emperor Tiberius.
Chronology of Jesus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3163 words)
The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events).
Jesus, he says, was born at Bethlehem on December 25, a Wednesday, in the forty-second year of Augustus.
Assuming the validity of the chronology of John, the most important information attested to in all the Gospels is that Jesus' death occurred under the administration of Pontius Pilate.
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