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Encyclopedia > Chronology
Pictoral chronology of intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency

(General) Chronology is the science of locating events in time. An arrangement of events, from either earliest to latest or the reverse, is also called a chronology or, particularly when involving graphical elements, a timeline or a living graph. See also Chronicle. Timeline is a science fiction novel by Michael Crichton that was published in November 1999. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x324, 371 KB) Summary Center for the Study of Intelligence (CSI) Timeline CIA Factbook on Intelligence http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x324, 371 KB) Summary Center for the Study of Intelligence (CSI) Timeline CIA Factbook on Intelligence http://www. ... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States government. ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up timeline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In terms of knowledge representation, a Living Graph is similar to a chronology timeline. ... Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek Χρόνος) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ...

Contents

Definition

Unlike chronometry (i.e. timekeeping), which is part of physics, (general) chronology, as the science of locating historical events in time, is part of the discipline of history. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the discovery and characterization of universal laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ... HIStory - Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double-disc album (one half greatest hits, one half studio album) by American musician Michael Jackson released in June of 1995 by the Epic Records division of Sony BMG. The first disc, (HIStory Begins) contains fifteen hit singles from the past...


A chronology may be either relative—that is, locating related events relative to each other—or absolute—locating these events to specific dates in a Chronological Era. In that these dates are themselves events, the difference between the two blurs a little: an absolute chronology just includes a strange sort of event called a date which is common to all absolute chronologies covering the same period of time. Even this distinction may be blurred by use of different calendars. In Judeo-Christian cultures, historical dates in an absolute chronology are understood to be referred to the Christian era, in combination with the (proleptic) Julian calendar (originally) and the Gregorian calendar respectively. Before the advent of absolute dating in the 20th century, archaeologists and geologists were largely limited to the use of Relative Dating techniques. ... Absolute dating is the process of determining a specific archaeological date. ... A date in a calendar is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. ... Era may refer to: Era, a long period of history ERA Real Estate, also known as Electronic Realty Associates Inc. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ...


Calendar and Era

The familiar terms ‘calendar’ and ‘era’ (within the meaning of a coherent system of numbered calendar years) concern two complementary fundamental concepts of chronology. For example during eight centuries the calendar belonging to the Christian era, which era was taken in use in the eighth century by Bede, was the Julian calendar, but after the year 1582 it was the Gregorian calendar. Dionysius Exiguus (about the year 500) was the founder of that era, which is nowadays the most widespread dating system on earth. A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... Era may refer to: Era, a long period of history ERA Real Estate, also known as Electronic Realty Associates Inc. ... Anno Domini (Latin: In the year of the Lord), or more completely Anno Domini Nostri Jesu Christi (in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ), commonly abbreviated AD or A.D., is the designation used to number years in the dominant Christian Era in the world today. ... Bede (IPA: ) (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin) Beda (IPA: )), (ca. ... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ...


Anno Urbis Conditae Era

Though in Roman antiquity one frequently reckoned back to any supposed year of foundation of the city of Rome, the Anno Urbis Conditae era, which like the Anno Domini era did not in reality exist yet in antiquity, was used systematically for the first time only about the year 400, namely by the Iberian historian Orosius; pope Boniface IV (about the year 600) seems to have been the first who recognized the connection between these two eras (i.e. AD 1 = AUC 754). Ab urbe condita (related with Anno urbis conditae: AUC or a. ... Paulus Orosius (c. ... Boniface IV (ca. ...


Astronomical Era

Dionysius Exiguus’ Anno Domini era (which contains only calendar years AD) was extended by Bede to the complete Christian era (which contains in addition all calendar years BC but no year zero). Ten centuries after Bede the French astronomers Philippe de la Hire (in the year 1702) en Jacques Cassini (in the year 1740), purely in order to simplify certain calculations, put the Julian Dating System (proposed in the year 1583 by Joseph Scaliger) and with it an astronomical era into use which contains a leap year zero, which the year 1 (AD) precedes but does not exactly coincide with the year 1 BC. Astronomers never proposed seriously to replace our era with their astronomical era (which for that matter coincides exactly with the Christian era where it concerns the calendar years after the year 4). La Hire and Xaintrailles depicted in a 15th century illuminated book. ... Jacques Cassini (February 8, 1677 - April 18, 1756) was a French astronomer, son of Giovanni Domenico Cassini Cassini was born at the Paris Observatory. ... The Julian day or Julian day number (JDN) is the number of days that have elapsed since 12 noon Greenwich Mean Time (UT or TT) on Monday, January 1, 4713 BC (in the proleptic Julian calendar; or November 24, 4714 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar). ... Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609) was the tenth child and third son of Julius Caesar Scaliger and Andiette de Roques Lobejac. ... A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing an extra day (or, in case of lunisolar calendars, an extra month) in order to keep the calendar year synchronised with the astronomical or seasonal year. ...


Other chronological subjects

Other familiar chronological subjects are for example: timeline, linear timescale, French revolutionary era, leap year, jewish calendar. Subjects of the Christian chronology are for example: Dionysius Exiguus' Easter table, Paschal full moon, lunar cycle, solar cycle, easter cycle, lunar phase number, millennium question. Look up timeline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing an extra day (or, in case of lunisolar calendars, an extra month) in order to keep the calendar year synchronised with the astronomical or seasonal year. ... This figure, in a detail of a medieval Hebrew calendar, reminded Jews of the palm branches ( Lulav) and the citron ( Etrog) to be brought to the synagogue at the end of sukkot, closing the solemn convocations of the calendar in autumn. ... Dionysius Exiguus Easter table was constructed in the year 525 by Dionysius Exiguus for the years 532–626. ... The Paschal Full Moon roughly corresponds to the first full moon of Spring. ... In astronomy, a phase of the Moon is any of the aspects or appearances presented by the Moon as seen from Earth, determined by the portion of the Moon that is visibly illuminated by the Sun. ... The solar cycle is a 28-year cycle of the Julian calendar with respect to the week. ... A millennium is a period of time, equal to one thousand years (from Latin mille, thousand, and annum, year). ...


Prehistoric chronologies

In the absence of written history, with its chronicles and king lists, late 19th century archaeologists found that they could develop relative chronologies based on pottery techniques and styles. In the field of Egyptology, William Flinders Petrie pioneered sequence dating to penetrate pre-dynastic Neolithic times, using groups of contemporary artefacts deposited together at a single time in graves and working backwards methodically from the earliest historical phases of Egypt. Compare the American technique of Seriation. Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek Χρόνος) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... Egyptologist Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (3 June 1853 - 28 July 1942) was a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... // Seriaton in Archaeology Seriation is a method in relative dating in which artifacts of numerous sites, in the same culture, are placed in chronological order. ...


Known wares discovered at strata in sometimes quite distant sites, the product of trade, helped extend the network of chronologies. Some cultures have retained the name applied to them in reference to characteristic forms, for lack of an idea of what they called themselves: "The Beaker People" in northern Europe during the 3rd millennium BCE, for example. The study of the means of placing pottery and other cultural artifacts into some kind of order proceeds in two phases, classification and typology: Classification creates categories for the purposes of description, and typology seeks to identify and analyse changes that allow artifacts to be placed into sequences [1]. The Beaker people (or `Beaker folk) were an archaeological culture present in prehistoric Europe, defined by a pottery style -- a beaker with a distinctive bell-shaped profile -- that many archeologists believe spread across the western part of the Continent during the 3rd millennium BC. The pottery is particularly prevalent in... (4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – Syria) (29th century BC ) Creation of the Kingdom of Elam (Iraq) Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the oldest tree still living now Dynasty of Lagash in Sumeria Golden age of Ur in Mesopotamia. ...


Laboratory techniques developed particularly after mid-20th century helped constantly revise and refine the chronologies developed for specific cultural areas. Unrelated dating methods help reinforce a chronology, an axiom of corroborative evidence. Ideally, archaeological materials used for dating a site should complement each other and provide a means of cross-checking. Conclusions drawn from just one unsupported technique are usually regarded as unreliable. For other senses of this word, see evidence (disambiguation). ...


Bayesian analysis has recently started to be routinely applied in the analysis of chronological information, including radiocarbon-derived dates, Bayesian inference is statistical inference in which probabilities are interpreted not as frequencies or proportions or the like, but rather as degrees of belief. ...


Several legendary sources tend to assign unrealistically long lifespans to pre-historical heroes and monarchs (e.g Egypt, Hebrews, Japanese), if the number of years there reported are understood as years of more than 340 days. One potent explanation for this has been that there have been more than one harvest during the actual year, and memories evolving to legends tend to count each growth period as separate year.


Though chronologies formulated before the 1960s are subject to serious skepticism today, more recent results are more robust than readily appears to journalists and enthusiastic amateurs.


See also

Chronologies

Anno Domini (Latin: In the year of the Lord), or more completely Anno Domini Nostri Jesu Christi (in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ), commonly abbreviated AD or A.D., is the designation used to number years in the dominant Christian Era in the world today. ... Insert non-formatted text here This is a timeline of ancient Greece. ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... // Note: dates prior to 841 BC are provisional and subject to dispute. ... This is a non-exhaustive chronology of colonialism-related events, which may recensed political events, cultural events, as well as important global events which have influenced the colonization and the decolonization. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This is a Conventional Egyptian chronology. ... Timeline of the French Revolution // The Enlightenment, which led to many European writers criticising the Monarchy and espousing democratic, liberalist, nationalist and socialist ideas. ... This page aims to give a chronology of actions in the Irish War of Independence 1919-1921. ... The Irish Civil War, was fought between June 1922 and May 1923. ... Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). ... Mesoamerican chronology The chronology of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is usually divided into the following eras: Paleo-Indian Period c. ... Cover of History: Fiction or Science? Chronology 1 The New Chronology of Anatoly Timofeevich Fomenko is an attempt to rewrite world chronology, based on his conclusion that world chronology as we know it today is fundamentally flawed. ... i hate world history!!! ... Timeline of Polish History Dates and most important events in Polish history from prehistoric times up to the present day. ... The Hindu metrics of time can be summarized as below. ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ... Chronological dates in Tamil history, perceived from external chronicles: c. ... // Units of time in Ancient Tamil history: 1 kuzhi(kuRRuzhi)= 6. ... Ancient Mesopotamia was settled and conquered by numerous ancient civilizations. ... The earliest chronicles The Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa say that, before the migration of the Indo-Aryans, tribes of naga, yaksha, deva & raksha inhabited the island. ... This is an incomplete timeline of notable events in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... Timeline of organized labor history 1790s - 1800s - 1810s - 1820s - 1830s - 1840s - 1850s - 1860s - 1870s - 1880s - 1890s - 1900s - 1910s - 1920s - 1930s - 1940s - 1950s - 1960s - 1970s - 1980s 1797 (United States) Profit sharing originated at Albert Gallatins glass works in New Geneva, Pennsylvania. ... // The ancient Kuru kingdom Ancient Period - Kuru Kingdom in India with its capital at Hastinapur, inhabited by the Kauravas and the Pandavas from the royal line of King Bharata. ... Philosophical timelines have been split into three sections: Eastern, Western, and Global. ... The Ussher chronology is a 17th-century chronology of the history of the world formulated from an interpretative reading of the Bible by James Ussher, the Anglican Archbishop of Armagh (in what is now Northern Ireland). ... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... The Holocene calendar, Human Era count or Jōmon Era count (Japan) uses a dating system similar to astronomical year numbering but adds 10,000, placing a year 0 at the start of the Jōmon Era (JE), the Human Era (HE, the beginning of human civilization) and the aproximate... There have been four major periods of glaciation in the Earths past. ... The following tables list the main events happened during World War I. // Categories: | ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The purpose of this... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... NotE: All dates are Common Era. ... This is an incomplete list of persons who were assassinated; that is, important people who were murdered, usually for ideological or political reasons. ... Photographs of the My Lai massacre provoked worldwide outrage and turned it into an international scandal. ... Chronologies or timelines are important in understanding history. ...

Artistic fields

BYRON (January 22, 1788 - April 19, 1824) 1788 22 January – Born, 16 Holles Street, London. ... The following is a list of paintings by the Italian artist Caravaggio, listed chronologically. ... The precise chronology of Shakespeares plays as they were first written and performed is impossible to determine, as there is no authoritative record and many of the plays were performed many years before they were published. ...

Religious field

Biblical chronology is the academic discipline of identifying the Gregorian calendar dates for events mentioned by the Bible. ... This chronology outlines the major events in the history of the Book of Mormon, according to the text. ... The Chronology of Revelation details a series of events which take place in the Book of Revelation, detailing (by some accounts) the final judgement of God on the world. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The purpose of this...

Economic fields

  • Chronology of world oil market events (1970-2005)
  • 1970-1979 world oil market chronology
  • 2003 world oil market chronology

// Basic Overview The 1970s See: 1970-1979 world oil market chronology 1970 January 1: U.S. Federal oil depletion allowance reduced from 27. ... // 1970 January 1: U.S. Federal oil depletion allowance reduced from 27. ... January 6: Venezuelan Minister of Energy and Mines Rafael Ramírez announces that the Venezuelan government plans to split state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PdVSA) into two separate entities as part of a large-scale restructuring of the company, most of whose 40,000 workers are currently...

Techniques

The growth rings of an unknown tree species, at Bristol Zoo, England Pinus taeda Cross section showing annual rings, Cheraw, South Carolina Pine stump showing growth rings Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns. ... 1600     William Gilbert in London suggests the Earth is a giant magnet. ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years[1]. Raw, i. ... Thermoluminescence dating is the determination of the date at which materials were formed by measuring the light energy released when heating it. ... Glottochronology refers to methods in historical linguistics used to estimate the time at which languages diverged, based on the assumption that the basic (core) vocabulary of a language changes at a constant average rate. ...

Other

An order is a way of sorting entries, also called elements, in a list. ... The New Chronology of Anatoly Timofeevich Fomenko is an attempt to rewrite world chronology, based on his conclusion that world chronology as we know it today is fundamentally flawed. ... Reverse chronology is a method of story-telling whereby the plot is revealed in reverse order. ... A Synchronoptic view is a graphic display of a number of entities as they proceed through time. ... Chronologies or timelines are important in understanding history. ...

External links

Look up chronology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

Further reading

  • M. Aitken, Science-Based dating in Archaeology (Thames and Hudson, London) 1990: a recent overview

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: General Chronology (4255 words)
Historical Chronology, of which we here treat, and which fixes in the general course of time the position of any particular occurrence, or, as it is generally termed, its
chronology was first recognized by mankind, many and various eras have been employed at different periods and by different nations.
chronology the indictions are conventional periods of fifteen years, the first of which began in the reign of Constantine the Great.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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