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Encyclopedia > Chromosome 19 (human)

Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 19 spans more than 63 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents between 2 and 2.5 percent of the total DNA in cells. Image File history File links Chromosome_19. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ...


Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 19 likely contains between 1,300 and 1,700 genes. For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ...


Genes

The following are some of the genes located on chromosome 19:

  • APOE: Apolipoprotein E
  • BCKDHA: Branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1, alpha polypeptide (maple syrup urine disease)
  • DMPK: Dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase
  • GCDH: Glutaryl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase
  • HAMP: Hepcidin antimicrobial peptide
  • NOTCH3: Notch homolog 3 (Drosophila)
  • PRX: Periaxin
  • SLC5A5: Solute carrier family 5 (sodium iodide symporter), member 5
  • STK11: Serine/threonine kinase 11 (Peutz-Jeghers syndrome)
  • EYCL1: EYE COLOR 1; EYE COLOR, GREEN/BLUE; GEY. Gene map locus 19p13.1-q13.11[1]
  • HCL1: HAIR COLOR 1; BROWN HAIR COLOR; BRHC. Gene map locus 19p13.1-q13.11[[2]]

Apolipoprotein E (APOE), a main apoprotein of the chylomicron, binds to a specific receptor on liver cells and peripheral cells. ... HAMP (hepcidin antimicrobial peptide) is a human gene that instructs cells to manufacture a small protein called hepcidin, which was originally identified as having antimicrobial properties. ...

Diseases

The following diseases are some of those related to genes on chromosome 19:

CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is the most common form of hereditary stroke disorder, and is thought to be caused by mutations of the Notch 3 gene on chromosome 19 (Joutel et al, 1996). ... Centronuclear myopathies (CNM) are a group of congenital myopathies where cell nuclei are abnormally located in skeletal muscle cells. ... Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, known also as Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy (HMSN) or Peroneal Muscular Atrophy, is a heterogeneous inherited disorder of nerves (neuropathy) that is characterized by loss of muscle tissue and touch sensation, predominantly in the feet and legs but also in the hands and arms in... Congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) is a condition of thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth. ... Glutaric acidemia type 1 (or Glutaric Aciduria, GA1, or GAT1) is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to process the amino acid lysine, hydroxylysine and tryptophan properly. ... Haemochromatosis, also spelled hemochromatosis, is a hereditary disease characterized by improper processing by the body of dietary iron which causes iron to accumulate in a number of body tissues, eventually causing organ dysfunction. ... Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder of amino acid metabolism. ... Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults, and is the second most common muscular dystrophy after Duchenne muscular dystrophy. ... Centronuclear myopathies (CNM) are a group of congenital myopathies where cell nuclei are abnormally located in skeletal muscle cells. ... Peutz-Jeghers is an autosomal dominant genetic disease. ... Added to User:reverie98/Desk 71. ... Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, which, like other types of SCA, is characterized by dysarthria, oculomotor disorders, incontinence, peripheral neuropathy, dementia, and ataxia of gait, stance and the limbs due to cerebellar dysfunction. ...

References

  • Gilbert F (1997). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome. Chromosome 19". Genet Test 1 (2): 145-9. PMID 10464639. 
  • Grimwood J, Gordon LA, Olsen A, Terry A, Schmutz J, Lamerdin J, Hellsten U, Goodstein D, Couronne O, Tran-Gyamfi M, Aerts A, Altherr M, Ashworth L, Bajorek E, Black S, Branscomb E, Caenepeel S, Carrano A, Caoile C, Chan YM, Christensen M, Cleland CA, Copeland A, Dalin E, Dehal P, Denys M, Detter JC, Escobar J, Flowers D, Fotopulos D, Garcia C, Georgescu AM, Glavina T, Gomez M, Gonzales E, Groza M, Hammon N, Hawkins T, Haydu L, Ho I, Huang W, Israni S, Jett J, Kadner K, Kimball H, Kobayashi A, Larionov V, Leem SH, Lopez F, Lou Y, Lowry S, Malfatti S, Martinez D, McCready P, Medina C, Morgan J, Nelson K, Nolan M, Ovcharenko I, Pitluck S, Pollard M, Popkie AP, Predki P, Quan G, Ramirez L, Rash S, Retterer J, Rodriguez A, Rogers S, Salamov A, Salazar A, She X, Smith D, Slezak T, Solovyev V, Thayer N, Tice H, Tsai M, Ustaszewska A, Vo N, Wagner M, Wheeler J, Wu K, Xie G, Yang J, Dubchak I, Furey TS, DeJong P, Dickson M, Gordon D, Eichler EE, Pennacchio LA, Richardson P, Stubbs L, Rokhsar DS, Myers RM, Rubin EM, Lucas SM (2004). "The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19". Nature 428 (6982): 529-35. PMID 15057824. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chromosome 19: Human Genome Landmarks Poster (348 words)
These regions reflect the unique patterns of light and dark bands seen on human chromosomes that have been stained to allow viewing through a light microscope.
Chromosomal regions that vary in staining intensity and are sometimes called heterochromatin (meaning "different color").
(e.g., on chromosome 21) denote variable regions, called stalks, that connect a very small chromosome arm (a "satellite") to the chromosome.
Chromosome 19 (human) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (213 words)
Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 19 spans more than 63 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents between 2 and 2.5 percent of the total DNA in cells.
"The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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