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Encyclopedia > Chromosome 18 (human)

Chromosome 18 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 18 spans about 76 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents about 2.5 percent of the total DNA in cells. A scheme of a condensed (metaphase) chromosome. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...


Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 18 likely contains between 300 and 400 genes. For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ...


Diseases & disorders

The following diseases are some of those related to genes on chromosome 18:

The porphyrias are inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ... In medicine, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, is a genetic disorder that leads to vascular malformations. ... Niemann-Pick disease is an inherited condition involving lipid metabolism (the breakdown and use of fats and cholesterol in the body) in which harmful amounts of lipids accumulate in the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow, and brain. ... Porphyrias are a group of inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ... Selective mutism is a social anxiety disorder in which a person who is normally capable of speech is unable to speak in given situations. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ...

References

  • Nusbaum C, Zody MC, Borowsky ML, Kamal M, Kodira CD, Taylor TD, Whittaker CA, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Dewar K, FitzGerald MG, Yang X, Abouelleil A, Allen NR, Anderson S, Bloom T, Bugalter B, Butler J, Cook A, DeCaprio D, Engels R, Garber M, Gnirke A, Hafez N, Hall JL, Norman CH, Itoh T, Jaffe DB, Kuroki Y, Lehoczky J, Lui A, Macdonald P, Mauceli E, Mikkelsen TS, Naylor JW, Nicol R, Nguyen C, Noguchi H, O'Leary SB, O'Neill K, Piqani B, Smith CL, Talamas JA, Topham K, Totoki Y, Toyoda A, Wain HM, Young SK, Zeng Q, Zimmer AR, Fujiyama A, Hattori M, Birren BW, Sakaki Y, Lander ES (2005). "DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 18". Nature 437 (7058): 551-5. PMID 16177791. 
  • Chen H, Wang N, Huo Y, Sklar P, MacKinnon DF, Potash JB, McMahon FJ, Antonarakis SE, DePaulo JR Jr, Ross CA, McInnis MG (2003). "Trapping and sequence analysis of 1138 putative exons from human chromosome 18". Mol Psychiatry 8 (6): 619-23. PMID 12851638. 
  • Gilbert F (1997). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome. Chromosome 18". Genet Test 1 (1): 69-71. PMID 10464628. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Non-disjunction of chromosome 18 -- Bugge et al. 7 (4): 661 -- Human Molecular Genetics (6120 words)
For chromosome 18 we have examined the frequency of normal disjunction from nullichiasmate tetrads by reconstruction of the chiasma distribution from crossovers in normal meiosis and compare this with the distribution from transitions in non-disjunction.
Chromosomes 16 and 18 are rather similar in size, shape and female genetic map length, but they have extremely different patterns of meiotic error, with mat MI non-disjunction being very common for chromosome 16 while mat MII non-disjunction is unknown (33).
For chromosome 18 we have tested the null hypothesis that all tetrads are chiasmate using the crossover distribution derived from CEPH v.8.1 (Table 5).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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