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Encyclopedia > Chromosome 12 (human)

Chromosome 12 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 12 spans about 132 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents between 4 and 4.5 percent of the total DNA in cells. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ...


Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 12 likely contains between 1,000 and 1,300 genes. It also contains the Homeobox C gene cluster. For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... A homeobox is a DNA sequence found within genes that are involved in the regulation of development (morphogenesis) of animals, fungi and plants. ...


Genes

The following are some of the genes located on chromosome 12:

  • ACVRL1: activin A receptor type II-like 1
  • COL2A1: collagen, type II, alpha 1 (primary osteoarthritis, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, congenital)
  • HPD: 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase
  • LRRK2: leucine-rich repeat kinase 2
  • MMAB: methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblB type
  • MYO1A: myosin IA
  • NANOG: NK-2 type homeodomain gene
  • PAH: phenylalanine hydroxylase
  • PPP1R12A: protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 12A
  • PTPN11: protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 (Noonan syndrome 1)

COL2A1 (collagen, type II, alpha 1 (primary osteoarthritis, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, congenital)) is a human gene that provides instructions for the production of the pro-alpha1(II) chain of type II collagen. ... Nanog (pron. ... PAH (phenylalanine hydroxylase) is a human gene that provides instructions for making an enzyme called phenylalanine hydroxylase. ... PTPN11 is a gene encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP), Shp2. ...

Diseases

The following diseases are some of those related to genes on chromosome 12:

Achondrogenesis is a number of disorders which are the most severe form of congenital chondrodysplasia (malformation of bones and cartilage). ... The type II and XI collagenopathies are a group of disorders that affect connective tissue, the tissue that supports the bodys joints and organs. ... In medicine, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, is a genetic disorder that leads to vascular malformations. ... Hypochondrogenesis is a severe, inherited disorder of bone growth. ... Kniest dysplasia is an uncommon inherited disorder of bone growth. ... Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) refers to any of several rare hereditary forms of diabetes mellitus due to dominantly inherited defects of insulin secretion. ... Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is an inborn error of intermediary metabolism that may present in the early neonatal period with progressive encephalopathy and death due to a secondary hyperammonemia. ... Nonsyndromic deafness is hearing loss that is not associated with other signs and symptoms. ... Late onset progressive deafness is the most common neurological disability of the elderly. ... Noonan Syndrome (NS) is a relatively common congenital genetic condition which affects both males and females. ... Phenylketonuria (PKU; ) is a human genetic disorder in which the body does not contain the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, necessary to metabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine, and converts phenylalanine instead to phenylpyruvic acid. ... Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type is an inherited disorder of bone growth that results in dwarfism, characteristic skeletal abnormalities, and problems with vision. ... Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita is an rare inherited disorder of bone growth that results in dwarfism, characteristic skeletal abnormalities, and problems with vision and hearing. ... Spondyloperipheral dysplasia is a disorder of bone growth. ... Stickler syndrome (or David-Stickler syndrome or Stickler-Wagner syndrome) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders affecting collagen. ... Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder which has been has been initially described in 1965. ... Tyrosinemia (or Tyrosinaemia) is an error of metabolism, usually inborn, in which the body can not effectively break down the amino acid tyrosine, found in most animal and plant proteins. ...

References

  • Gilbert F, Kauff N (2000). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome.Chromosome 12". Genet Test 4 (3): 319-33. PMID 11142767. 
  • Montgomery KT, Lee E, Miller A, Lau S, Shim C, Decker J, Chiu D, Emerling S, Sekhon M, Kim R, Lenz J, Han J, Ioshikhes I, Renault B, Marondel I, Yoon SJ, Song K, Murty VV, Scherer S, Yonescu R, Kirsch IR, Ried T, McPherson J, Gibbs R, Kucherlapati R (2001). "A high-resolution map of human chromosome 12". Nature 409 (6822): 945-6. PMID 11237017. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
The finished DNA sequence of human chromosome 12 : Nature (4015 words)
On the basis of cytogenetic evidence, a double reciprocal translocation of human chromosomes 12 and 22 occurred after the divergence of prosimian primates, and is present in all anthropoid primates.
The breakpoints identified between the human and rodent genomes are summarized in Fig.
The pattern of insertion–deletions (indels) in human chromosome 12 relative to the hominoid ancestor is summarized in Table 2.
chromosome: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (4898 words)
In the human karyotype, the autosomes are numbered 1 through 22, and the sex chromosomes are called X and Y. The short arm of a chromosome is called the p arm, and the long arm is called the q arm; a number is assigned to each band on the arm.
Bacterial chromosomes tend to be tethered to the plasma membrane of the bacteria.
Chromosomal aberrations are disruptions in the normal chromosomal content of a cell, and are a major cause of genetic disease in humans, such as down syndrome.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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