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Encyclopedia > Chromosome 10 (human)

Chromosome 10 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 10 spans about 135 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents between 4 and 4.5 percent of the total DNA in cells. Figure 1: Chromosome. ... Binomial name Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Homo sapiens idaltu(extinct) Homo sapiens sapiens Homo (genus). ... In molecular biology, two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds are called a base pair (often abbreviated bp). ... Space-filling model of a section of DNA molecule Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life (and most viruses). ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the building blocks of life. ...


Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 10 likely contains between 800 and 1,200 genes. This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ...


Genes

The following are some of the genes located on chromosome 10:

  • CDH23: cadherin-like 23
  • EGR2: early growth response 2 (Krox-20 homolog, Drosophila)
  • ERCC6: excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 6
  • FGFR2: fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (bacteria-expressed kinase, keratinocyte growth factor receptor, craniofacial dysostosis 1, Crouzon syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Jackson-Weiss syndrome)
  • PCBD1: 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (TCF1)
  • PCDH15: protocadherin 15
  • PTEN: phosphatase and tensin homolog (mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1)
  • RET: ret proto-oncogene (multiple endocrine neoplasia and medullary thyroid carcinoma 1, Hirschsprung disease)
  • UROS: uroporphyrinogen III synthase (congenital erythropoietic porphyria)

PTEN may mean: PTEN gene - one of the tumor suppressor gene (chromosome 10) Prime Time Entertainment Network ... Resolution enhancement technology (RET) is a form of image processing technology used to manipulate dot characteristics popular among laser printer and inkjet printer manufacturers. ...

Diseases

The following diseases are some of those related to genes on chromosome 8:

Apert Syndrome, virtually synonymous with Acrocephalosyndactyly, is a branchial arch syndrome, characterized by a number of clinical features, resulting from a developmental anomaly. ... The foot of a person with Charcot-Marie-Tooth. ... Cockayne syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by growth failure, impaired development of the nervous system, abnormal sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity), and premature aging. ... The porphyrias are inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ... Cowden syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by multiple tumor-like growths called hamartomas, and an increased risk of certain cancers. ... Crouzon Syndrome is a type of genetic disorder known as a branchial arch syndrome. ... Nonsyndromic deafness is hearing loss that is not associated with other signs and symptoms. ... This article is about the disease. ... Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency (also known as BH4 deficiency) is a rare disorder that increases the blood levels of a substance called phenylalanine. ... Usher syndrome is a genetic disease causing deaf-blindness. ...

References

  • Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR, Rogers J (2004). The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10. Nature 429 (6990): 375-81. PMID 15164054
  • Deloukas P, French L, Meitinger T, Moschonas NK (2000). Report of the third international workshop on human chromosome 10 mapping and sequencing 1999. Cytogenet Cell Genet 90 (1-2): 1-12. PMID 11060438
  • Gilbert F (2001). Chromosome 10. Genet Test 5 (1): 69-82. PMID 11336406
Human chromosomes edit

{1} {2} {3} {4} {5} {6} {7} {8} {9} {10} {11} {12} {13} {14} {15} {16} {17} {18} {19} {20} {21} {22} {X} {Y} Figure 1: Chromosome. ... Chromosome 11 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... A common disease due to 3 of such chromosomes instead of the normal 2 is called Down syndrome. ... The human X chromosome, is is one of the two chromosomes involved in the XY sex-determination system. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Human chromosomes 9 and 10 completed (500 words)
Chromosome 9 harbours four genes that can cause sex-reversal, all the human interferon type 1 genes (interferon is important in suppressing cancer development and in resisting virus infection), a gene implicated in neurodegenerative disease (CHAC), as well as a gene (abl) that is involved in 90 per cent of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) cases.
Also of interest is the number of genes sharing the same space; 15 per cent of genes on chromosome 10 are found as overlapping pairs: conventionally it is thought that each gene occupies a unique region of DNA sequence.
The two chromosome sequences point to the rich variety in our genome: chromosome 9 is peppered with regions copied from elsewhere in the genome; chromosome 10 is rich in overlapping genes.
Chromosome 10 - Genetics Home Reference (401 words)
Chromosome 10 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 10 spans about 135 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents between 4 and 4.5 percent of the total DNA in cells.
Genes on chromosome 10 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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