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Encyclopedia > Chromosomal translocation
Chromosomal translocation of the 4th and 20th chromosome.
Chromosomal translocation of the 4th and 20th chromosome.

In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes. It is detected on cytogenetics or a karyotype of affected cells. There are two main types, reciprocal (also known as non-Robertsonian) and Robertsonian. Also, translocations can be balanced (in an even exchange of material with no genetic information extra or missing, and ideally full functionality) or unbalanced (where the exchange of chromosome material is unequal resulting in extra or missing genes). Image File history File links Description: Source: [1] (file) License: All of the illustrations in the Talking Glossary of Genetics are freely available and may be used without special permission. ... Image File history File links Description: Source: [1] (file) License: All of the illustrations in the Talking Glossary of Genetics are freely available and may be used without special permission. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to genetics. ... The three major single chromosome mutations; deletion (1), duplication (2) and inversion (3). ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ... A metaphase cell positive for the bcr/abl rearrangement using FISH Cytogenetics is the study of the structure of chromosome material. ... Karyogram of human male using Giemsa staining. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hook from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ...


and next what happens is...

Contents

Reciprocal (non-Robertsonian) translocations

Usually resulting in an exchange of material between nonhomologous chromosomes, reciprocal translocations are found in about 1 in 600 newborns. Such translocations are usually harmless and may be found through prenatal diagnosis. However, carriers of balanced reciprocal translocations have increased risks of creating gametes with unbalanced chromosome translocations leading to miscarriages or children with abnormalities. Genetic counseling and genetic testing is often offered to families that may carry a translocation. Prenatal diagnosis is the diagnosis of disease or condition in a fetus or embryo before it is born. ... Genetic counseling is the process by which patients or relatives, at risk of an inherited disorder, are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning in order to prevent, avoid or... Genetic testing allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases, and can also be used to determine a persons ancestry. ...


Robertsonian translocations

This type of rearrangement involves two acrocentric chromosomes that fuse near the centromere region with loss of the short arms. The resulting karyotype has only 45 chromosomes since two chromosomes have fused together. Robertsonian translocations have been seen involving all combinations of acrocentric chromosomes. The most common translocation involves chromosomes 13 and 14 and is seen in about 1 in 1300 persons. Like other translocations, carriers of Robertsonian translocations are phenotypically normal, but there is a risk of unbalanced gametes which lead to miscarriages or abnormal offspring. For example, carriers of Robertsonian translocations involving chromosome 21 have a higher chance to have a child with Down syndrome. An acrocentric chromosome is one in which the centromere is located very near to one of the ends of the chromosome, thus giving the chromosome a short arm and a long arm. ... The centromere is a region of chromosomes with a special sequence and structure. ... Karyogram of human male using Giemsa staining. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chromosome 13 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Chromosome 14 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Chromosome 21 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ...


Some diseases caused by translocations are:

Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells. ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a form of chronic leukemia characterized by increased and unregulated clonal production of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow. ... Infertility is the inability to naturally conceive a child or to carry a pregnancy to full term. ... Chromosome 21 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Chromosome 14 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ...

Notation

The shorthand t(A;B)(p#;q#) is used to denote a translocation between chromosome A and chromosome B. The information in the second set of parentheses, when given, gives the precise location within the chromosome for chromosomes A and B respectively—with p indicating the short arm of the chromosome, q indicating the long arm, and the numbers after p or q referring to regions, bands and subbands visible in microscope by staining with specific chemicals.


By chromosome

The shorthand t(A;B)(p1;q2) is used to denote a translocation between chromosome A and chromosome B. The information in the second set of parentheses, when given, gives the precise location within the chromosome for chromosomes A and B respectively—with p indicating the short arm of the chromosome, q indicating the long arm, and the numbers after p or q refers to regions, bands and subbands seen when staining the chromosomes under microscope. Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ...

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a type of non_Hodgkin lymphoma that features in the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of lymphomas. ... Burkitts lymphoma (or Burkitts tumor, or Malignant lymphoma, Burkitts type) is a cancer of the lymphatic system (in particular, B lymphocytes). ... c-Myc is a mammalian transcription factor belonging to the bHLH (basic Helix Loop Helix)_Leucine Zipper family. ... Philadelphia chromosome or Philadelphia translocation is a specific genetic, chromosomal abnormality that is associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and involves an exchange of material between chromosomes 9 and 22. ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a form of chronic leukemia characterized by increased and unregulated clonal production of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow. ... Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia, is a cancer of the white blood cells, characterised by the overproduction and continuous multiplication of malignant and immature white blood cells (referred to as lymphoblasts) in the bone marrow. ... X-Ray of a child with Ewings sarcoma of the tibia Ewings sarcoma is the common name for primitive neuroectodermal tumor. ... Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common of the indolent non-Hodgkins lymphomas. ... B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 is a mammalian protein family whose members govern mitochondrial membrane permeabilisation (MMP), a key event in apoptosis. ... Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare neoplasm of the dermis layer of the skin, and is classified as a sarcoma. ... Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of white blood cells. ... Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells. ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a form of chronic leukemia characterized by increased and unregulated clonal production of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow. ... Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia, is a cancer of the white blood cells, characterised by the overproduction and continuous multiplication of malignant and immature white blood cells (referred to as lymphoblasts) in the bone marrow. ... TEL-JAK2 is a gene fusion resulting from a chromosomal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 12 observed in human leukemia [1] [2]. The 5 moiety of TEL is fused to the 3 end of JAK2. ... A sarcoma is a cancer of the connective or supportive tissue (bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels) and soft tissue. ...

Named translocations

Philadelphia chromosome or Philadelphia translocation is a specific genetic, chromosomal abnormality that is associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and involves an exchange of material between chromosomes 9 and 22. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

See also

Subfamilies Elaninae Perninae Milvinae Accipitrinae Buteoninae Aegypiinae Circinae Circaetinae The Accipitridae is one of the two main families within the order Falconiformes (the diurnal birds of prey). ... Aneuploidy is a change in the number of chromosomes that can lead to a chromosomal disorder. ... A chromosome abnormality reflects an abnormality of chromosome number or structure. ... This article is about the genus of pufferfish Takifugu; for the Japanese dish, see fugu. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chromosome Translocations (824 words)
It is estimated that 1 in 625 individuals in the general population carry a balanced chromosomal translocation.
The sex chromosomes are X and Y. Women have two X chromosomes and men have one X and one Y. We inherit half of our chromosomes (23) from each parent in the egg and sperm.
Individuals that carry chromosomal translocations are typically healthy; however they are at an increased risk for infertility, miscarriage, stillbirth, and/or having a child with birth defects.
BBC - Health - Conditions - Chromosomal translocation (536 words)
A translocation is a condition where a fragment of one chromosome is broken off and is then attached to another.
In a balanced translocation (found in the parent of an affected child, the person doesn't have any additional genetic material - they simply have a smaller than normal chromosome 21 with a piece broken off, a normal second chromosome 21, a chromosome 14 with the broken piece of 21 attached, and a normal chromosome 14.
But if the normal 21 and the affected 14 (carrying material from the broken chromosome 21) are passed on, there is now extra genetic material from chromosome 21 (as the baby will have one normal 21 from each parent as well as the broken piece attached to 14).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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