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Encyclopedia > Chromatography
Pictured is a sophisticated gas chromatography system. This instrument records concentrations of acrylonitrile in the air at various points throughout the chemical laboratory.

Chromatography (from Greek χρώμα:chroma, colour and γραφειν:"graphein" to write) is the collective term for a family of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. It involves passing a mixture dissolved in a "mobile phase" through a stationary phase, which separates the analyte to be measured from other molecules in the mixture and allows it to be isolated. Chromatography is a 2004 Post Trip Hop album by Second Person. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Chromatography00. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Chromatography00. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In chemistry and chemical engineering, a separation process is a process that transforms a mixture of substances into two or more compositionally-distinct products. ... Chromatography is a family of analytical chemistry techniques for the separation of mixtures. ... An Analyte is the substance or chemical constituent that is undergoing analysis. ...


Chromatography may be preparative or analytical. Preparative chromatography seeks to separate the components of a mixture for further use (and is thus a form of purification). Analytical chromatography normally operates with smaller amounts of material and seeks to measure the relative proportions of analytes in a mixture. The two are not mutually exclusive.

Contents

Explanation

Look up chromatography in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

An analogy which is sometimes useful is to suppose a mixture of bees and wasps passing over a flower bed. The bees would be more attracted to the flowers than the wasps, and would become separated from them. If one were to observe at a point past the flower bed, the wasps would pass first, followed by the bees. In this analogy, the bees and wasps represent the analytes to be separated, the flowers represent the stationary phase, and the mobile phase could be thought of as the air. The key to the separation is the differing affinities among analyte, stationary phase, and mobile phase. The observer could represent the detector used in some forms of analytical chromatography. A key point is that the detector need not be capable of discriminating between the analytes, since they have become separated before passing the detector. Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...


History

It was the Russian botanist Mikhail Semyonovich Tsvet (whose last name, coincidentally, means "color") who invented the first chromatography technique in 1900 during his research on chlorophyll. He used a liquid-adsorption column containing calcium carbonate to separate plant pigments. The method was described on December 30, 1901 at the 11th Congress of Naturalists and Doctors (XI съезд естествоиспытателей и врачей) in Saint Petersburg. The first printed description was in 1903, in the Proceedings of the Warsaw Society of Naturalists, section of biology. He first used the term chromatography in print in 1906 in his two papers about chlorophyll in the German botanical journal, Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft. In 1907 he demonstrated his chromatograph for the German Botanical Society. Interestingly, Mikhail's surname "Цвет" means "color" in Russian, so there is the possibility that his naming the procedure chromatography (literally "color writing") was a way that he could make sure that he, a commoner in Tsarist Russia, could be immortalized. Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Mikhail Semyonovich Tsvet (Михаил Семенович Цвет, also spelled Tsvett, Tswett, Tswet, Zwet, and Cvet) (1872–1919) was a Russian botanist who invented adsorption chromatography. ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ...


In 1952 Archer John Porter Martin and Richard Laurence Millington Synge were awarded the Chemistry Nobel Prize for their invention of partition chromatography.[1] Since then, the technology has advanced rapidly. Researchers found that the principles underlying Tsvet's chromatography could be applied in many different ways, giving rise to the different varieties of chromatography described below. Simultaneously, advances continually improved the technical performance of chromatography, allowing the separation of increasingly similar molecules. In 1987 Pedro Cuatrecasas and Meir Wilchek were awarded the Wolf Prize in Medicine for the invention and development of affinity chromatography and its applications to biomedical sciences. Archer John Porter Martin was a British chemist and Nobel Prize winner. ... Richard Laurence Millington Synge (born Liverpool, October 28, 1914, died Norwich, August 18, 1994) was a British biochemist, and winner of the 1952 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the invention of partition chromatography. ... Meir Wilchek (1935) is a professor at the Weizmann Institute of Science. ... Past winners of the Wolf Prize in Medicine: 1978 George D. Snell, Jean Dausset, Jon J. van Rood 1979 Roger W. Sperry, Arvid Carlsson, Oleh Hornykiewicz 1980 Cesar Milstein, Leo Sachs, Sir James L. Gowans 1981 Barbara McClintock, Stanley N. Cohen 1982 Jean-Pierre Changeux, Solomon H. Snyder, Sir James... Affinity chromatography is a biochemical separation method that combines size fractionation capability of gel permeation chromatography with the ability to design a stationary phase that reversibly binds to a known subset of molecules. ...


Chromatography terms

  • The analyte is the substance that is to be separated during chromatography.
  • Analytical chromatography is used to determine the existence and possibly also the concentration of analyte(s) in a sample.
  • A bonded phase is a stationary phase that is covalently bonded to the support particles or to the inside wall of the column tubing.
  • A chromatogram is the visual output of the chromatograph. In the case of an optimal separation, different peaks or patterns on the chromatogram correspond to different components of the separated mixture.
Plotted on the x-axis is the retention time and plotted on the y-axis a signal (for example obtained by a spectrophotometer, mass spectrometer or a variety of other detectors) corresponding to the response created by the analytes exiting the system. In the case of an optimal system the signal is proportional to the concentration of the specific analyte separated.
  • A chromatograph is equipment that enables a sophisticated separation e.g. gas chromatographic or liquid chromatographic separation.
  • Chromatography is a physical method of separation in which the components to be separated are distributed between two phases, one of which is stationary (stationary phase) while the other (the mobile phase) moves in a definite direction.
  • The effluent is the mobile phase leaving the column.
  • An immobilized phase is a stationary phase which is immobilized on the support particles, or on the inner wall of the column tubing.
  • The mobile phase is the phase which moves in a definite direction. It may be a liquid (LC and CEC), a gas (GC), or a supercritical fluid (supercritical-fluid chromatography, SFC). A better definition: The mobile phase consists of the sample being separated/analyzed and the solvent that moves the sample through the column. In one case of HPLC the solvent consists of a carbonate/bicarbonate solution and the sample is the anions being separated. The mobile phase moves through the chromatography column (the stationary phase) where the sample interacts with the stationary phase and is separated.
  • Preparative chromatography is used to purify sufficient quantities of a substance for further use, rather than analysis.
  • The retention time is the characteristic time it takes for a particular analyte to pass through the system (from the column inlet to the detector) under set conditions. See also: Kovat's retention index
  • The sample is the matter analysed in chromatography. It may consist of a single component or it may be a mixture of components. When the sample is treated in the course of an analysis, the phase or the phases containing the analytes of interest is/are referred to as the sample whereas everything out of interest separated from the sample before or in the course of the analysis is referred to as waste.
  • The solute refers to the sample components in partition chromatography.
  • The solvent refers to any substance capable of solubilizing other substance, and especially the liquid mobile phase in LC.
  • The stationary phase is the substance which is fixed in place for the chromatography procedure. Examples include the silica layer in thin layer chromatography.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (968x602, 17 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chromatography Wikipedia:WikiProject Chemistry/Image Request/Archive01 ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (968x602, 17 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chromatography Wikipedia:WikiProject Chemistry/Image Request/Archive01 ... Spectrophotometer In physics, spectrophotometry is the quantitative study of electromagnetic spectra. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated) or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ...

Techniques by chromatographic bed shape

Column chromatography

For more details on this topic, see Column chromatography.
A diagram of a standard column chromatography and a flash column chromatography setup

Column chromatography is a separation technique in which the stationary bed is within a tube. The particles of the solid stationary phase or the support coated with a liquid stationary phase may fill the whole inside volume of the tube (packed column) or be concentrated on or along the inside tube wall leaving an open, unrestricted path for the mobile phase in the middle part of the tube (open tubular column). Differences in rates of movement through the medium are calculated to different retention times of the sample.[2] Column chromatography in chemistry is the preparative application of chromatography. ... Image File history File links Columnchromatography. ... Image File history File links Columnchromatography. ...


In 1978, W. C. Still introduced a modified version of column chromatography called flash column chromatography (flash).[3] The technique is very similar to the traditional column chromatography, except for that the solvent is driven through the column by applying positive pressure. This allowed most separations to be performed in less than 20 minutes, with improved separations compared to the old method. Modern flash chromatography systems are sold as pre-packed plastic cartridges, and the solvent is pumped through the cartridge. Systems may also be linked with detectors and fraction collectors providing automation. The introduction of gradient pumps resulted in quicker separations and less solvent usage.


In expanded bed adsorption, a fluidized bed is used, rather than a solid phase made by a packed bed. This allows omission of initial clearing steps such as centrifugation and filtration, for culture broths or slurries of broken cells. Expanded bed adsorption (EBA) is a preparative chromatographic technique which makes processing of viscous and particulate liquids possible. ...


Planar Chromatography

Thin layer chromatography is used to separate components of chlorophyll

Planar chromatography is a separation technique in which the stationary phase is present as or on a plane. The plane can be a paper, serving as such or impregnated by a substance as the stationary bed (paper chromatography) or a layer of solid particles spread on a support such as a glass plate (thin layer chromatography). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (250x916, 24 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chromatography Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (250x916, 24 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chromatography Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Paper chromatography is an analytical technique for separating and identifying mixtures that are or can be colored, especially pigments. ... Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate chemical compounds [1]. It involves a stationary phase consisting of a thin layer of adsorbent material, usually silica gel, aluminium oxide, or cellulose immobilised onto a flat, inert carrier sheet. ...


Paper Chromatography

For more details on this topic, see Paper chromatography.

Paper chromatography is a technique that involves placing a small dot of sample solution onto a strip of chromatography paper. The paper is placed in a jar containing a shallow layer of solvent and sealed. As the solvent rises through the paper it meets the sample mixture which starts to travel up the paper with the solvent. Different compounds in the sample mixture travel different distances according to how strongly they interact with the paper. This paper is made of cellulose, a polar molecule, and the compounds within the mixture travel farther if they are non-polar. More polar substances bond with the cellulose paper more quickly, and therefore do not travel as far. This process allows the calculation of an Rf value and can be compared to standard compounds to aid in the identification of an unknown substance. Paper chromatography is an analytical technique for separating and identifying mixtures that are or can be colored, especially pigments. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Thin layer chromatography

For more details on this topic, see Thin layer chromatography.

Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a widely-employed laboratory technique and is similar to paper chromatography. However, instead of using a stationary phase of paper, it involves a stationary phase of a thin layer of adsorbent like silica gel, alumina, or cellulose on a flat, inert substrate. Compared to paper, it has the advantage of faster runs, better separations, and the choice between different adsorbents. Different compounds in the sample mixture travel different distances according to how strongly they interact with the adsorbent. This allows the calculation of an Rf value and can be compared to standard compounds to aid in the identification of an unknown substance. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate chemical compounds [1]. It involves a stationary phase consisting of a thin layer of adsorbent material, usually silica gel, aluminium oxide, or cellulose immobilised onto a flat, inert carrier sheet. ... Paper chromatography is an analytical technique for separating and identifying mixtures that are or can be colored, especially pigments. ... Beads of silica gel Silica gel is a granular, porous form of silica made synthetically from sodium silicate. ... Alumina redirects here. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Techniques by physical state of mobile phase

Gas chromatography

For more details on this topic, see Gas chromatography.

Gas chromatography (GC), also sometimes known as Gas-Liquid chromatography, (GLC), is a separation technique in which the mobile phase is a gas. Gas chromatography is always carried out in a column, which is typically "packed" or "capillary" (see below) . Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), or simply gas chromatography (GC) is a type of chromatography in which the mobile phase is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or nitrogen, and the stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid on an inert solid support. ...


Gas chromatography (GC) is based on a partition equilibrium of analyte between a solid stationary phase (often a liquid silicone-based material) and a mobile gas (most often Helium). The stationary phase is adhered to the inside of a small-diameter glass tube (a capillary column) or a solid matrix inside a larger metal tube (a packed column). It is widely used in analytical chemistry; though the high temperatures used in GC make it unsuitable for high molecular weight biopolymers or proteins (heat will denature them), frequently encountered in biochemistry, it is well suited for use in the petrochemical, environmental monitoring, and industrial chemical fields. It is also used extensively in chemistry research. Partition eqilibrium chromatography is a type of chromatography that is typically used in GC. The stationary phase is a high boiling liquid bonded to solid surface and the mobile phase is a gas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ...


Liquid chromatography

Liquid chromatography (LC) is a separation technique in which the mobile phase is a liquid. Liquid chromatography can be carried out either in a column or a plane. Present day liquid chromatography that generally utilizes very small packing particles and a relatively high pressure is referred to as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). High-performance liquid chromatography (or High pressure liquid chromatography, HPLC) is a form of column chromatography used frequently in biochemistry and analytical chemistry to separate, identify, and quantify compounds. ...


In the HPLC technique, the sample is forced through a column that is packed with irregularly or spherically shaped particles or a porous monolithic layer (stationary phase) by a liquid (mobile phase) at high pressure. HPLC is historically divided into two different sub-classes based on the polarity of the mobile and stationary phases. Technique in which the stationary phase is more polar than the mobile phase (e.g. toluene as the mobile phase, silica as the stationary phase) is called normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) and the opposite (e.g. water-methanol mixture as the mobile phase and C18 = octadecylsilyl as the stationary phase) is called reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). Ironically the "normal phase" has fewer applications and RPLC is therefore used considerably more.


Specific techniques which come under this broad heading are listed below. It should also be noted that the following techniques can also be considered fast protein liquid chromatography if no pressure is used to drive the mobile phase through the stationary phase. See also Aqueous Normal Phase Chromatography. Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography, usually referred to as FPLC, is a form of column chromatography used to separate or purify proteins from complex mixtures. ... Aqueous normal phase chromatography (ANP) is a chromatographic technique which encompasses the mobile phase region between reversed-phase chromatography (RP) and organic normal phase chromatography (ONP). ...


Affinity chromatography

For more details on this topic, see Affinity chromatography.

Affinity chromatography[4] is based on selective non-covalent interaction between an analyte and specific molecules. It is very specific, but not very robust. It is often used in biochemistry in the purification of proteins bound to tags. These fusion proteins are labelled with compounds such as His-tags, biotin or antigens, which bind to the stationary phase specifically. After purification, some of these tags are usually removed and the pure protein is obtained. Affinity chromatography is a biochemical separation method that combines size fractionation capability of gel permeation chromatography with the ability to design a stationary phase that reversibly binds to a known subset of molecules. ... Robust means healthy, strong, durable, and often adaptable, innovative, flexible. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... A fusion protein is a protein created through genetic engineering from two or more proteins/peptides. ... A His-tag is an amino acid motif in proteins that consists of six histidine (His) residues, often at the N- or C-terminus of the protein. ... Vitamin H redirects here. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ...


Supercritical fluid chromatography

For more details on this topic, see Supercritical fluid chromatography.

Supercritical fluid chromatography is a separation technique in which the mobile phase is a fluid above and relatively close to its critical temperature and pressure. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) is a robust and easy-to-use form of normal phase chromatography ideally suited to the analysis and purification of low to moderate molecular weight, thermally labile molecules. ...


Techniques by separation mechanism

Ion exchange chromatography

For more details on this topic, see Ion exchange chromatography.

Ion exchange chromatography utilizes ion exchange mechanism to separate analytes. It is usually performed in columns but the mechanism can be benefited also in planar mode. Ion exchange chromatography uses a charged stationary phase to separate charged compounds including amino acids, peptides, and proteins. In conventional methods the stationary phase is an ion exchange resin that carries charged functional groups which interact with oppositely charged groups of the compound to be retained. Ion exchange chromatography is commonly used to purify proteins using FPLC. Ion-exchange chromatography (or ion chromatography) is a process that allows the separation of ions and polar molecules based on the charge properties of the molecules. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Ion exchange resin beads An ion exchange resin is an insoluble matrix (or support structure) normally in the form of small (1-2 mm diameter) beads, usually white or yellowish, fabricated from an organic polymer substrate. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography, usually referred to as FPLC, is a form of column chromatography used to separate or purify proteins from complex mixtures. ...


Size exclusion chromatography

For more details on this topic, see Size exclusion chromatography.

Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is also known as gel permeation chromatography (GPC) or gel filtration chromatography and separates molecules according to their size (or more accurately according to their hydrodynamic diameter or hydrodynamic volume). Smaller molecules are able to enter the pores of the media and, therefore, take longer to elute, whereas larger molecules are excluded from the pores and elute faster. It is generally a low resolution chromatography technique and thus it is often reserved for the final, "polishing" step of a purification. It is also useful for determining the tertiary structure and quaternary structure of purified proteins, especially since it can be carried out under native solution conditions. Equipment for running size exclusion chromatography. ... In biochemistry and chemistry, the tertiary structure of a protein or any other macromolecule is its three-dimensional structure, as defined by the atomic coordinates. ... In biochemistry, many proteins are actually assemblies of more than one protein (polypeptide) molecule, which in the context of the larger assemblage are known as protein subunits. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ...


Special techniques

Reversed-phase chromatography

For more details on this topic, see Reversed-phase chromatography.

Reversed-phase chromatography is an elution procedure used in liquid chromatography in which the mobile phase is significantly more polar than the stationary phase. Reverse-phase chromatography (RPC) includes any chromatographic method that uses a non-polar stationary phase. ...


Two-dimensional chromatography

In some cases, the chemistry within a given column can be insufficient to separate some analytes. It is possible to direct a series of unresolved peaks onto a second column with different physico-chemical (Chemical classification) properties. Since the mechanism of retention on this new solid support is different from the first dimensional separation, it can be possible to separate compounds that are indistinguishable by one-dimensional chromatography. Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties. ...


Simulated Moving-Bed Chromatography

For more details on this topic, see Simulated moving bed.

In chromatography, the simulated moving bed (SMB) technique is a a variant of high performance liquid chromatography; it is used to separate particles and/or chemical compounds that would be difficult or impossible to resolve otherwise. ...

Pyrolysis gas chromatography

Fast protein liquid chromatography

For more details on this topic, see Fast protein liquid chromatography.

Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) is a term applied to several chromatography techniques which are used to purify proteins. Many of these techniques are identical to those carried out under high performance liquid chromatography. Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography, usually referred to as FPLC, is a form of column chromatography used to separate or purify proteins from complex mixtures. ...


Countercurrent chromatography

For more details on this topic, see Countercurrent chromatography.

Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a type of liquid-liquid chromatography, where both the stationary and mobile phases are liquids. It involves mixing a solution of liquids, allowing them to settle into layers and then separating the layers. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Chiral chromatography

Chiral chromatography involves the separation of stereoisomers. In the case of enantiomers, these have no chemical or physical differences apart from being three dimensional mirror images. Conventional chromatography or other separation processes are incapable of separating them. To enable chiral separations to take place, either the mobile phase or the stationary phase must themselves be made chiral, giving differing affinities between the analytes. Chiral chromatography HPLC columns (with a chiral stationary phase) in both normal and reversed phase are commercially available.


See also

Barring a few exceptions, almost every element or compound is found in an impure state i. ... Acid-base extraction is a procedure using sequential liquid-liquid extractions to purify acids and bases from mixtures based on their chemical properties. ... Frost crystallization on a shrub. ... Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a water treatment process that clarifies wastewaters (or other waters) by the removal of suspended matter such as oil or solids. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Drying is a mass transfer process resulting in the removal of water moisture or moisture from another solvent, by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid (hereafter product) to end in a solid state. ... Electrochromatography is a chemical separation technique in analytical chemistry, biochemistry and molecular biology used to resolve and separate mostly large biomolecules such as proteins. ... This article is about operation of solid-fluid separation. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Froth Flotation is a selective process for separating minerals from gangue by using surfactants and wetting agents. ... Liquid-liquid extraction, also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds based on their solution preferences for two different immiscible liquids, usually water and an organic solvent. ... Insulin crystals Recrystallization is an essentially physical process that has meanings in chemistry, metallurgy and geology. ... Sedimentation describes the motion of particles in solutions or suspensions in response to an external force such as gravity, centrifugal force or electric force. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links ChemSepProcDiagram. ... An API oil-water separator is a device designed to separate gross amounts of oil and suspended solids from the wastewater effluents of oil refineries, petrochemical plants, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industrial sources. ... This article is about the scientific device. ... Mixer-settlers are used when there will only be one equilibrium stage in the process. ... A protein skimmer or foam fractionator is a device used mostly in saltwater aquaria to remove organic compounds from the water before they break down into nitrogenous waste. ... The term still is a contraction of the verb to distill. A still is an apparatus used to distill miscible or immiscible (eg. ... Simple sublimation apparatus. ... Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS)or aqueous two phase systems are clean alternatives for traditional organic-water solvent extraction systems. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... A eutectic or eutectic mixture is a mixture of two or more elements which has a lower melting point than any of its constituents. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Aqueous normal phase chromatography (ANP) is a chromatographic technique which encompasses the mobile phase region between reversed-phase chromatography (RP) and organic normal phase chromatography (ONP). ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... // The goal of plasma purification and processing is to extract specific materials that are present in blood, and use them for restoration and repair. ...

References

  1. ^ Nobelprize.org: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952
  2. ^ IUPAC Nomenclature for Chromatography IUPAC Recommendations 1993, Pure & Appl. Chem., Vol. 65, No. 4, pp.819-872, 1993.
  3. ^ Still, W. C.; Kahn, M.; Mitra, A. J. Org. Chem. 1978, 43(14), 2923-2925. (doi:10.1021/jo00408a041)
  4. ^ Pascal Bailon, George K. Ehrlich, Wen-Jian Fung and Wolfgang Berthold, An Overview of Affinity Chromatography, Humana Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-89603-694-9, ISBN 978-1-60327-261-2.

The Journal of Organic Chemistry (abbreviated as ) is a scientific journal for original contributions of fundamental research in organic and bioorganic chemistry. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

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Chromatography

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In analytical chemistry, sub-sampling is the process by which a sample is divided into many smaller samples. ... This is a list of important publications in chemistry, organized by field. ... Analytical Chemistry (abbreviated as ) is a scientific journal for original contributions of fundamental research in analytical chemistry. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Wound healing, or wound repair, is the bodys natural process of regenerating dermal and epidermal tissue. ... Neoplasia (new growth in Greek) is abnormal proliferation of cells in a tissue or organ. ... Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty (a branch of pathology) that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, and molecular examination of cells and tissues. ... Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty (a branch of pathology) that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, and molecular examination of cells and tissues. ... Cytopathology is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ... Molecular pathology is an emerging discipline within anatomic pathology which is focused on the use of nucleic acid-based techniques such as DNA sequencing, fluorescent in-situ hybridization, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and nucleic acid microarrays for specialised studies of disease in tissues and cells. ... Forensic pathology is a branch of medicine concerned with determining cause of death, usually for criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions. ... Dental pathologists are doctors of dental science who specialise in the diagnosis and characterization of diseases of the teeth, jaw, and maxilla through the examination of tissue specimens. ... Gross examination or grossing is the process by which pathology specimens are inspected with the naked eye to obtain diagnostic information, while being processed for further microscopic examination. ... Histopathology is a field of pathology which specialises in the histologic study of diseased tissue. ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ... Immunofluorescence is the labeling of antibodies or antigens with fluorescent dyes. ... A metaphase cell positive for the bcr/abl rearrangement using FISH. The chromosomes can be seen in blue. ... Clinical Pathology is one of the two major divisions of Pathology. ... Clinical chemistry (also known as clinical biochemistry, chemical pathology or pure blood chemistry) is the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids. ... Hematopathology is the branch of pathology which studies diseases of hematopoietic cells (see below). ... Transfusion medicine (or transfusiology) is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood components. ... Medical microbiology is a branch of microbiology which deals with the study of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites which are of medical importance and are capable of causing diseases in human beings. ... The specificity of the bond between antibody and antigen has made it an excellent tool in the detection of substances in a variety of diagnostic techniques, known collectively as diagnostic immunology. ... Enzyme assays are laboratory methods for measuring enzymatic activity. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated) or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... Analysis of a marine sample of photosynthetic picoplankton by flow cytometry showing three different populations (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes) Flow cytometry is a technique for counting, examining and sorting microscopic particles suspended in a stream of fluid. ... A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ... A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ... Serology is the scientific study of blood serum. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chromatography Books (open access) (1793 words)
Chromatography, although primarily a separation technique, is mostly employed in chemical analysis.
The technique of vacancy chromatography is considered and an equation for the peak capacity of a column developed.
The effect of the compressibility of the mobile phase in a gas chromatography column on the variance equation is theoretically examined and the Van Deemmter equation discussed.
Chromatography Summary (5650 words)
Chromatography (from Greek chroma, colour) is the collective term for a family of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures.
Chromatography is a separation method that exploits the differences in partitioning behavior between a mobile phase and a stationary phase to separate the components in a mixture.
Gas chromatography (GC) is based on a partition equilibrium of analyte between a liquid stationary phase and a mobile gas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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