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Encyclopedia > Christopher Marlowe
Christopher Marlowe

An anonymous portrait in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, often believed to show Christopher Marlowe.

Born baptised 26 February 1564
Canterbury, England
Died 30 May 1593
Deptford, England
Occupation Playwright, poet
Nationality English
Writing period circa 15861593
Literary movement English renaissance theatre
Signature

Christopher "Kit" Marlowe (baptised 26 February 156430 May 1593) was an English dramatist, poet, and translator of the Elizabethan era. The foremost Elizabethan tragedian before William Shakespeare, he is known for his magnificent blank verse, his overreaching protagonists, and his own untimely death. Marlowe (1969) is a neo-noir drama film directed by Paul Bogart. ... This article is about the American cabaret composer. ... A portrait, supposedly of Christopher Marlowe, in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. ... College name The College of Corpus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary in Cambridge Motto There is a toast, Floreat antiqua domus (Latin: May the old house flourish), from which the college’s nickname, ‘Old House’, is derived Founders The Guild of Corpus Christi The Guild of the Blessed Virgin... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... Deptford is an area of the London Borough of Lewisham, on the south bank of the River Thames in south-east London. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... ... English Renaissance theatre is English drama written between the Reformation and the closure of the theatres in 1642. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... Look up Translator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Elizabethan redirects here. ... English Renaissance theatre is English drama written between the Reformation and the closure of the theatres in 1642. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Blank verse is a type of poetry, distinguished by having a regular meter, but no rhyme. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ...

Contents

Early life

Marlowe was christened at St George's Church tower, Canterbury

Christopher Marlowe was christened at St George's Church, Canterbury, on 26 February 1564. He was born to a shoemaker in Canterbury named John Marlowe and his wife Katherine.[1] Marlowe attended The King's School, Canterbury (where a house is now named after him) and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge on a scholarship and received his bachelor of arts degree in 1584. In 1587 the university hesitated to award him his master's degree because of a rumour that he had converted to Roman Catholicism and intended to go to the English college at Rheims to prepare for the priesthood. However, his degree was awarded on schedule when the Privy Council intervened on his behalf, commending him for his "faithful dealing" and "good service" to the queen.[2] The nature of Marlowe's service was not specified by the Council, but their letter to the Cambridge authorities has provoked much speculation, notably the theory that Marlowe was operating as a secret agent working for Sir Francis Walsingham's intelligence service.[3] No direct evidence supports this theory, although Marlowe obviously did serve the government in some capacity. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 685 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Canterbury - Turm der St. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 685 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Canterbury - Turm der St. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Kings School is a British independent school situated in Canterbury, Kent. ... College name The College of Corpus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary in Cambridge Motto There is a toast, Floreat antiqua domus (Latin: May the old house flourish), from which the college’s nickname, ‘Old House’, is derived Founders The Guild of Corpus Christi The Guild of the Blessed Virgin... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Francis Walsingham by John de Critz (detail) Sir Francis Walsingham (c. ...


Literary career

Dido, Queen of Carthage seems to be Marlowe's first extant dramatic work, possibly written at Cambridge with Thomas Nashe. Dido, Queen of Carthage is a short play written by the English playwright Christopher Marlowe and possibly by Thomas Nashe, first shown about 1583. ... Thomas Nashe (November 1567–1600?) was an English Elizabethan pamphleteer, poet and satirist. ...


Marlowe's first known play to be performed on the London stage was Tamburlaine (1587), a story of the conqueror Timur, who rises from a lowly shepherd to wage war on the kings of the world. It was one of the first popular English plays to use blank verse, and, with Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy, it is generally considered the beginning of the mature phase of the Elizabethan theatre. Tamburlaine was a success, and Tamburlaine Part II soon followed. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... An anonymous portrait, often believed to show Christopher Marlowe. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... Blank verse is a type of poetry, distinguished by having a regular meter, but no rhyme. ... Thomas Kyd (1558 - 1594) was an English dramatist, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, and one of the most important figures in the development of Elizabethan drama. ... Title page of the Quarto edition (1615) The Spanish Tragedie: or, Hieronimo is Mad Againe is an Elizabethan tragedy written by Thomas Kyd between 1587-1590 and first performed in London around 1590. ... Elizabethan theatre is a general term covering the plays written and performed publicly in England during the reign (1558 - 1603) of Queen Elizabeth I. The term can be used more broadly to also include theatre of Elizabeths immediate successors, James I and Charles I, until the closure of public...


The sequence of his remaining plays is unknown. All were written on controversial themes.


The Jew of Malta, depicting a Maltese Jew's barbarous revenge against the city authorities, features a prologue delivered by a character representing Machiavelli. It is also a complex play in that the Jew, Barabas, is consistently portrayed sympathetically (whilst the Christians are shown to be highly unsympathetic) and in his constant plotting and 'script writing' Barabas is often linked to the author himself.[citation needed] The Jew of Malta is an antisemetic play by Christopher Marlowe, probably written in 1589 or 1590. ... Machiavelli redirects here. ...


Edward the Second is an English history play about the dethronement of the homosexual Edward II by his dissatisfied barons and French queen. Edward II is an Elizabethan play written by Christopher Marlowe. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ...


The Massacre at Paris is a short, sketchy play (believed to be a memorial construction made by actors) portraying the events surrounding the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572, an event that English Protestants frequently invoked as the blackest example of Catholic treachery. It also features a character, the silent "English Agent", rumoured to have been portraying, and possibly even played by, Marlowe himself (see below for links of Marlowe with the Elizabethan secret service). This play, along with Faustus, is believed to have been Marlowe's last play and is regarded as his most dangerous, dealing as it does with living monarchs and politicians, (at the time a treasonable act) and indeed addressing Elizabeth I herself in the last scene. This article needs to be wikified. ... The St. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ...


The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus, based on the recently published German Faustbuch, was the first dramatic version of the Faust legend of a scholar's dealing with the devil. Whilst versions of "The Devil's Pact" can be traced back to the 4th century, Marlowe deviates significantly by having his hero unable to "burn his books" or have his contract repudiated by a merciful god at the end of the play. Marlowe's protagonist is instead torn apart by demons and dragged off screaming to hell. Dr Faustus is a textual problem for scholars as it was highly edited (and possibly censored) and rewritten after Marlowe's death. Two versions of the play exist: the 1604 quarto, also known as the A text, and the 1616 quarto or B text. Many scholars believe that the A text is more representative of Marlowe's original because it contains irregular character names and idiosyncratic spelling: the hallmarks of a text that used the author's handwritten manuscript, or "foul papers," as a major source. The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus is a play by Christopher Marlowe, based on the Faust story (Faustus is Latin for Faust), in which a man sells his soul to the devil for power and knowledge. ... The first Faustbuch (Faust book) is a collection of tales about ancient practioners of occult sciences. ... For other uses, see Faust (disambiguation). ... Quarto has several meanings: In bookbinding and publishing, quarto indicates the book size which results when four leaves of the book are created from a standard size sheet of paper. ... Foul papers is a term that refers to a authors working drafts, most often applied in the study of the plays of Shakespeare and other dramatists of English Renaissance drama. ...


Marlowe's plays were enormously successful, thanks in part, no doubt, to the imposing stage presence of Edward Alleyn. He was unusually tall for the time, and the haughty roles of Tamburlaine, Faustus, and Barabas were probably written especially for him. Marlowe's plays were the foundation of the repertoire of Alleyn's company, the Admiral's Men, throughout the 1590s. Edward Alleyn (September 1, 1566 – November 25, 1626), English actor, was a major figure of the Elizabethan theatre and founder of Dulwich College and Alleyns School. ... This Elizabethan theatrical company was first known as the Lord Howards Men, named after their patron Charles Howard. ...


Marlowe also wrote poetry, including a, possibly, unfinished minor epic, Hero and Leander (published with a continuation by George Chapman in 1598), the popular lyric The Passionate Shepherd to His Love, and translations of Ovid's Amores and the first book of Lucan's Pharsalia. Hero and Leander is an mythological epic poem by Christopher Marlowe. ... This article is about George Chapman the English literary figure; see George Chapman (murderer) for the Victorian poisoner of the same name. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Passionate Shepherd to His Love The Passionate Shepherd to His Love is a poem written by the English poet Christopher Marlowe in the 1590s. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Amores are Ovids first completed book, published somewhat after 18 BC. Amores was written in the elegiac dystic. ... Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ... This article is about the poem. ...


The two parts of Tamburlaine were published in 1590; all Marlowe's other works were published posthumously. In 1599, his translation of Ovid was banned and copies publicly burned as part of Archbishop Whitgift's crackdown on offensive material. An anonymous portrait, often believed to show Christopher Marlowe. ... Year 1599 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... John Whitgift (c. ...


The Marlowe legend

Marlowe Theatre, Canterbury

As with other writers of the period, such as Shakespeare, little is known about Marlowe. Most of the evidence is legal records and other official documents that tell us little about him. This has not stopped writers of both fiction and non-fiction from speculating about his activities and character. Marlowe has often been regarded as a spy, a brawler, a heretic, and a homosexual, as well as a "magician", "duellist", "tobacco-user", "counterfeiter", and "rakehell". The evidence for most of these claims is slight. The bare facts of Marlowe's life have been embellished by many writers into colourful, and often fanciful, narratives of the Elizabethan underworld. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 411 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1138 × 1661 pixel, file size: 525 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Suzanne Knights, my photo, July 2007 I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 411 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1138 × 1661 pixel, file size: 525 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Suzanne Knights, my photo, July 2007 I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Tavern Scene from A Rakes Progress by William Hogarth. ...


Spying

Marlowe is often alleged to have been a government spy.


Possible evidence of spying

As noted above, in 1587 the Privy Council ordered Cambridge University to award Marlowe his MA, denying rumours that he intended to go to the English Catholic college in Rheims, saying instead that he had been engaged in unspecified "affaires" in the Queen's service. This from a document dated June 29th, 1587, from the Public Records Office - Acts of Privy Council. 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ...


It has sometimes been theorized that Marlowe was the "Morley" who was tutor to Arbella Stuart in 1589, described by Arbella's guardian, the Countess of Shrewsbury, as having hoped for an annuity of some £40 from Arbella, his being "so much damnified (i.e. having lost this much) by leaving the University".[4] This possibility was first raised in a TLS letter by E. St John Brooks in 1937; in a letter to Notes and Queries, John Baker has added that only Marlowe could be Arbella's tutor due to the absence of any other known "Morley" from the period with an MA and not otherwise occupied.[5] Some biographers think that the "Morley" in question may have been a brother of the musician Thomas Morley.[6] If Marlowe was Arbella's tutor, it might indicate that he was a spy, since Arbella, niece of Mary Queen of Scots and cousin of James VI of Scotland, later James I of England, was at the time a strong candidate for the succession of Elizabeth's throne.[7] Arbella Stuart. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Notes and Queries (originally subtitled a medium of inter-communication for literary men, artists, antiquaries, genealogists, etc) is a correspondence magazine where scholars and interested amateurs exchange miscellaneous knowledge. ... Thomas Morley (1557 or 1558 – October 1602) was an English composer, theorist, editor and organist of the Renaissance, and the foremost member of the English Madrigal School. ... Mary I of Scotland; known as Mary, Queen of Scots Mary I of Scotland (Mary Stuart or Stewart) (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587), better known as Mary, Queen of Scots, was the ruler of Scotland from December 14, 1542 – July 24, 1567. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary...


In 1592, Marlowe was arrested in the Dutch town of Flushing for attempting to counterfeit coins. He was sent to be dealt with by the Lord Treasurer (Burghley) but no charge or imprisonment seems to have resulted.[8] Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Vlissingen (help· info) (occasionally British English: Flushing) is a municipality and a city in the southwestern Netherlands on the former island of Walcheren. ... William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1520 – 4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign (17 November 1558–24 March 1603), and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. ...


Arrest and death

In early May 1593 several bills were posted about London threatening Protestant refugees from France and the Netherlands who had settled in the city. One of these, the "Dutch church libel",[9] written in blank verse, contained allusions to several of Marlowe's plays and was signed "Tamburlaine." On 11 May the Privy Council ordered the arrest of those responsible for the libels. The next day, Marlowe's colleague Thomas Kyd was arrested. Kyd's lodgings were searched and a fragment of a heretical tract was found. Kyd asserted, possibly under torture, that it had belonged to Marlowe. Two years earlier they had both been working for an aristocratic patron, probably Ferdinando Stanley, Lord Strange,[10] and Kyd suggested that at this time, when they were sharing a workroom, the document had found its way among his papers. Marlowe's arrest was ordered on 18 May. Marlowe was not in London, but was staying with Thomas Walsingham, the cousin of the late Sir Francis Walsingham, Elizabeth's principal secretary in the 1580s and a man deeply involved in state espionage.[11] However, he duly appeared before the Privy Council on 20 May and was instructed to "give his daily attendance on their Lordships, until he shall be licensed to the contrary." On 30 May, Marlowe was murdered. Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... Blank verse is a type of poetry, distinguished by having a regular meter, but no rhyme. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... Thomas Kyd (1558 - 1594) was an English dramatist, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, and one of the most important figures in the development of Elizabethan drama. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... Ferdinando Stanley (c. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Francis Walsingham by John de Critz (detail) Sir Francis Walsingham (c. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Various versions of Marlowe's death were current at the time. Francis Meres says Marlowe was "stabbed to death by a bawdy serving-man, a rival of his in his lewd love" as punishment for his "epicurism and atheism".[12] In 1917, in the Dictionary of National Biography, Sir Sidney Lee wrote that Marlowe was killed in a drunken fight, and this is still often stated as fact today. Francis Meres (1565 - January 29, 1647), was an English churchman and author. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The Dictionary of National Biography (or DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history. ... Sir Sidney Lee (December 5, 1859 - March 3, 1926) was an English biographer and critic. ...


The facts only came to light in 1925 when the scholar Leslie Hotson discovered the coroner's report on Marlowe's death in the Public Record Office.[13] Marlowe had spent all day in a house (not a tavern, as is widely claimed, even in some biographies) in Deptford, owned by the widow Eleanor Bull, along with three men, Ingram Frizer, Nicholas Skeres and Robert Poley[14]. All three had been employed by the Walsinghams. Skeres and Poley had helped snare the conspirators in the Babington plot. Frizer was a servant of Thomas Walsingham. Witnesses testified that Frizer and Marlowe had earlier argued over the bill, exchanging "divers malicious words." Later, while Frizer was sitting at a table between the other two and Marlowe was lying behind him on a couch, Marlowe snatched Frizer's dagger and began attacking him. In the ensuing struggle, according to the coroner's report, Marlowe was accidentally stabbed above the right eye, killing him instantly. The jury concluded that Frizer acted in self-defence, and within a month he was pardoned. Marlowe was buried in an unmarked grave in the churchyard of St. Nicholas, Deptford, on 1 June 1593. Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the thrash metal band, see Coroner (band). ... The Kew building. ... Deptford is an area of the London Borough of Lewisham, on the south bank of the River Thames in south-east London. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Walsinghams Decypherer forged this cipher postscript to Marys letter to Babington. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ...


Marlowe's death is alleged by some to be an assassination for the following reasons:

  1. The three men who were in the room with him when he died were all connected both to the state secret service and to the London underworld.[15] Frizer and Skeres also had a long record as loan sharks and con-men, as shown by court records. Bull's house also had "links to the government's spy network."[16]
  2. Their story that they were on a day's pleasure outing to Deptford is considered implausible. In fact, they spent the whole day closeted together, deep in discussion. Also, Robert Poley was carrying confidential despatches to the Queen, who was at her palace of Nonsuch in Surrey, but instead of delivering them, he spent the day with Marlowe and the other two.[17]
  3. It seems too much of a coincidence that Marlowe's death occurred only a few days after his arrest for heresy.
  4. The manner of Marlowe's arrest suggests causes more tangled than a simple charge of heresy would generally indicate. He was released in spite of prima facie evidence, and even though the charges implicitly connected Sir Walter Raleigh and the Earl of Northumberland with the heresy. Thus, it seems probable that the investigation was meant primarily as a warning to the politicians in the "School of Night," and/or that it was connected with a power struggle within the Privy Council itself.[18]
  5. The various incidents that hint at a relationship with the Privy Council (see above), and by the fact that his patron was Thomas Walsingham, Sir Francis' second cousin, who was actively involved in intelligence work.

For these reasons and others, some believe there was more to Marlowe's death than emerged at the inquest. It is also possible that he was not murdered at all, and that his death was faked. However, on the basis of our current knowledge, it is not possible to draw any firm conclusions about what happened or why. There are different theories of some degree of probability. Since there are only written documents on which to base any conclusions, and since it is probable that the most crucial information about his death was never committed to writing at all, it is unlikely that the full circumstances of Marlowe's death will ever be known. This article is about the district in London. ... Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ... Look up prima facie in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alternatively, Professor Walter Raleigh was a scholar and author circa 1900. ... Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ... The School of Night is a modern name for a cabal of men centered on Sir Walter Raleigh that was once referred to in 1592 as the School of Atheism. ... Francis Walsingham by John de Critz (detail) Sir Francis Walsingham (c. ... -1...


Atheism

Marlowe had a reputation for atheism; it should be noted, however, that such a imputation would have had markedly different implications during Marlowe's period than in modern times. Contemporary evidence for this is comes from Marlowe's accuser in Flushing, an informer called Richard Baines. The governor of Flushing had reported that both men had accused one "of malice one to another" of instigating the counterfeiting, and of intention to go over to Catholicism; such an action was considered atheistic by the Protestants, who constituted the dominant religious faction in England at that time. Following Marlowe's arrest on a charge of atheism in 1593, Baines submitted to the authorities a "note containing the opinion of one Christopher Marly concerning his damnable judgment of religion, and scorn of God's word".[19] Baines attributes to Marlowe a total of eighteen items which "scoff at the pretensions of the Old and New Testament"[20] such as, "Christ was a bastard and his mother dishonest [unchaste]", "the woman of Samaria and her sister were whores and that Christ knew them dishonestly" and, "St John the Evangelist was bedfellow to Christ and leaned always in his bosom" (cf. John 13:23-25) and "that he used him as the sinners of Sodom". He also claims that Marlowe had Catholic sympathies. Other passages are merely sceptical in tone: "he persuades men to atheism, willing them not to be afraid of bugbears and hobgoblins". Hereafter follows the final paragraph of Baines' document in full: Atheist redirects here. ... Look up flushing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... St John the Evangelist, imagined by Jacopo Pontormo, ca 1525 (Santa Felicita, Florence) John the Evangelist (d. ... Sodom can refer to: Sodom and Gomorrah, Biblical cities Sodom (band), a German thrash metal band Sodom, an album by the band Sodom Sodom (Final Fight), a character from Street Fighter and Final Fight Il Sodoma, an Italian Mannerist painter (1477-1549) Sodom, South Georgia, a song by Iron & Wine...

These thinges, with many other shall by good & honest witnes be aproved to be his opinions and Comon Speeches, and that this Marlow doth not only hould them himself, but almost into every Company he Cometh he perswades men to Atheism willing them not to be afeard of bugbeares and hobgoblins, and vtterly scorning both god and his ministers as I Richard Baines will Justify & approue both by mine oth and the testimony of many honest men, and almost al men with whome he hath Conversed any time will testify the same, and as I think all men in Cristianity ought to indevor that the mouth of so dangerous a member may be stopped, he saith likewise that he hath quoted a number of Contrarieties oute of the Scripture which he hath giuen to some great men who in Convenient time shalbe named. When these thinges shalbe Called in question the witnes shalbe produced.[21]

Similar statements were made by Thomas Kyd after his imprisonment and possible torture (see below);[22][23] both Kyd and Baines connect Marlowe with the mathematician Thomas Harriot and Walter Raleigh's circle. Another document claims that Marlowe had read an "atheist lecture" before Raleigh; a man called Richard Chomley was charged with atheism and treason shortly after Marlowe's death, and noted in his testimony that "one Marlowe is able to show more sound reasons from atheism than any divine in England is able to give to prove divinity and that Marlowe told him that he hath read the atheist lecture to Sir Walter Raleigh and others"[20]. Thomas Kyd (1558 - 1594) was an English dramatist, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, and one of the most important figures in the development of Elizabethan drama. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Thomas Harriot (ca. ... This article is about the sixteenth-century explorer. ...


Some critics believe that Marlowe sought to disseminate these views in his work and that he identified with his rebellious and iconoclastic protagonists.[24] However, plays had to be approved by the Master of the Revels before they could be performed, and the censorship of publications was under the control of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Presumably these authorities did not consider any of Marlowe's works to be unacceptable (apart from the Amores). Master of the Revels was an office within the British royal household that originally had minor responsibilities for overseeing royal festivities. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...


Sexuality

Marlowe is often described today as homosexual. Some believe that the question of whether an Elizabethan was "gay" or "homosexual" in a modern sense is anachronistic; for the Elizabethans, what is often today termed homosexual or bisexual was more likely to be recognised as simply a sexual act, rather than an exclusive sexual orientation and identity. (see History of homosexuality) Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... An anachronism (from Greek ana, back, and chronos, time) is an artifact that belongs to another time, a person who seems to be displaced in time (i. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


Documentary evidence

Two documents suggest that Marlowe was homosexual.

  • The most graphic is the testimony of Richard Baines, an informer who made a long list of allegations against Marlowe after his arrest in Flushing (see above). Most of these allegations concern Marlowe's atheism, but Baines also claimed that Marlowe said "all they that love not tobacco and boys were fools" and that "St John the Evangelist was bedfellow to Christ and leaned always in his bosom, that he used him as the sinners of Sodom".
  • In 1593, Marlowe's one-time room-mate and fellow dramatist, Thomas Kyd was imprisoned and interrogated after atheistic papers were found in his room. Claiming the papers belonged to Marlowe, Kyd later produced a list detailing some of Marlowe's "monstrous opinions," which included the claim that Marlowe "would report St. John to be our saviour Christ's Alexis ... that is, that Christ did love him with an extraordinary love."

In addition, it has been pointed out that there is no evidence of any marriage or female companionship for Marlowe. Atheist redirects here. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... Thomas Kyd (1558 - 1594) was an English dramatist, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, and one of the most important figures in the development of Elizabethan drama. ...


Some scholars argue that the evidence is inconclusive and that the reports of Marlowe's homosexuality may simply be exaggerated rumours produced after his death. David Bevington and Eric Rasmussen describe Baines's evidence as "unreliable testimony" and make the comment: "These and other testimonials need to be discounted for their exaggeration and for their having been produced under legal circumstances we would regard as a witch-hunt".[25] It has also been noted that Kyd's evidence was given after torture, and thus may have little connection to reality.[26] One critic, J.B. Steanes, remarked that he considers there to be "no evidence [for Marlowe's homosexuality at all", but that on the other hand "it seems absurd to to dismiss all of these Elizabethan rumours and accusations as 'the Marlowe myth'"[27] David Bevington David Bevington is the Phyllis Fay Horton Distinguished Service Professor in the Humanities and in English Language & Literature, Comparative Literature, and the College at the University of Chicago, where he has taught since 1967. ... Eric Rasmussen (born March 22, 1952 in Appleton, Wisconsin), is a retired professional baseball player who pitched in the Major Leagues from 1975-83. ...


Literary evidence

Marlowe's writing is also notable for its homosexual themes.

  • Edward II (c.1592) is one of the very few English Renaissance plays to be concerned with homosexuality, since Edward II of England had that reputation. The portrayal of Edward and his love, Piers Gaveston, is unflattering, but so too is the portrayal of the barons who usurp him, and the play's numerous modern revivals have demonstrated that Edward's tragic decline and death can elicit sympathetic responses; it is thus conceivable that some contemporary audience members might have responded similarly.
  • In Dido, Queen of Carthage, he opens with a scene of Jupiter "dandling Ganymede upon his knee" and says "what is't, sweet wag, I should deny thy youth?, whose face reflects such pleasure to mine eyes." Venus complains during the play that Jupiter is playing "with that female wanton boy."
  • In Hero and Leander, Marlowe writes of the male youth Leander, "in his looks were all that men desire" and that when the youth swims to visit Hero at Sestos, the sea god Neptune becomes sexually excited, "imagining that Ganymede, displeas'd... the lusty god embrac'd him, call'd him love... and steal a kiss... upon his breast, his thighs, and every limb", while the boy naive and unaware of Greek love practices said that, "You are deceiv'd, I am no woman, I... Thereat smil'd Neptune."

The mere inclusion of same-sex love themes in Marlowe's works has been seen as signifying a biographical interest. Diligent classicists often mimicked the homosexual themes they found in Greek and Roman texts (as Edmund Spenser did in The Shepheard's Calendar), but Marlowe accords these themes more prominence than almost any other writer besides Richard Barnfield. In conjunction with the rumours preserved in the historical record, the prominence of homosexual themes in Marlowe's work has led, especially in the twentieth century, to a presumption of interest in same-sex love (although not necessarily of homosexual activity). Edward II is an Elizabethan play written by Christopher Marlowe. ... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Elizabethan theatre is a general term covering the plays written and performed publicly in England during the reign (1558 - 1603) of Queen Elizabeth I. The term can be used more broadly to also include theatre of Elizabeths immediate successors, James I and Charles I, until the closure of public... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall (c. ... Dido, Queen of Carthage is a short play written by the English playwright Christopher Marlowe and possibly by Thomas Nashe, first shown about 1583. ... The Rape of Ganymede, by Rubens In Greek mythology, Ganymede, or closer to the Greek Ganymede the great man that leads (in Greek — Γανυμήδης, Ganumēdēs) was a divine hero whose homeland was the Troad. ... Hero and Leander is a mythological poem by Christopher Marlowe. ... Sestos was an ancient town of the Thracian Chersonese, the modern Gallipoli peninsula in European Turkey. ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Richard Barnfield (1574-1627), English poet, was born at Norbury, Staffordshire, and baptized on June 13, 1574. ...


For debates of a somewhat similar nature, compare Sexuality of William Shakespeare. William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery), in the famous Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. ...


Marlowe's reputation among contemporary writers

Whatever the particular focus of modern critics, biographers and novelists, for his contemporaries in the literary world, Marlowe was above all an admired and influential artist. Within weeks of his death, George Peele remembered him as "Marley, the Muses' darling"; Michael Drayton noted that he "Had in him those brave translunary things/That the first poets had", and Ben Jonson wrote of "Marlowe's mighty line". Thomas Nashe wrote warmly of his friend, "poor deceased Kit Marlowe". So too did the publisher Edward Blount, in the dedication of Hero and Leander to Sir Thomas Walsingham. George Peele (1558 - c. ... Drayton, 1628 Michael Drayton (1563 – December 23, 1631) was an English poet who came to prominence in the Elizabethan era. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... Thomas Nashe (November 1567–1600?) was an English Elizabethan pamphleteer, poet and satirist. ...


Among the few contemporary dramatists to say anything negative about Marlowe was the anonymous author of the Cambridge University play The Return From Parnassus (1598) who wrote, "Pity it is that wit so ill should dwell, Wit lent from heaven, but vices sent from hell." The three Parnassus plays were produced at St. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ...


The most famous tribute to Marlowe was paid by Shakespeare in As You Like It, where he not only quotes a line from Hero and Leander (Dead Shepherd, now I find thy saw of might, "Who ever loved that loved not at first sight?") but also gives to the clown Touchstone the words "When a man's verses cannot be understood, nor a man's good wit seconded with the forward child, understanding, it strikes a man more dead than a great reckoning in a little room." This appears to be a reference to Marlowe's murder (which involved a fight over the "reckoning" – the bill). Shakespeare redirects here. ... Walter Deverell,The Mock Marriage of Orlando and Rosalind, 1853 William Shakespeares As You Like It is a pastoral comedy written in 1599 or early 1600. ... The Last Watch of Hero by Frederic Leighton, depicting Hero anxiously waiting for Leander during the storm. ... Touchstone is the name of the fool or jester character in Shakespeares play As You Like It. ...


Shakespeare was indeed very influenced by Marlowe in his early work as can be seen in the re-using of Marlowe themes in Anthony and Cleopatra, The Merchant of Venice, Richard II, and Macbeth (Dido, Jew of Malta, Edward II and Dr Faustus respectively). Indeed in Hamlet, after meeting with the travelling actors, Hamlet starts discussing Dido, Queen of Carthage and quoting from it. As this was Marlowe's only play not to have been played in the public theatre we can see that Shakespeare was quite the Marlovian scholar. Indeed in Love's Labour's Lost, echoing Marlowe's The Massacre at Paris, Shakespeare brings on a character called Marcade (French for Mercury – the messenger of the Gods – a nickname Marlowe bestowed upon himself) who arrives to "interrupt'st" the "merriment" with news of the King's death. A fitting tribute for one who delighted in destruction in his plays. Antony and Cleopatra is an historical tragedy by William Shakespeare, first performed in 1607 or 1608 and printed in the First Folio, 1623. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written sometime between 1596 and 1598. ... Title page of Richard II, from the fifth quarto, published in 1615. ... This article is about Shakespeares play. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... Dido, Queen of Carthage is a short play written by the English playwright Christopher Marlowe and possibly by Thomas Nashe, first shown about 1583. ... For the film, see Loves Labours Lost (2000 film). ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Marlowe as Shakespeare

Given the murky inconsistencies concerning the account of Marlowe's death, an ongoing conspiracy theory has arisen centred on the notion that Marlowe may have faked his death and then continued to write under the assumed name of William Shakespeare. Authors who have propounded this theory include: The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays. ... -1... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

  • Wilbur Gleason Zeigler It Was Marlowe (1895)
  • Calvin Hoffman, The Man Who Was Shakespeare, Mitre Press (1955)[28]
  • Calvin Hoffman, The Murder of the Man Who Was Shakespeare, Grosset & Dunlap (1960)
  • Louis Ule, Christopher Marlowe (1564-1607): A Biography
  • A D Wraight, The Story that the Sonnets Tell (1994)
  • Roderick L Eagle, The Mystery of Marlowe's Death, N&Q (1952)
  • William Honey, The Shakespeare Epitaph Deciphered, Mitre Press (1969)

Calvin Hoffman (died 1987) was an American theater press agent and writer who popularized the controversial notion that playwright Christopher Marlowe was the actual author of the works attributed to William Shakespeare. ... Calvin Hoffman (died 1987) was an American theater press agent and writer who popularized the controversial notion that playwright Christopher Marlowe was the actual author of the works attributed to William Shakespeare. ...

Works

The dates of composition are approximate.


Plays

The play Lust's Dominion was attributed to Marlowe upon its initial publication in 1657, though scholars and critics have almost unanimously rejected the attribution. Dido, Queen of Carthage is a short play written by the English playwright Christopher Marlowe and possibly by Thomas Nashe, first shown about 1583. ... Thomas Nashe (November 1567–1600?) was an English Elizabethan pamphleteer, poet and satirist. ... An anonymous portrait, often believed to show Christopher Marlowe. ... An anonymous portrait, often believed to show Christopher Marlowe. ... The Jew of Malta is an antisemetic play by Christopher Marlowe, probably written in 1589 or 1590. ... The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus is a play by Christopher Marlowe, based on the Faust story (Faustus is Latin for Faust), in which a man sells his soul to the devil for power and knowledge. ... Edward II is an Elizabethan play written by Christopher Marlowe. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Lusts Dominion, or The Lascivious Queen is an English Renaissance stage play, a tragedy written perhaps around 1600 and first published in 1657. ...


Poetry

  • Translation of Lucan's Pharsalia (date unknown)
  • Translation of Ovid's Elegies (c. 1580s?)
  • The Passionate Shepherd to His Love (pre 1593, but due to being constantly referenced through to in his own plays we can presume an early date of mid-1580s)
  • Hero and Leander (c. 1593, unfinished; completed by George Chapman, 1598)

Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ... This article is about the poem. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Passionate Shepherd to His Love The Passionate Shepherd to His Love is a poem written by the English poet Christopher Marlowe in the 1590s. ... The Last Watch of Hero by Frederic Leighton, depicting Hero anxiously waiting for Leander during the storm. ...

Marlowe in fiction

  • The upcoming play 'Upstart Crows' written by Mike Punter centres around the life of Marlowe, Edward Alleyn, Jack Alleyn and other characters that centre around their lives. Its first performance is at the Edward Alleyn theatre in Dulwich College in November 2007, and it goes on from there to be performed in the 2008 Edinburgh fringe festival.
  • Marlowe was the title character of a 1981 stage musical that had a brief Broadway run. It was rather unsuccessful.
  • Marlowe features heavily in the Harry Turtledove alternative history novel Ruled Britannia (2002), about an England ruled by Catholics. He is depicted as a contemporary and friend of Shakespeare.
  • Marlowe is played by Rupert Everett in the film Shakespeare in Love (1998), in which he helps Shakespeare to write Romeo and Juliet. His last line is a cheery "Well, I'm off to Deptford!" After Marlowe's murder, screenwriters Marc Norman and Tom Stoppard have Shakespeare say, "I would change all my plays to come for one of his that will never come".
  • Marlowe had survived his assassination in the tangentially alternative history novel Armor of Light by Melissa Scott and Lisa A. Barnett, rescued by Sir Philip Sidney, who in reality died before then, and plays a major role in the story.
  • In Neil Gaiman's comic The Sandman, Marlowe makes a brief appearance in a pub. He and Shakespeare are discussing the content of "Faustus" while Morpheus and an immortal human have their own conversation. Marlowe is represented as a great playwright with the young and inexperienced Shakespeare in awe of his friend. Marlowe is also referenced in a later Shakespeare-centric Sandman comic, in which Morpheus tells Shakespeare of his friend's assassination.
  • Marlowe is a central character in Lisa Goldstein's fantasy novel Strange Devices of the Sun and Moon
  • Connie Willis's "Winter's tale" features Marlowe as a major character.
  • Louise Welsh's Tamburlaine Must Die is a novel based on a fictitious theory about the last two weeks of Marlowe's life.
  • Leslie Silbert's The Intelligencer, a novel, intertwines Marlowe as a possible spy in his time and events in the present, Washington Square Press, 2004. ISBN 0-7434-3292-4
  • Anthony Burgess, A Dead Man in Deptford is an account of Marlowe and his death; according to Burgess, it is fictionalized but does not depart from any known historical facts.
  • The School of Night (ISBN 0-312-28778-X), by Alan Wall, features a protagonist/narrator who constructs a theory identifying a not-really-dead Marlowe as the author of Shakespeare's works, with the Stratfordian merely a cat's-paw enlisted to pass them off as his own for money and/or because Marlowe's espionage on the continent discovered that Shakespeare was a crypto-Catholic.
  • Marlowe is the central character in One Dagger for Two by Philip Lindsay, which includes some speculation about his death.
  • Marlowe is one of the guest characters, having allegedly survived his murder sixteen years previously, in Andy Lane's The Empire of Glass, a Doctor Who Missing Adventure featuring the First Doctor and set in Venice.
  • Marlowe appears in four chapters of The Player's Boy, a children's book by Antonia Forest. He gives the fictional character Nicholas Marlow a ride to London in May 1593; Nicholas witnesses Marlowe's death in the house in Deptford, and later becomes a boy actor in the same company as William Shakespeare.
  • Marlowe is the central character in The Christopher Marlowe Mysteries written by Ged Parsons for BBC Radio 4 (1993). This was a series of comedy adventures revolving around Marlowe's work as a spy. The four stories were: The Curious Case of the Curs'd Quayside, The Turbulent Tale of the Troubl'd Tragedy, The Perplex'd Plot of the Perilous Plague and The Murky Mystery of Murder at St Mark's. The series is repeated on digital radio station BBC 7.
  • Marlowe is referenced in Tom Holt's Faust Among Equals (ISBN 1-85723-265-8) to great comic effect.
  • Marlowe is one of several main characters in Rosemary Laurey's vampire series. He explains at one point that if his friend, Thomas Kyd had not turned him, he would have died.
  • Marlowe is a major protagonist in Elizabeth Bear's Promethean Age books, specifically Whiskey & Water and Ink & Steel, and the short story This Tragic Glass.
  • Christopher "Kit" Marlowe is alive and well (so to speak) as a vampire and is the main hero of Rosemary Laurey's paranormal romance "Kiss Me Forever". His character is also included in several of the sequel novels. Marlowe's heroine, modern Dixie LaPage, coincidentally, is well versed in his work before she meets him.

Edward Alleyn (September 1, 1566 – November 25, 1626), English actor, was a major figure of the Elizabethan theatre and founder of Dulwich College and Alleyns School. ... Dulwich New College buildings. ... Marlowe is a musical with a book by Leo Rost, lyrics by Rost and Jimmy Horowitz, and music by Horowitz. ... Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ... Ruled Britannia is an alternate history novel by Harry Turtledove, published in 2002. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Rupert James Hector Everett (born May 29, 1959) is a Golden Globe-nominated English actor and a former singer. ... Shakespeare in Love is an award-winning 1998 romantic comedy film. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ... Melissa Scott (born 1960) is a science fiction author from Little Rock, Arkansas. ... Lisa A. Barnett was a Lambda Literary Award winning science fiction writer and an editor with Heinneman publishing company. ... Philip Sidney. ... Neil Richard Gaiman (IPA: ) (born November 10, 1960[2]) is an English author of science fiction and fantasy short stories and novels, graphic novels, comics, and films. ... The Sandman is a comic book series written by Neil Gaiman and published in the United States by DC Comics for 75 issues from 1988 until 1996. ... Faust is the protagonist of a popular German tale that has been used as the basis for many different fictional works. ... Morpheus may mean: Morpheus (mythology), the principal god of dreams in the Greek mythology Morpheus (The Matrix), a fictional character from the film The Matrix Morpheus (computer game), a computer game released in 1998. ... Lisa Goldstein is a Nebula-, World Fantasy-, Arthur C. Clarke Award- and Hugo-nominated fantasy and science fiction writer. ... Connie Willis at Clarion West, 1998 Constance Elaine Trimmer Willis (born 31 December 1945) is an American science fiction writer. ... Louise Welsh is a short story writer and novelist who currently lives in Glasgow, United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... A Dead Man in Deptford is a book written later in Anthony Burgesss life, and the last of his novels to be published during his lifetime. ... The School of Night was a cabal of men centered on Sir Walter Raleigh. ... Philip Lindsay (1906–1958) was an English writer, who mostly wrote historical novels. ... Andy Lane is a British writer. ... The Empire of Glass is a Virgin Missing Adventures original novel written by Andy Lane based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ... This article is about the television series. ... The First Doctor is the name given to the first incarnation of the Doctor seen on screen in the long-running BBC television science-fiction series Doctor Who. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Antonia Forest (May 26, 1915 - November 28, 2003) was the pseudonym of a British childrens author who was christened Patricia Giulia Caulfield Kate Rubinstein (although her real name was never made public until after her death) and grew up in Hampstead, London. ... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... BBC Radio 7 is a digital radio station broadcasting comedy, drama, and childrens programming 24 hours a day. ... Tom Holt (born September 13, 1961) is an author of parodic mythopoeic fiction. ... Hammered by Elizabeth Bear. ...

See also

The School of Night was a cabal of men centered on Sir Walter Raleigh. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays. ... The Oxfordian theory of Shakespearean authorship holds that Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford (1550-1604), wrote the plays and poems conventionally attributed to William Shakespeare. ... Sir Francis Bacon is often cited as a possible author of Shakespeares plays. ... -1... The precise chronology of Shakespeares plays as they were first written is impossible to determine, as there is no authoritative record and many of the plays were performed many years before they were published. ... The Earl of Oxford, from the 1914 publication English Travellers of the Renaissance by Clare Howard. ... For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby (1561 - 29 September 1642) was an English nobleman. ... Sir Edward Dyer (died May, 1607), was an English courtier and poet. ... Sir Henry Neville, Elizabethan diplomat, 1562 - 1615 Sir Henry Neville (c. ... The Right Honourable Roger Manners, 5th Earl of Rutland October 6, 1576–June 26, 1612) was the son of John Manners, 4th Earl of Rutland. ... Portrait of Mary Herbert, by Nicholas Hilliard, c. ... This article is about the teacher. ... // Charlton Ogburn, Jr. ... Irvin Leigh Matus, born July 25, 1941, in Brooklyn, New York, is an author and library researcher based in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. Matus has written books, articles and reviews on various subjects, but is best known as a writer on the issue of Shakespearean authorship, taking the... Portrait of James Wilmot James Wilmot (born at Warwick in 1726, died at Barton in 1808) was a Warwickshire clergyman and scholar. ... Calvin Hoffman (died 1987) was an American theater press agent and writer who popularized the controversial notion that playwright Christopher Marlowe was the actual author of the works attributed to William Shakespeare. ... James Plaisted Wilde, 1st Baron Penzance (July 12, 1816 - December 9, 1899) was a British judge and amateur gardener who was a vociferous proponent of the theory that the works usually attributed to William Shakespeare were in fact authored by Francis Bacon. ... Sir George Greenwood (1850–1928), born George Granville Greenwood, was the second son of John Greenwood, Q.C. Educated at Eton, he was in the select for the Newcastle scholarship and then matriculated to Trinity College, Cambridge. ... Cover of the first edition Is Shakespeare Dead? is a short, semi-autobiographical work by American humorist Samuel Clemens, better known as Mark Twain. ...

Notes

  1. ^ This is commemorated by the name of the town's main theatre, the Marlowe Theatre, and by the town museums. However St George's, the church in which he was christened, was gutted by fire in the Baedeker raids and was demolished in the post-war period - only the tower is left, at the south end of Canterbury's High Street http://www.digiserve.com/peter/cant-sgm1.htm
  2. ^ For a full transcript, see Peter Farey's Marlowe page
  3. ^ Hutchinson, Robert (2006). Elizabeth's Spy Master: Francis Walsingham and the secret war that saved England. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, p111. ISBN 0 297 84613 2. 
  4. ^ BL Lansdowne MS 71,f.3.and Charles Nicholl, The Reckoning (1992), pp. 340-2.
  5. ^ John Baker, letter to Notes and Queries 44.3 (1997), pp. 367-8
  6. ^ Constance Kuriyama, Christopher Marlowe: A Renaissance Life (2002), p. 89. Also in Handover's biography of Arbella, and Nicholl, The Reckoning, p. 342.
  7. ^ Elizabeth I and James VI and I, History in Focus.
  8. ^ For a full transcript, see Peter Farey's Marlowe page
  9. ^ A Libell, fixte vpon the French Church Wall, in London
  10. ^ Mulryne, J. H. "Thomas Kyd." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  11. ^ Haynes, Alan. The Elizabethan Secret Service. London: Sutton, 2005.
  12. ^ Palladis Tamia. London, 1598: 286v-287r.
  13. ^ The Coroner's Inquisition (Translation)
  14. ^ E. de Kalb, Robert Poley’s Movements as a Messenger of the Court, 1588 to 1601 Review of English Studies, Vol. 9, No. 33
  15. ^ Seaton, Ethel. "Marlowe, Robert Poley, and the Tippings." Review of English Studies 5 (1929): 273.
  16. ^ Greenblatt, Stephen Will in the World. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004: 268.
  17. ^ Nicholl, Charles. The Reckoning: The Murder of Christopher Marlowe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995: 32.
  18. ^ Gray, Austin. "Some Observations on Christopher Marlowe, Government Agent." PMLA 43 (1928): 692-4.
  19. ^ The 'Baines Note' (1)
  20. ^ a b Steane, J.B. (1969). Introduction to Christopher Marlowe: The Complete Plays. Aylesbury, Buckc: Penguin. ISBN 0 14 043.037 7. 
  21. ^ The 'Baines Note'. Retrieved on 14/04/08.
  22. ^ Kyd's Accusations
  23. ^ Kyd's letter to Sir John Puckering
  24. ^ Waith, Eugene. The Herculean Hero in Marlowe, Chapman, Shakespeare, and Dryden. London: Chatto and Windus, 1962. The idea is commonplace, though by no means universally accepted.
  25. ^ Doctor Faustus and Other Plays, pp. viii - ix
  26. ^ Boas, F. S. Christopher Marlowe: A Biographical and Critical Study. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940: 242.
  27. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named steanes
  28. ^ frontline: much ado about something: readings: from the murder of the man who was shakespeare | PBS

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Additional reading

  • Brooke, C.F. Tucker. The Life of Marlowe and "The Tragedy of Dido, Queen of Carthage." London: Methuen, 1930. (pp. 107, 114, 99, 98)
  • Marlow, Christopher. Complete Works. Vol. 3: Edward II. Ed. R. Rowland. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994. (pp. xxii-xxiii)
  • Louis Ule Christopher Marlowe (1564-1607): A Biography, Carlton Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8062-5028-3
  • David Bevington and Eric Rasmussen, Doctor Faustus and Other Plays, OUP, 1998; ISBN 0-19-283445-2
  • J. A. Downie and J. T. Parnell, eds., Constructing Christopher Marlowe, Cambridge 2000. ISBN 0-521-57255-X
  • Constance Kuriyama,Christopher Marlowe: A Renaissance Life. Cornell University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8014-3978-7
  • Charles Nicholl, The Reckoning: The Murder of Christopher Marlowe, Vintage, 2002 (revised edition) ISBN 0-09-943747-3
  • Alan Shepard, "Marlowe's Soldiers: Rhetorics of Masculinity in the Age of the Armada", Ashgate, 2002. ISBN 0-7546-0229-X
  • M. J. Trow, Who Killed Kit Marlowe?, Sutton, 2002; ISBN 0-7509-2963-4
  • Anthony Burgess, A Dead Man in Deptford, Carroll & Graf, 2003. (novel about Marlowe based on the version of events in The Reckoning) ISBN 0-7867-1152-3
  • David Riggs, "The World of Christopher Marlowe", Henry Holt and Co., 2005 ISBN 0-8050-8036-8
  • Louise Walsh "Tamburlaine Must Die", novella based around the build up to Marlowe's death.
  • John Passfield, Water Lane: The Pilgrimage of Christopher Marlowe (novel) Authorhouse, 2005 ISBN 1-4208-1558-X
  • John Passfield, The Making of Water Lane (journal) Authorhouse, 2005 ISBN 1-4208-2020-6
  • David Riggs, The World of Christopher Marlowe A John Macrae book, 2005 ISBN-13: 0-8050-7755-3
  • Park Honan, Christopher Marlowe Poet and Spy Oxford University Press, 2005 ISBN 0-19-818695-9

Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ...

External links

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Christopher Marlowe
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
  1. That Marlowe was very probably still alive two years after his supposed death in May 1593,
  2. That his survival would have made possible a collaboration explaining the exceptional influence Marlowe is said to have had upon the works of Shakespeare,
  3. That Marlowe probably played a major part in such a collaboration.
Persondata
NAME Marlowe, Christopher
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Marlowe, Kit
SHORT DESCRIPTION English playwright and poet
DATE OF BIRTH Unknown, baptized 26 February 1564
PLACE OF BIRTH Canterbury, England
DATE OF DEATH 30 May 1593
PLACE OF DEATH Deptford, England
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays From 1593 to 1637, a number of plays and poems were published under the name William Shakespeare or, in many cases, hyphenated as Shake-Speare. The company that performed most of these plays, the Lord... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... Deptford is an area of the London Borough of Lewisham, on the south bank of the River Thames in south-east London. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Christopher Marlowe (1232 words)
Christopher Marlowe was killed at the age of 29 in a tavern broil by Ingram Frizer, and buried at St. Nicholas, Deptford.
Christopher Marlowe (Cristofer Marley in his autograph) was born in Canterbury as the son of a shoemaker.
Marlowe himself was a soulmate of Faustus, accused of atheism.
Christopher Marlowe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3728 words)
Marlowe is often described as a government spy, and his early death at the hands of men associated with the London underworld has often been described as an assassination.
Marlowe was buried in an unmarked grave in the churchyard of St Nicholas, Deptford, on 1 June, 1593.
Baines attributes to Marlowe outrageously blasphemous ideas such as, "Christ was a bastard and his mother dishonest [unchaste]", "the woman of Samaria and her sister were whores and that Christ knew them dishonestly" and, "St John the Evangelist was bedfellow to Christ and leaned always in his bosom" (cf.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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