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Encyclopedia > Christopher Columbus
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Portrait by Alejo Fernández, painted between 1505 and 1536. Photo by historian Manuel Rosa. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (500x690, 321 KB) monkey Summary Portrait of Christopher Columbus from the painting Virgen de los Navegantes (in the Sala de los Almirantes, Royal Alcazar, Seville). ... Christopher Columbus portrait, painted by Alejo Fernández between 1505 and 1536. ... Manuel da Silva Rosa is a Portuguese historian who supports a Portuguese origin for Christopher Columbus. ...

Born c. 1451
disputed, Genoa, Italy
Died May 20, 1506
outside Valladolid, Spain
Occupation Maritime explorer for the Crown of Castile
Religious stance Christianity

Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. Though not the first to reach the Americas from Europe, Columbus' voyages led to general European awareness of the hemisphere and the successful establishment of European cultures in the New World. It is generally believed that he was born in Genoa, although other theories exist. The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicization of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. Also well known are his name's rendering in modern Italian as Cristoforo Colombo and in Spanish as Cristóbal Colón. Christopher Columbus or Colon. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ... The era of European sea explorations began in the late 15th century and lasted for a little more than three full centuries. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A navigator is the person onboard a ship responsible for the navigation of the vessel. ... Colonialism is a system in which a state claims sovereignty over territory and people outside its own boundaries, often to facilitate economic domination over their resources, labor, and often markets. ... See also explorations, sea explorers, astronaut, conquistador, travelogue, the History of Science and Technology and Biography. ... The Vikings, or Norsemen, explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic, including the northeast fringes of North America, beginning in the 10th century. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Columbus' voyages across the Atlantic Ocean began a European effort at exploration and colonization of the Western Hemisphere. While history places great significance on his first voyage of 1492, he did not actually reach the South American mainland until his third voyage in 1498. Instead, he made landfall on an island in the Bahamas Archipelago that he named San Salvador while trying to find a sea route to India, hence the indigeneous inhabitants being called "Indians". Likewise, he was not the earliest European explorer to reach the Americas, and there are accounts of European transatlantic contact prior to 1492. Nevertheless, Columbus's voyage came at a critical time of growing national imperialism and economic competition between developing nation states seeking wealth from the establishment of trade routes and colonies. The term Pre-Columbian is sometimes used to refer to the peoples and cultures of the Americas before the arrival of Columbus and further European influence. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Explorer redirects here. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contacts were interactions between the indigenous peoples of the Americas and peoples of other continents – Europe, Africa, Asia, or Oceania – before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony From prehistoric to modern times, the human History of Europe has been turbulent, cultured, and much-documented. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ...


The anniversary of the 1492 voyage (vd. Columbus Day) is observed throughout the Americas and in Spain. Columbus Day is a holiday celebrating the anniversary of the October 12, 1492, arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Americas. ...

Contents

Nationality

It is most widely accepted that Columbus was born in the Republic of Genoa, located in modern-day Italy.[1] 188 notarial, judicial, and administrative documents about some Columbus and his family have been found in the "Archivio di Stato" (national record office) of Genoa, Italy.[2] Some writers hold that his background was Spanish, Portuguese or Greek,[3] but no conclusive evidence has ever been offered. Clues to Columbus' origin such as learned languages and DNA samples have been studied, but to date, DNA tests show only that Columbus was Caucasian, and probably was not (as some have argued) a Sephardic Jew (Spanish/Portuguese).[4] DNA surveys of present-day individuals with similar names in various countries are continuing.[5] There was one document, the Last Will and Testament of 1498, where Columbus supposedly said he was from Genoa, but it is said to have been falsified in 1573 (67 years after Columbus's death). [6] However, there is proof in the memoirs of Britain's King Henry VII (who was prepared to finance Columbus's voyage but was beat to it by the Spaniards) that Columbus's brother had visited him frequently regarding Columbus's planned voyage and that the king had used his Royal translator, familiar with the dialect spoken in Genoa, Italy, to communicate with the visitor. King Henry VII identified the visitor as an Italian from Genoa [citation needed]. A gloss journal of Columbus's, written in Italian, was kept by the Royal Court of Spain [citation needed]. A study made on Columbus's Spanish letters concluded that he wasn't a native speaker of a dialect of Spain. His journals, which were written in an extremely substandard form of Spanish mixed with Catalan and Portuguese, are proof that he wasn't an original inhabitant of the Iberian peninsula. His combination of languages is generally accepted as a learned way that Columbus, an uneducated twelve-year old from Genoa who set sail on a ship to Portugal, had eventually (through travels in Portugal and Spain) created this pidgin form of Iberian languages. Christopher Columbus or Colon. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ...


Early life

According to the most widely acknowledged biographies, Columbus was born between August and October 1451 in Genoa. His father was Domenico Colombo, a middle-class wool weaver working between Genoa and Savona. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino and Giacomo were his brothers. Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood.[1] For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Domenico Colombo (1418-1496) He was the father of the Christopher Columbus and Bartolomeo Columbus. ... Savona (Sàn-na in the local dialect of Ligurian) is a seaport and comune in the northern Italian region of Liguria, capital of the Province of Savona, in the Riviera di Ponente on the Mediterranean Sea, at sea-level. ... Susanna Fontanarossa (?-?) was the mother of Cristoforo Colombo, a Genoese wool weaver commonly believed to have been Cristoval Colon, the famous navigator and explorer wrongly credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ...


While information about Columbus' early years is scarce, he probably received an incomplete education. He spoke a Genoese dialect. In one of his writings, Columbus claims to have gone to the sea at the age of 10. In 1470 the Columbus Family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern. In the same year, Columbus was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René I of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples. Statue of King René, Aix-en-Provence René I of Naples (January 16, 1409 – July 10, 1480), also known as René dAnjou and René I the Good (French Le bon roi René), was Duke of Anjou, Count of Provence (1434–1480), Count of Piedmont, Duke of Bar (1430–1480... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession...


In 1473 Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro and Spinola families of Genoa. Later he allegedly made a trip to Chios, in the Aegean Sea. In May 1476, he took part in an armed convoy sent by Genoa to carry a valuable cargo to northern Europe. He docked in Bristol, Galway, in Ireland and very likely, in 1477 he was in Iceland. In 1479 Columbus reached his brother Bartolomeo in Lisbon, keeping on trading for the Centurione family. He married Filipa Moniz, daughter of the Porto Santo governor, Bartolomeo Perestrello. In 1481, his son, Diego was born. Chios (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios), is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea seven kilometres (five miles) off the Turkish coast. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Porto Santo Island is a Portuguese island 50 km northeast of Madeira Island in the North Atlantic Ocean. ... Diego Colón (1479/1480 Porto Santo - February 23, 1526, Montalbán) was the son of Christopher Columbus and viceroy of the Indies. ...


Physical appearance

Christopher Columbus, conjectural image by Sebastiano del Piombo in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Although an abundance of artwork involving Christopher Columbus exists, no authentic contemporary portrait has been found. The only official portrait was painted by Alejo Fernández, between 1505 and 1536, titled Virgen de los Navegantes in the Royal Alcazar in Seville. In 1595 Theodore de Bry made an etching after a painting of Columbus, made in his lifetime.[7] The etching shows resemblance with the portrait of Sebastiano del Piombo, so this painting might depict Columbus with some accuracy. Over the years, artists who reconstruct his appearance have done so from written descriptions. These writings describe him as having reddish hair, which turned to white early in his life, as well as being a lighter skinned person with too much sun exposure turning his face red. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sebastiano del Piombo (1485 – June 21, 1547), Italian painter, was born at Venice. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... See also authenticity (philosophy) and authentication (which deals only with computer security). ... For other uses, see Portrait (disambiguation). ... Christopher Columbus portrait, painted by Alejo Fernández between 1505 and 1536. ... Johann Theodor de Bry (1528 – 1598) was a Flemish-born engraver, draftsman and book editor and publisher who became famous for his depictions of early European expeditions to the Americas. ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... Sebastiano del Piombo (1485 – June 21, 1547), Italian painter, was born at Venice. ...


Despite the clear description of auburn hair or (later) white hair, textbooks use the Sebastiano del Piombo painting so often that it has become the iconic image of Columbus accepted by popular culture. Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ...


Language

See also: Origin theories of Christopher Columbus#Language

Although Genoese documents have been kept about a weaver named Colombo, some letters which are said to have been written by Columbus are written in an extremely nonstandard form of Spanish mixed with Portuguese or Catalan phonetics. He used this mixure when writing personal notes to himself, to his brother, Italian friends, and to the Bank of Genoa. Two of his brothers, also accepted as being wool weavers from Genoa, possibly understood and wrote this form of Spanish/Portuguese as well. Genoese Italian was a language generally written by Genoa's schooled people at that time; the average person from Genoa naturally spoke a Genoese variant of Italian. Christopher Columbus or Colon. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ...


In later years, Columbus mastered the use of Latin. He kept a journal in Latin as well as a more private journal in Greek. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Background to voyages

Navigation plans

The "Colombus map" was drawn circa 1490 in the workshop of Bartolomeo and Christopher Colombus in Lisbon.[8]

Europe had long enjoyed a safe land passage to China and India— sources of valued goods such as silk, spices, and opiates— under the hegemony of the Mongol Empire (the Pax Mongolica, or Mongol peace). With the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the land route to Asia became more difficult. The Columbus brothers had a different idea. By the 1480s, they had developed a plan to travel to the Indies, then construed roughly as all of south and east Asia, by sailing directly west across the "Ocean Sea," i.e., the Atlantic. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 512 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,970 × 1,260 pixels, file size: 878 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 512 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,970 × 1,260 pixels, file size: 878 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Good. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... This article is about the drug. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... The Pax Mongolica or Mongol Peace is a phrase coined by Western scholars to describe the effect of the conquest of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants in the 13th and 14th centuries. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... Ottoman redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Atlantic Ocean. ...


Following Washington Irving's 1828 biography of Columbus, Americans commonly believed Columbus had difficulty obtaining support for his plan because Europeans thought the Earth was flat.[9] In fact, the primitive maritime navigation of the time relied on the stars and the curvature of the spherical Earth. The European knowledge of the diameter of the Earth had improved since the Renaissance which started a few decades previously, and this knowledge had spread between sailors and navigators[10]. This had been the general opinion of ancient Greek science, and continued as the second opinion (for example of Bede in The Reckoning of Time). In fact the Earth had generally been believed to be spherical since the 4th century BCE by most scholars and almost all navigators, and Eratosthenes had measured the diameter of the Earth with good precision in the second century BC[11]. Columbus put forth (incorrect) arguments based on a significantly smaller diameter for the Earth, claiming that Asia could be easily reached by sailing west across the Atlantic. Most scholars accepted Ptolemy's correct assessment that the terrestrial landmass (for Europeans of the time, comprising Eurasia and Africa) occupied 180 degrees of the terrestrial sphere, and correctly dismissed Columbus's claim that the Earth was much smaller, and that Asia was only a few thousand nautical miles to the west of Europe. Columbus' error was put down to his lack of experience in navigation at sea[12]. Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American author of the early 19th century. ... For other uses, see Flat Earth (disambiguation). ... Medieval artistic representation of a spherical Earth - with compartments representing earth, air, and water (c. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... Medieval artistic representation of a spherical Earth - with compartments representing earth, air, and water (c. ... This article is about the Greek scholar of the third century BC. For the ancient Athenian statesman of the fifth century BC, see Eratosthenes (statesman). ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ...


Columbus, believed the (incorrect) calculations of Marinus of Tyre, putting the landmass at 225 degrees, leaving only 135 degrees of water. Moreover, Columbus believed that one degree represented a shorter distance on the earth's surface than was actually the case. Finally, he read maps as if the distances were calculated in Italian miles (1,238 meters). Accepting the length of a degree to be 56⅔ miles, from the writings of Alfraganus, he therefore calculated the circumference of the Earth as 25,255 kilometers at most, and the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan as 3,000 Italian miles (3,700 km, or 2,300 statute miles) Columbus did not realize Al-Farghani used the much longer Arabic mile (about 1,830 m). (ca. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Abul-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir al-Farghani (Arabic: أبو العبّاس أحمد بن محمد بن كثير الفرغاني AbÅ« al-Ê¿Abbās Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn KathÄ«r, and known as Alfraganus in the West) was a Central Asian astronomer and one of the famous astronomers in 9th century. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ...

Handwritten notes by Christopher Colombus on the latin edition of Marco Polo's Le livre des merveilles.

The main problem was that experts did not accept his estimate. The true circumference of the Earth is about 40,000 km (25,000 sm), a figure established by Eratosthenes in the second century BC,[13] and the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan 19,600 km (12,200 sm). No ship that was readily available in the 15th century could carry enough food and fresh water for such a journey. Most European sailors and navigators concluded, likely correctly, that sailors undertaking a westward voyage from Europe to Asia non-stop would die of thirst or starvation long before reaching their destination. Spain, however, having completed an expensive war, was desperate for a competitive edge over other European countries in trade with the East Indies. Columbus promised such an advantage. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 581 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,334 × 968 pixels, file size: 434 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 581 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,334 × 968 pixels, file size: 434 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... This article is about the Greek scholar of the third century BC. For the ancient Athenian statesman of the fifth century BC, see Eratosthenes (statesman). ...


While Columbus' calculations underestimated the circumference of the Earth and the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan by the standards of his peers as well as in fact, almost all Europeans held the mistaken opinion that the aquatic expanse between Europe and Asia was uninterrupted. As the 16th century developed it was the route to America, rather than to Japan, that gave Spain a competitive edge in developing an overseas empire.


Funding campaign

In 1485, Columbus presented his plans to John II, King of Portugal. He proposed the king equip three sturdy ships and grant Columbus one year's time to sail out into the Atlantic, search for a western route to Orient, and then return home. Columbus also requested he be made "Great Admiral of the Ocean", created governor of any and all lands he discovered, and given one-tenth of all revenue from those lands discovered. The king submitted the proposal to his experts, who rejected it. It was their considered opinion that Columbus' proposed route of 2,400 miles (3,860 km) was, in fact, far too short.[14] John II of Portugal João II of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... This is a List of Portuguese monarchs from the independence of Portugal from Castile in 1139, to the beginning of the Republic in October 5, 1910. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ...


In 1488 Columbus appealed to the court of Portugal once again, and once again John invited him to an audience. It too was to come to nothing, for not long afterwards came the arrival of Portugal's native son Bartholomeu Dias from a successful rounding of the southern tip of Africa. Portugal was no longer interested in trailblazing a western route to the East. Bartolomeu Dias turning the Cape of Good Hope Bartolomeu Dias (pron. ...


Columbus traveled from Portugal once more to both Genoa and Venice, but he received encouragement from neither. Previously he had his brother sound out Henry VII of England, to see if the English monarch might not be more amenable to Columbus' proposal. After much carefully considered hesitation Henry's invitation came, too late. Columbus had already committed himself to Spain. For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... List of monarchs of the Kingdom of England is a list of the monarchs of the Kingdom of England. ...

Columbus and Queen Isabella. Detail of the Columbus monument in Madrid (1885).

He had sought an audience from the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, who had united the largest kingdoms of Spain by marrying, and were ruling together. On May 1, 1486, permission having been granted, Columbus laid his plans before Queen Isabella, who, in turn, referred it to a committee. After the passing of much time, these savants of Spain, like their counterparts in Portugal, reported back that Columbus had judged the distance to Asia much too short. They pronounced the idea impractical, and advised their Royal Highnesses to pass on the proposed venture. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 690 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2111 × 1835 pixel, file size: 685 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 690 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2111 × 1835 pixel, file size: 685 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Isabella of Castile (Spanish: Ysabel, Isabel or Isabela) (22 April 1451 - 26 November 1504) was queen of Castile. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


However, to keep Columbus from taking his ideas elsewhere, and perhaps to keep their options open, the King and Queen of Spain gave him an annual annuity of 12,000 maravedis ($840) and in 1489 furnished him with a letter ordering all Spanish cities and towns to provide him food and lodging at no cost.[15] Maravedis are a Spanish currency, equal to about seven U.S. cents. ...


After continually lobbying at the Spanish court, he finally had success in 1492. Ferdinand and Isabella had just conquered Granada, the last Muslim stronghold on the Iberian peninsula, and they received Columbus in Córdoba, in the Alcázar castle. Isabella turned Columbus down on the advice of her confessor, and he was leaving town in despair, when Ferdinand intervened. Isabella then sent a royal guard to fetch him and Ferdinand later rightfully claimed credit for being "the principal cause why those islands were discovered". King Ferdinand is referred to as "losing his patience" in this issue, but this cannot be proven. For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Location within Europe, Spain and Andalusia Córdoba, the Roman bridge and the Mosque-Cathedral View across the old Roman bridge towards the Mezquita Interior court of the Mezquita Córdoba redirects here. ... The Torre de Leones of the Alcázar seen through a fountain in its gardens The Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos (Spanish for Alcázar of the Christian Monarchs), also known as the Alcázar of Córdoba, is a medieval Alcázar located in Córdoba, Spain next...


About half of the financing was to come from private Italian investors, whom Columbus had already lined up. Financially broke after the Granada campaign, the monarchs left it to the royal treasurer to shift funds among various royal accounts on behalf of the enterprise. Columbus was to be made "Admiral of the Seas" and would receive a portion of all profits. The terms were unusually generous, but as his own son later wrote, the monarchs did not really expect him to return.


According to the contract that Columbus made with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, if Columbus discovered any new islands or mainland, he would receive many high rewards. In terms of power, he would be given the rank of Admiral of the Ocean Sea (Atlantic Ocean) and appointed Viceroy and Governor of all the new lands. He had the right to nominate three persons, from whom the sovereigns would choose one, for any office in the new lands. He would be entitled to 10 percent of all the revenues from the new lands in perpetuity; this part was denied to him in the contract, although it was one of his demands. Finally, he would also have the option of buying one-eighth interest in any commercial venture with the new lands and receive one-eighth of the profits.


Columbus was later arrested in 1500 and supplanted from these posts. After his death, Columbus's sons, Diego and Fernando, took legal action to enforce their father's contract. Many of the smears against Columbus were initiated by the Spanish crown during these lengthy court cases, known as the pleitos colombinos. The family had some success in their first litigation, as a judgment of 1511 confirmed Diego's position as Viceroy, but reduced his powers. Diego resumed litigation in 1512, which lasted until 1536, and further disputes continued until 1790.[16]


Voyages

Christopher Columbus (1451–1506) was a navigator and an admiral for the Crown of Castile whose voyages to America greatly expanded European exploration and colonization of the continent (Vikings had previously had a colony at current New England, and there is significant support for Carthaginian pre-Columbian trans-Atlantic contact). ...

First voyage

First voyage.
A ship replica of the Santa Maria.
A depiction of Columbus claiming possession of the New World in a chromolithograph made by the Prang Education Company in 1893.

On the evening of August 3, 1492, Columbus departed from Palos with three ships; one larger carrack, Santa María, nicknamed Gallega (the Gallician), and two smaller caravels, Pinta (the Painted) and Santa Clara, nicknamed Niña (the Girl). (The ships were never officially named).[citation needed] They were property of Juan de la Cosa and the Pinzón brothers (Martin Alonzo and Vicente Yáñez), but the monarchs forced the Palos inhabitants to contribute to the expedition. Columbus first sailed to the Canary Islands, which was owned by Castile, where he restocked the provisions and made repairs, and on September 6, he started what turned out to be a five-week voyage across the ocean. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1861x1085, 77 KB) Summary First voyage of Columbus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1861x1085, 77 KB) Summary First voyage of Columbus. ... Download high resolution version (1224x1632, 467 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1224x1632, 467 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A ship replica is a reconstruction of a no longer existing ship. ... A functional sailing replica of the Santa Maria in Funchal, Madeira Islands, Portugal. ... Image File history File links Digital ID: cph 3b49587 Source: color film copy slide Reproduction Number: LC-USZC2-1687 (color film copy slide) , LC-USZ62-3006 (b&w film copy neg. ... Image File history File links Digital ID: cph 3b49587 Source: color film copy slide Reproduction Number: LC-USZC2-1687 (color film copy slide) , LC-USZ62-3006 (b&w film copy neg. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Chromolithography was the first method for making true multi color prints. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Location of Palos de la Frontera Municipality Huelva Government  - Mayor Carmelo Romero Hernández Area  - City 50 km²  (19. ... The Santa Maria at anchor by Andries van Eertvelt, painted c. ... A functional sailing replica of the Santa Maria in Funchal, Madeira Islands, Portugal. ... Caravela Latina / Latin Caravel Caravela Redonda / Square-rigged Caravel A caravel is a small, highly maneuverable, two or three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish for long voyages of exploration beginning in the 15th century. ... Replica of the Pinta, in Palos de la Frontera For the human skin disease, see pinta (disease). ... The Niña (the Spanish word for girl) was one of the three ships used by Christopher Columbus in his first voyage towards the Indies in 1492. ... Juan de la Cosa Map of Juan de la Cosa Juan de la Cosa (c. ... Statue of Pinzon Brothers, in Palos de la Frontera Columbus and the Pinzón brothers arrives to America The Pinzon brothers were Spanish sailors/explorers/fishermen, natives of Palos de la Frontera. ... Martin Alonzo Pinzón, Palos de la Frontera (Huelva) c. ... Vicente Yáñez Pinzón (1460? - after 1523) was Spanish navigator, explorer, and conquistador. ... Palos de la Frontera is a town located in the Spanish province of Huelva, 13 km away from the province capital. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Land was sighted at 2 a.m. on October 12, 1492, by a sailor named Rodrigo de Triana (also known as Juan Rodríguez Bermejo) aboard Pinta.[17] (Columbus would claim the prize.) Columbus called the island (in what is now The Bahamas) San Salvador, although the natives called it Guanahani. Exactly which island in the Bahamas this corresponds to is an unresolved topic; prime candidates are Samana Cay, Plana Cays, or San Salvador Island (named San Salvador in 1925 in the belief that it was Columbus's San Salvador). The indigenous people he encountered, the Lucayan, Taíno or Arawak, were peaceful and friendly. In his journal he wrote of them, "It appears to me, that the people are ingenious, and would be good servants and I am of opinion that they would very readily become Christians, as they appear to have no religion."[18] He also wrote of them, two days after landing, "I could conquer the whole of them with 50 men, and govern them as I pleased." [19] The 12-hour clock is a timekeeping convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called ante meridiem (a. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Juan Rodrigo Bermejo was a Spanish sailor born in Sevilla. ... Guanahani was the name the natives gave to the island that Columbus called San Salvador when he first arrived at the Americas. ... Samana Cay is a small island in the central Bahamas, uninhabited most of the time, and believed by some researchers to have been the location of Columbuss first landfall, on October 12, 1492. ... Plana Cays is an uninhabited atoll in the Bahamas. ... San Salvador Island, also known as Watling Island, is an island and district of the Bahamas. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... The Lucayan were those Arawak which inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus landing. ... For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ... Arowak woman (John Gabriel Stedman) The term Arawak (from aru, the Lokono word for cassava flour), was used to designate the Amerindians encountered by the Spanish in the West Indies. ...

Captain's Ensign of Columbus' Ships

Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cuba (landed on October 28) and the northern coast of Hispaniola, by December 5. Here, the Santa Maria ran aground on Christmas morning 1492 and had to be abandoned. He was received by the native cacique Guacanagari, who gave him permission to leave some of his men behind. Columbus left 39 men and founded the settlement of La Navidad in what is now present-day Haiti. Before returning to Spain, Columbus also kidnapped some ten to twenty-five Indians and took them back with him. Only seven or eight of the Indians arrived in Spain alive, but they made quite an impression on Seville.[17] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Santa Maria was the largest of the three ships used by Christopher Columbus in his first voyage across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Look up cacique in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Guacanagari was one of the five native kings of Hispaniola. ... La Navidad was the colony Columbus and his men and some help from Guacanagari built in 1492. ...


Columbus headed for Spain, but another storm forced him into Lisbon. He anchored next to the King's harbor patrol ship on March 4, 1493 in Portugal. After spending more than one week in Portugal, he set sail for Spain. He reached Spain on March 15, 1493. Word of his finding new lands rapidly spread throughout Europe. For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Second voyage

Second voyage.

Columbus left Cádiz, Spain, on September 24, 1493 to find new territories, with 17 ships carrying supplies, and about 1,200 men to colonize the region. On October 13, the ships left the Canary Islands as they had on the first voyage, following a more southerly course. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1861x1085, 82 KB) Summary 2nd voyage of Columbus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1861x1085, 82 KB) Summary 2nd voyage of Columbus. ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 3, 1493, Columbus sighted a rugged island that he named Dominica (Latin for Sunday); later that day, he landed at Marie-Galante, which he named Santa Maria la Galante. After sailing past Les Saintes (Los Santos, The Saints), he arrived at Guadeloupe (Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura, after the image of the Virgin Mary venerated at the Spanish monastery of Villuercas, in Guadalupe, Spain), which he explored between November 4 and November 10, 1493. is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marie-Galante, an island of the Caribbean Sea in the Guadeloupe archipelago of the French West Indies, and as part of the Guadeloupe Département doutre-mer, is a constitutional part of France. ... The ÃŽles des Saintes are a group of islands within the French Département doutre-mer Guadeloupe. ... The Royal Monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe (Spanish: Real Monasterio de Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe) is a monastic establishment in Cáceres province of the Extremadura autonomous community of Spain, which used to be the most important monastery in the country for more than four centuries. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The exact course of his voyage through the Lesser Antilles is debated, but it seems likely that he turned north, sighting and naming several islands, including Montserrat (for Santa Maria de Montserrate, after the Blessed Virgin of the Monastery of Montserrat, which is located on the Mountain of Montserrat, in Catalonia, Spain), Antigua (after a church in Seville, Spain, called Santa Maria la Antigua, meaning "Old St. Mary's"), Redonda (for Santa Maria la Redonda, Spanish for "round", owing to the island's shape), Nevis (derived from the Spanish, Nuestra Señora de las Nieves, meaning "Our Lady of the Snows", because Columbus thought the clouds over Nevis Peak made the island resemble a snow-capped mountain), Saint Kitts (for St. Christopher, patron of sailors and travelers), Sint Eustatius (for the early Roman martyr, St. Eustachius), Saba (also for St. Christopher?), Saint Martin (San Martin), and Saint Croix (Santa Cruz, meaning "Holy Cross"). He also sighted the island chain of the Virgin Islands (and named them Islas de Santa Ursula y las Once Mil Virgenes, Saint Ursula and the 11,000 Virgins, a cumbersome name that was usually shortened, both on maps of the time and in common parlance, to Islas Virgenes), and he also named the islands of Virgin Gorda (the fat virgin), Tortola, and Peter Island (San Pedro). Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... Redonda is an uninhabited island dependency of Antigua and Barbuda. ... For other uses, see Nevis (disambiguation). ... Country Saint Kitts and Nevis Archipelago Leeward Islands Region Caribbean Area 65 sq. ... This article is about the Christian saint known as Christopher. ... Map showing location of Sint Eustatius relative to Saba and Sint Maarten/Saint Martin. ... On a wing of the Paumgartner Altarpiece, Albrecht Dürer painted Lukas Paumgartner with the banner of his patron St Eustace, in the contemporary armor of a landsknecht. ... Motto Remis Velisque (Latin) With oars and sails (English) Anthem Saba you rise from the ocean Capital The Bottom Largest city The Bottom Official languages Dutch, Papiamento and English (unofficial) Government See Politics of the Netherlands Antilles  -  Saba Administrator A.J.M. Solagnier  -  Governor of N.A. Frits Goedgedrag Constitutional... St. ... Saint Croix from space, January 1993 Saint Croix is one of the United States Virgin Islands, a United States territory, in the Caribbean. ... Santa Cruz, Spanish and Portuguese for Holy Cross, is the name of several cities, regions, and other geographical features around the world: Argentina Puerto Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz province Santa Cruz Province, Argentina Bolivia Santa Cruz de la Sierra Santa Cruz Department Brazil Santa Cruz, Espírito Santo Santa Cruz... // Holy Cross or Saint Cross may refer to: Christian cross, a frequently used religious symbol of Christianity Feast of the Cross, a commemoration most often celebrated on September 14 Holy Cross may also refer to: A number of Holy Cross Schools A number of Holy Cross Colleges A number of... Saint Ursula on the coat-of-arms of British Virgin Islands Ursula (small female bear in Latin) is a British Christian saint. ... Virgin Gorda is the second-largest of the British Virgin Islands Virgin Gorda is the third-largest of the British Virgin Islands. ... Tortola is the largest and most populated of the British Virgin Islands, a group of islands which form part of the archipelago of the Virgin Islands. ... Peter Island was discovered by Christopher Columbus while he was exploring the area around the Virgin Islands. ...


He continued to the Greater Antilles, and landed at Puerto Rico (originally San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, a name that was later supplanted by Puerto Rico (English: Rich Port) while the capital retained the name, San Juan) on November 19, 1493. One of the first skirmishes between native Americans and Europeans since the time of the Vikings[20] took place when Columbus's men rescued two boys who had just been castrated by their captors. The Greater Antilles, an island group in the Caribbean Sea, are part of the Antilles. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 22, Columbus returned to Hispaniola, where he intended to visit Fuerte de la Navidad (Christmas Fort), built during his first voyage, and located on the northern coast of Haiti; Fuerte de la Navidad was found in ruins, destroyed by the native Taino people, whereupon, Columbus moved more than 100 kilometers eastwards, establishing a new settlement, which he called La Isabela, likewise on the northern coast of Hispaniola, in the present-day Dominican Republic. However, La Isabela proved to be a poorly-chosen location, and the settlement was short-lived. is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... La Navidad was the colony Columbus and his men and some help from Guacanagari built in 1492. ... The Taíno are the pre-Hispanic Amerindian inhabitants of the Greater Antilles, which includes Cuba, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, Jamaica and the Bahamas. ... Founded by Christopher Columbus during his second voyage in 1493, La Isabela was the first formal European settlement in the New World. ... Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying east of Cuba. ... Founded by Christopher Columbus during his second voyage in 1493, La Isabela was the first formal European settlement in the New World. ...


He left Hispaniola on April 24, 1494, arrived at Cuba (naming it Juana) on April 30. He explored the southern coast of Cuba, which he believed to be a peninsula rather than an island, and several nearby islands, including the Isle of Pines (Isla de las Pinas, later known as La Evangelista, The Evangelist). He reached Jamaica on May 5. He retraced his route to Hispaniola, arriving on August 20, before he finally returned to Spain. is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Isla de la Juventud (Spanish) or Isle of Youth (English) is the largest island of Cuba after Cuba proper. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


During this second trip, the rape of an indigenous woman was reported by one of Columbus's crew (Michel de Cuneo) and with Columbus's tolerance:

When I was in the ship, I turned into captivity a beautiful caribe woman, given to me as a gift by the Almirant, and after I took her to my stateroom, and while she was naked as their custom is, I felt desires of laying with her. I want to satisfy my desire but she didn’t want and gave me such a treatment with her nails that I think it would be better to never begun. But when I saw this (and to tell you everything up to the end), I take a rope and whipped her, after what she screamed a lot, in such a way you cannot believe your ears. Finally we reached such an agreement that I can tell you she appeared to be trained in a whore school.

Original text:
Mientras estaba en la barca, hice cautiva a una hermosísima mujer caribe, que el susodicho Almirante me regaló, y después que la hube llevado a mi camarote, y estando ella desnuda según es su costumbre, sentí deseos de holgar con ella. Quise cumplir mi deseo pero ella no lo consintió y me dió tal trato con sus uñas que hubiera preferido no haber empezado nunca. Pero al ver esto (y para contártelo todo hasta el final), tomé una cuerda y le di de azotes, después de los cuales echó grandes gritos, tales que no hubieras podido creer tus oídos. Finalmente llegamos a estar tan de acuerdo que puedo decirte que parecía haber sido criada en una escuela de putas.
[21]

Third voyage

Third voyage.
Location of city of Sanlúcar de Barrameda, the starting point for Columbus' third journey.

On May 30, 1498, Columbus left with six ships from Sanlúcar, Spain, for his third trip to the New World. He was accompanied by the young Bartolomé de Las Casas, who would later provide partial transcripts of Columbus' logs. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1861x1085, 78 KB) Summary 3rd voyage of Columbus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1861x1085, 78 KB) Summary 3rd voyage of Columbus. ... Image File history File links AndalusAndMorocco. ... Image File history File links AndalusAndMorocco. ... Sanlúcar de Barrameda from the mouth of the Guadalquivir river Sanlúcar de Barrameda is a Spanish city in the northwestern part of the Cádiz province. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sanlúcar de Barrameda from the mouth of the Guadalquivir river Sanlúcar de Barrameda is a Spanish city in the northwestern part of the Cádiz province. ... Bartolomé de las Casas This article is about a Spanish priest in the 16th century. ...


Columbus led the fleet to the Portuguese island of Porto Santo, his wife's native land. He then sailed to Madeira and spent some time there with the Portuguese captain João Gonçalves da Camara before sailing to the Canary Islands and Cape Verde. Columbus landed on the south coast of the island of Trinidad on July 31. From August 4 through August 12, he explored the Gulf of Paria which separates Trinidad from Venezuela. He explored the mainland of South America, including the Orinoco River. He also sailed to the islands of Chacachacare and Margarita Island and sighted and named Tobago (Bella Forma) and Grenada (Concepcion). Porto Santo Island is a Portuguese island 50 km northeast of Madeira Island in the North Atlantic Ocean. ... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gulf of Paria (Golfo de Paria in Spanish) is a shallow inland sea between the island of Trinidad (Republic of Trinidad and Tobago) and the east coast of Venezuela. ... For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Orinoco (disambiguation). ... Chacachacare is an island in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... There are three islands with a similar name: Margarita Island (Margitsziget) in Budapest, Hungary Isla Margarita in Venezuela. ... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ...


Columbus returned to Hispaniola on August 19 to find that many of the Spanish settlers of the new colony were discontented, having been misled by Columbus about the supposedly bountiful riches of the new world. An entry in his journal from September 1498 reads, "From here one might send, in the name of the Holy Trinity, as many slaves as could be sold..." Indeed, as a fierce supporter of slavery, Columbus ultimately refused to baptize the native people of Hispanolia, since Catholic law forbade the enslavement of Christians. [22] Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Columbus repeatedly had to deal with rebellious settlers and natives. [citation needed] He had some of his crew hanged for disobeying him. A number of returning settlers and sailors lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court, accusing him and his brothers of gross mismanagement. On his return he was arrested for a period (see Governorship and arrest section below).


Fourth voyage

Fourth voyage.

Columbus made a fourth voyage nominally in search of the Strait of Malacca to the Indian Ocean. Accompanied by his brother Bartolomeo and his 13-year-old son Fernando, he left Cádiz, Spain, on May 11, 1502, with the ships Capitana, Gallega, Vizcaína and Santiago de Palos. He sailed to Arzila on the Moroccan coast to rescue Portuguese soldiers whom he had heard were under siege by the Moors. On June 15, they landed at Carbet on the island of Martinique (Martinica). A hurricane was brewing, so he continued on, hoping to find shelter on Hispaniola. He arrived at Santo Domingo on June 29, but was denied port, and the new governor refused to listen to his storm prediction. Instead, while Columbus' ships sheltered at the mouth of the Rio Jaina, the first Spanish treasure fleet sailed into the hurricane. Columbus' ships survived with only minor damage, while twenty-nine of the thirty ships in the governor's fleet were lost to the July 1st storm. In addition to the ships, 500 lives (including that of the governor, Francisco de Bobadilla) and an immense cargo of gold were surrendered to the sea. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1861x1085, 85 KB) Summary 4th voyage of Columbus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1861x1085, 85 KB) Summary 4th voyage of Columbus. ... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Bartolomeo Columbus (Bartolomé Colón) was the younger brother of Christopher Columbus. ... (1488-1539). ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Asilah or Arzila is a city situated on the northwest tip of Morocco with a history back to 1500 B.C. The Phoenicians used the city as a trading site. ... For other uses, see moor. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ... The years from 1492 to 1524 featured the 1492-1524 Atlantic hurricane seasons. ... Francisco de Bobadilla was a Spanish colonial administrator. ...


After a brief stop at Jamaica, Columbus sailed to Central America, arriving at Guanaja (Isla de Pinos) in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras on July 30. Here Bartolomeo found native merchants and a large canoe, which was described as "long as a galley" and was filled with cargo. On August 14, he landed on the American mainland at Puerto Castilla, near Trujillo, Honduras. He spent two months exploring the coasts of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, before arriving in Almirante Bay, Panama on October 16. For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Guanaja is one of the Bay Islands of Honduras, and is in the Caribbean. ... Islas de la Bahía (Bay Islands) is one of the 18 departments (departamentos) into which the Central American nation of Honduras is divided. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of Trujillo Trujillo is a city in northeastern Honduras along the Caribbean coast. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On December 5, 1502, Columbus and his crew found themselves in a storm unlike any they had ever experienced. In his journal Columbus writes, is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

For nine days I was as one lost, without hope of life. Eyes never beheld the sea so angry, so high, so covered with foam. The wind not only prevented our progress, but offered no opportunity to run behind any headland for shelter; hence we were forced to keep out in this bloody ocean, seething like a pot on a hot fire. Never did the sky look more terrible; for one whole day and night it blazed like a furnace, and the lightning broke with such violence that each time I wondered if it had carried off my spars and sails; the flashes came with such fury and frightfulness that we all thought that the ship would be blasted. All this time the water never ceased to fall from the sky; I do not say it rained, for it was like another deluge. The men were so worn out that they longed for death to end their dreadful suffering.[23]

In Panama, Columbus learned from the natives of gold and a strait to another ocean. After much exploration, in January 1503 he established a garrison at the mouth of the Rio Belen. On April 6 one of the ships became stranded in the river. At the same time, the garrison was attacked, and the other ships were damaged. Columbus left for Hispaniola on April 16, heading north. On May 10 he sighted the Cayman Islands, naming them "Las Tortugas" after the numerous sea turtles there. His ships next sustained more damage in a storm off the coast of Cuba. Unable to travel farther, on June 25, 1503, the ships were beached in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica. Genera Family Cheloniidae (Oppel, 1811) Caretta Chelonia Eretmochelys Lepidochelys Natator Family Dermochelyidae Dermochelys Family Protostegidae (extinct) Family Toxochelyidae (extinct) Family Thalassemyidae (extinct) Sea turtles (Superfamily Chelonioidea) are turtles found in all the worlds oceans except the Arctic Ocean. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Location latitude 18°12N, longitude 77°28W Capital Town Saint Anns Bay Major towns Ocho Rios, Browns Town, Runaway Bay, Claremont County Middlesex Area 1,212. ...


Columbus and his men remained stranded on Jamaica for a year. One Spaniard, Diego Mendez, and some native paddlers sailed by canoe to get help from Hispaniola. Hispaniola's governor, Nicolás de Ovando, detested Columbus and obstructed all efforts to rescue Columbus and his men. In the meantime Columbus, in a desperate effort to induce the natives to continue provisioning him and his hungry men, successfully intimidated the natives by correctly predicting a lunar eclipse for February 29, 1504, using the Ephemeris of the German astronomer Regiomontanus.[24] Help finally arrived on June 29, 1504, and Columbus and his men arrived in Sanlúcar, Spain, on November 7. This article is about the boat. ... Nicolás de Ovando (Valladolid, 1460–Madrid, 1518) was a Spanish soldier from a noble family and was a knight of the Order of Alcántara. ... Time lapse movie of the 3 March 2007 lunar eclipse A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the Moon passes through some portion of the Earth’s shadow. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An ephemeris (plural: ephemerides) (from the Greek word ephemeros = daily) is a device giving the positions of astronomical objects in the sky. ... Johannes Müller von Königsberg (June 6, 1436 – July 6, 1476), known by his Latin pseudonym Regiomontanus, was an important German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sanlúcar de Barrameda from the mouth of the Guadalquivir river Sanlúcar de Barrameda is a Spanish city in the northwestern part of the Cádiz province. ...


Governorship and arrest

During Columbus's stint as governor and viceroy, disgruntled Spaniards, who chafed at being governed by an Italian, claimed that he ruled his domain tyrannically [citation needed]. Columbus was physically and mentally exhausted; his body was wracked by arthritis and his eyes by ophthalmia. In October 1499, he sent two ships to Spain, asking the Court of Spain to appoint a royal commissioner to help him govern. Ophthalmia means inflammation of the eye. ...


The Court appointed Francisco de Bobadilla, a member of the Order of Calatrava; however, his authority stretched far beyond what Columbus had requested. Bobadilla was given total control as governor from 1500 until his death in 1502. Arriving in Santo Domingo while Columbus was away, Bobadilla was immediately peppered with complaints about all three of the Columbus brothers: Christopher, Bartolomé, and Diego. Consuelo Varela, a Spanish historian, states: "Even those who loved him [Columbus] had to admit the atrocities that had taken place."[25][26] Francisco de Bobadilla was a Spanish colonial administrator. ... The order emblem, a greek cross in gules with fleur-de-lis at its ends. ...


As a result of these testimonies, Columbus, upon his return and without being allowed a word in his own defense, was clapped with manacles on his arms and chains on his feet and cast into prison to await return to Spain. He was 53 years old.


On October 1, 1500, Columbus and his two brothers, likewise in chains, were sent back to Spain. Once in Cádiz, a grieving Columbus wrote to a friend at court: is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

It is now seventeen years since I came to serve these princes with the Enterprise of the Indies. They made me pass eight of them in discussion, and at the end rejected it as a thing of jest. Nevertheless I persisted therein...Over there I have placed under their sovereignty more land than there is in Africa and Europe, and more than 1,700 islands...In seven years I, by the divine will, made that conquest. At a time when I was entitled to expect rewards and retirement, I was incontinently arrested and sent home loaded with chains...The accusation was brought out of malice on the basis of charges made by civilians who had revolted and wished to take possession on the land....


I beg your graces, with the zeal of faithful Christians in whom their Highneses have confidence, to read all my papers, and to consider how I, who came from so far to serve these princes...now at the end of my days have been despoiled of my honor and my property without cause, wherein is neither justice nor mercy.[27]

According to testimony of 23 witnesses during his trial, Columbus regularly used barbaric acts of torture to govern Hispanolia. [28]


Columbus and his brothers lingered in jail for six weeks before the busy King Ferdinand ordered their release. Not long thereafter, the king and queen summoned the Columbus brothers to their presence at the Alhambra palace in Granada. There the royal couple heard the brothers' pleas; restored their freedom and their wealth; and, after much persuasion, agreed to fund Columbus' fourth voyage. But the door was firmly shut on Christopher Columbus's role as governor. From that point forward, Don Nicolás de Ovando was to be the new governor of the West Indies. The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red palace) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Nicolás de Ovando (Valladolid, 1460–Madrid, 1518) was a Spanish soldier from a noble family and was a knight of the Order of Alcántara. ...


Later life

A statue of the Santa Maria, Columbus' flagship in his first voyage. The statue is at the House of Columbus in Valladolid, Spain, the city where Columbus died.

While Columbus had always given the conversion of non-believers as one reason for his explorations, he grew increasingly religious in his later years. He claimed to hear divine voices, lobbied for a new crusade to capture Jerusalem, often wore Franciscan habit, and described his explorations to the "paradise" as part of God's plan which would soon result in the Last Judgment and the end of the world. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 210 KB)House of Columbus in Valladolid Photo taken with Canon IXUS V2 camera. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 210 KB)House of Columbus in Valladolid Photo taken with Canon IXUS V2 camera. ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian theology, Christian eschatology is the...


In his later years, Columbus demanded that the Spanish Crown give him 10% of all profits made in the new lands, pursuant to earlier agreements. Because he had been relieved of his duties as governor, the crown did not feel bound by these contracts, and his demands were rejected. After his death his family later sued for part of the profits from trade with America in the pliegos colombinos.

Columbus's tomb in Seville Cathedral. It is borne by four statues of kings representing the Kingdoms of Castile, Leon, Aragon, and Navarre.

On May 20, 1506, at about the age of 55, Columbus died in Valladolid, fairly wealthy from the gold his men had accumulated in Hispaniola. When he died he was still convinced that his journeys had been along the east coast of Asia. According to a study, published in February 2007, by Antonio Rodriguez Cuartero, Department of Internal Medicine of the University of Granada, he died of a heart attack caused by Reiter's Syndrome (also called reactive arthritis). According to his personal diaries and notes by contemporaries, the symptoms of this illness (burning pain during urination, pain and swelling of the knees, and conjunctivitis of the eyes) were clearly visible in his last three years.[29] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1009, 254 KB) Summary Tomb of Christopher Columbus, Cathedral of Seville. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1009, 254 KB) Summary Tomb of Christopher Columbus, Cathedral of Seville. ... Cathedral from the Patio of Oranges Interior of the Cathedral Façade of the Cathedral The Cathedral of Seville, formally Catedral de Santa María de la Sede (Cathedral of Saint Mary of the See) was begun in 1402, with construction continuing into the 16th century. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of León, 1030 Capital León Language(s) Mainly Latin and Astur-Leonese. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ... The University of Granada is a university at Granada, Spain, first founded by the Moors in 1349 and then officially founded in 1531 by the Emperor Carlos V, with support of Pope Clemente VII. The University is home to foreign students from around the world at the Universitys Modern... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Following his death, his body underwent excarnation—the flesh was removed so that only his bones remained. His remains were first buried in Valladolid and then at the monastery of La Cartuja in Seville (southern Spain), by the will of his son Diego, who had been governor of Hispaniola. Then in 1542, his remains were transferred to Santo Domingo, in eastern Hispaniola. In 1795, the French took over Hispaniola, and his remains were moved to Havana, Cuba. After Cuba became independent following the Spanish-American War in 1898, his remains were moved back to the Cathedral of Seville in Spain, where they were placed on an elaborate catafalque. However, a lead box bearing an inscription identifying "Don Christopher Columbus" and containing fragments of bone and a bullet was discovered at Santo Domingo in 1877. In archaeology and anthropology the term excarnation refers to the burial practice adopted by some societies of removing the flesh of the dead, leaving only the bones. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Diego Colón Diego Colón, also, in Portuguese: , (1479/1480, Porto Santo, Portugal – February 23, 1526, Montalbán, Spain) was the firstborn son of Christopher Columbus and his wife Filipa Moniz, and eventually became the Viceroy of the Indies. ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties... The Cathedral of Seville was begun in 1402, with construction continuing into the 16th century. ... Look up catafalque in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


To lay to rest claims that the wrong relics were moved to Havana and that the remains of Columbus were left buried in the cathedral of Santo Domingo, DNA samples were taken in June 2003 (History Today August 2003). The results are not definitively conclusive. Initial observations suggested that the bones did not appear to belong to somebody with the physique or age at death associated with Columbus.[30] DNA extraction proved difficult; only a few limited fragments of mitochondrial DNA could be isolated. However, such as they are, these do appear to match corresponding DNA from Columbus's brother, giving support to the idea that the two had the same mother and that the body therefore may be that of Columbus.[31][32] The authorities in Santo Domingo have not allowed the remains there to be exhumed, so it is unknown if any of those remains could be from Columbus's body. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ...


Legacy

Bronze statue at Central Park, New York City by Jerónimo Suñol, 1894.
Replicas of the Pinta, Santa Maria and Niña went from Spain to the Chicago Columbian Exposition.

Amerigo Vespucci's travel journals, published 1502-4, convinced Martin Waldseemüller that the discovered place was not India, as Columbus always believed, but a new continent, and in 1507, a year after Columbus' death, Waldseemüller published a world map calling the new continent America from Vespucci's Latinized name "Americus". Though he never set foot in what became the United States, Columbus is often viewed as a hero in that country. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (576x767, 620 KB) Summary Bronze sculpture of Christopher Columbus at Central Park New York by Jeronimo Suñol, 1894. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (576x767, 620 KB) Summary Bronze sculpture of Christopher Columbus at Central Park New York by Jeronimo Suñol, 1894. ... Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1944x1212, 628 KB) العربية | ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1944x1212, 628 KB) العربية | ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 - February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer. ... Martin Waldseemüller (19th century painting). ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Columbus ascendant

The nascent countries of the New World, particularly the newly independent United States, seemed to need a historical narrative to give them roots. This narrative was supplied in part by Washington Irving in 1828 with The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, which may be the true source of much of the associations held about the explorer. Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American author of the early 19th century. ... The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus is a novel about Christopher Columbus written by Washington Irving in 1838. ...


Hero worship of Columbus perhaps reached a zenith around 1892 when the 400th anniversary of his first arrival in the Americas occurred. Monuments to Columbus like the Columbian Exposition in Chicago were erected throughout the United States and Latin America extolling him. Numerous cities, towns, and streets were named after him, including the capital cities of two U.S. states (Columbus, Ohio and Columbia, South Carolina). One-third scale replica of Daniel Chester Frenchs Republic, which stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The Worlds Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds Fair, was held in Chicago in 1893, to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A U.S. state is any one of the fifty states (four of which officially favor the term commonwealth) which, with the District of Columbia, forms the United States of America. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Delaware, and Fairfield Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City  212. ... For other uses, see Columbia (disambiguation). ...


The story that Columbus thought the world was round while his contemporaries believed in a flat earth was often repeated despite the fact that the real issue was the size of the Earth rather than its roundness.[33] (In fact even Aristotle, a key Classical figure in the Church doctrine of the day, had argued that the Earth was a globe,[34][35] and Columbus's failure to reach China would have meant that, had he been trying to prove the world was round, he actually would have failed). This tale was used to show that Columbus was enlightened and forward looking. [citation needed] For other uses, see Flat Earth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


The admiration of Columbus was particularly embraced by some members of the Italian American, Hispanic, and Catholic communities. These groups point to Columbus as one of their own to show that Mediterranean Catholics could and did make great contributions to the U.S. The modern vilification of Columbus is seen by his supporters as being politically motivated. [citation needed]


In 1909, descendants of Columbus undertook to dismantle the Columbus family chapel in Spain and move it to a site near State College, Pennsylvania, where it may now be visited by the public. At the museum associated with the chapel, there are a number of Columbus relics worthy of note, including the armchair which the "Admiral of the Ocean Sea" used at his chart table. State college has multiple meanings. ...


Modern day

Columbus Circle in New York City. *Italian sculptor Gaetano Russo's central monument was dedicated in 1892, 400 years after Columbus arrived in America.
  • Culpability is sometimes placed on contemporary governments and their citizens for the hardship suffered by Native Americans during the time of Christopher Columbus. Columbus myths and celebrations are generally a positive affair, making less room for this concept in history books.
  • The Spanish colonization of the Americas, and the subsequent effects on the native peoples, were dramatized in the 1992 feature film 1492: Conquest of Paradise to commemorate the 500th anniversary of his landing in the Americas. *In 2003, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez urged Native American Latin Americans to not celebrate the Columbus Day holiday. Chavez blamed Columbus for leading the way in the mass genocide of the Native Americans by the Spanish.[36]
  • Christopher Columbus was strongly criticised[2] in a song by Jamaican artiste Burning Spear titled 'A Damn Blasted Liar.' The controversial song opened a strong opinionated debate across much of the Caribbean region on the effects that Christopher Columbus and his leadership had on the region's native peoples.[3]

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 776 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken by BigMac on September 9, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 776 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken by BigMac on September 9, 2005. ... View of Columbus Circle, looking east down Central Park South from inside the Time Warner Center. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... 1492: Conquest of Paradise is a 1992 American/Spanish adventure/drama film. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... Jah man! Winston Rodney (born March 1, 1948) a. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Encyclopedia Britannica, 1993 ed., Vol. 16, pp. 605ff / Morison, Christopher Columbus, 1955 ed., pp. 14ff
  2. ^ http://www.archivi.beniculturali.it/ASGE/asge.htm (In Italian)
  3. ^ uth G. Durlacher-Wolper: Christophoros Columbus: A Byzantine Prince from Chios, Greece. The New World Museum, San Salvador, Bahamas. 1982.
  4. ^ Prof. José Lorente, Prof. Univeristy of Granada in "Secrets from the Grave" (Discovery Channel, 2004)
  5. ^ Amy Harmon, Seeking Columbus’s Origins, With a Swab, New York Times, October 8, 2007.
  6. ^ (Portuguese) Rosa, Manuel, "O Mistério Colombo Revelado", pp. 157-166, Lisbon, 2006
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ "Marco Polo et le Livre des Merveilles", ISBN 9782354040079 p.37
  9. ^ Boller, Paul F (1995). Not So!:Popular Myths about America from Columbus to Clinton. ISBN 9780195091861. 
  10. ^ Russell, Jeffrey Burton 1991. Inventing the Flat Earth. Columbus and modern historians, Praeger, New York, Westport, London 1991;
    Zinn, Howard 1980. A People's History of the United States, HarperCollins 2001. p.2
  11. ^ Sagan, Carl. Cosmos; the mean circumference of the Earth is 40,041.47 km.
  12. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: The Life of Christopher Columbus Boston, 1942
  13. ^ Sagan, Carl. Cosmos; the mean circumference of the Earth is 40,041.47 km.
  14. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: The Life of Christopher Columbus Boston, 1942
  15. ^ Durant, Will "The Story of Civilization" vol. vi, "The Reformation". Chapter XIII, page 260.
  16. ^ Mark McDonald, "Ferdinand Columbus, Renaissance Collector (1488-1539)", 2005, British Museum Press, ISBN 9780714126449
  17. ^ a b Clements R. Markham, ed. The Journal of Christopher Columbus (During His First Voyage). ASIN B000I1OMXM. 
  18. ^ http://media.www.michigandaily.com/media/storage/paper851/news/2004/10/12/News/Columbus.Day.Sparks.Debate.Over.Explorers.Legacy-1425748.shtml
  19. ^ http://media.www.michigandaily.com/media/storage/paper851/news/2004/10/12/News/Columbus.Day.Sparks.Debate.Over.Explorers.Legacy-1425748.shtml
  20. ^ Phillips, Jr., William D. & Carla Rahn Phillips (1992). The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. ISBN 9780521350976. 
  21. ^ Cólón, Cristóbal, Michel de Cúneo y otros (1982). Cronistas de Indias: antología, Buenos Aires: Colihue ISBN 950-581-020-2
  22. ^ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/10/17/world/main2098785.shtml
  23. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot,Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, Boston, 1942, page 617.
  24. ^ Samuel Eliot Morison, Christopher Columbus, Mariner, 1955, pp. 184-92.
  25. ^ Giles Tremlett. "Lost document reveals Columbus as tyrant of the Caribbean", The Guardian, 2006-08-07. Retrieved on 2006-10-10. (English) 
  26. ^ Bobadilla's 48-page report—derived from the testimonies of 23 people who had seen or heard about the treatment meted out by Columbus and his brothers—had originally been lost for centuries, but was rediscovered in 2005 in the Spanish archives in Valladolid. It contained an account of Columbus' seven-year reign as the first Governor of the Indies.
  27. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot "Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus" page 576, Boston, 1942
  28. ^ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/10/17/world/main2098785.shtml
  29. ^ Cause of the death of Colombus (in Spanish)
  30. ^ Giles Tremlett, Young bones lay Columbus myth to rest, The Guardian, August 11, 2004
  31. ^ Lorenzi, Rossella. "DNA Suggests Columbus Remains in Spain", Discovery News, October 6, 2004. Retrieved on 2006-10-11. (English) 
  32. ^ DNA verifies Columbus’ remains in Spain, Associated Press, 19 May 2006
  33. ^ Round Earth and Christopher Columbus
  34. ^ Aristotle and the round Earth.
  35. ^ Compare also book 1, question 1, article 1 of Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica, where the roundness of the Earth is given as a standard example of a well-known scientific truth.
  36. ^ Columbus 'sparked a genocide'. BBC News (October 12, 2003). Retrieved on 2006-10-21.

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a product identification number used by Amazon. ... RAdm Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976), USN historian Samuel Eliot Morison, RAdm, USNR (July 9, 1887 – May 15, 1976) was an American historian, notable for producing scholarly works that were both authoritative and highly readable, an ability recognized with two Pulitzer Prizes. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Cohen, J.M. (1969) The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus: Being His Own Log-Book, Letters and Dispatches with Connecting Narrative Drawn from the Life of the Admiral by His Son Hernando Colon and Others. London UK: Penguin Classics.
  • Cook, Sherburn and Woodrow Borah (1971) Essays in Population History, Volume I. Berkeley CA: University of California Press
  • Crosby, A. W. (1987) The Columbian Voyages: the Columbian Exchange, and their Historians. Washington, DC: American Historical Association.
  • Friedman, Thomas (2005) The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.
  • Hart, Michael H. (1992) The 100. Seacaucus NJ: Carol Publishing Group.
  • Keen, Benjamin (1978) The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his Son Ferdinand, Westport CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Lowen, James. "Lies My Teacher Told Me".
  • Nelson, Diane M. (1999) A Finger in the Wound: Body Politics in Quincentennial Guatemala. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1942.
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot, Christopher Columbus, Mariner, Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1955.
  • Phillips, W. D. and C. R. Phillips (1992) The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Turner, Jack (2004) Spice: The History of a Temptation. New York: Random House.
  • Wilford, John Noble (1991) The Mysterious History of Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legacy. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Rosa, Manuel DaSilva (2006) O Mistério Colombo Revelado. Lisbon: Ésquilo.

Thomas Lauren Friedman, OBE (born July 20, 1953), is an American journalist. ... Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist turned author and activist. ... The cover of the 1992 edition. ... RAdm Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976), USN historian Samuel Eliot Morison, RAdm, USNR (July 9, 1887 – May 15, 1976) was an American historian, notable for producing scholarly works that were both authoritative and highly readable, an ability recognized with two Pulitzer Prizes. ... RAdm Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976), USN historian Samuel Eliot Morison, RAdm, USNR (July 9, 1887 – May 15, 1976) was an American historian, notable for producing scholarly works that were both authoritative and highly readable, an ability recognized with two Pulitzer Prizes. ... Manuel da Silva Rosa is a Portuguese historian who supports a Portuguese origin for Christopher Columbus. ...

See also

1492: Conquest of Paradise is a 1992 American/Spanish adventure/drama film. ... A biographical film or biopic is a film about a particular person or group of people, based on events that actually happened. ... Sir Ridley Scott (born November 30, 1937 in South Shields, South Tyneside) is a British film director and producer. ... Christopher Columbus is a 1949 biographical film starring Fredric March as Christopher Columbus and Florence Eldridge as Queen Isabella. ... Fredric March (August 31, 1897 – April 14, 1975) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Bartolomeo Columbus (Bartolomé Colón) was the younger brother of Christopher Columbus. ... Columbus Day is a holiday celebrating the anniversary of the October 12, 1492, arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Americas. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... (1488-1539). ... Guanahani was the name the natives gave to the island that Columbus called San Salvador when he first arrived at the Americas. ... Knights of Columbus emblem The Knights of Columbus is the worlds largest Roman Catholic fraternal service organization. ... A number of places, mostly in the Western Hemisphere, have been named for Christopher Columbus, the Italian voyager who was the first European to make the New World widely known to Europeans. ... Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli. ... Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contacts were interactions between the indigenous peoples of the Americas and peoples of other continents – Europe, Africa, Asia, or Oceania – before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... A portrait of Christopher Columbus Salvador Fernandes Zarco is the theorized Portuguese name of Christopher Columbus (October 30, 1451? – 20 May 1506), the man widely recognized as discovering the New World in 1492. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Western Hemisphere of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ...

External links

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IMDB
Persondata
NAME Columbus, Christopher
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Cristoforo Colombo, Cristóbal Colón
SHORT DESCRIPTION navigator and an admiral for the Crown of Castile
DATE OF BIRTH c. 1451
PLACE OF BIRTH Genoa
DATE OF DEATH May 20, 1506
PLACE OF DEATH Valladolid, Spain

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... A navigator is the person onboard a ship responsible for the navigation of the vessel. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus (9336 words)
Columbus himself in a letter to King Ferdinand says that he began to navigate at the age of fourteen, though in the journal of his first voyage (no longer in existence), in 1493, he was said to have been on the sea twenty-three years, which would make him nineteen when he first became a mariner.
Columbus always directed his proposals to the king and as yet the queen had taken no official notice of them, as she too was heart and soul in the enterprise destined to restore Spain wholly to Christian rule.
Columbus and his brothers were Italians, and this fact told against them among the malcontents and lower officials, but that it influenced the monarchs and the court authorities is a gratuitous charge.
Christopher Columbus - MSN Encarta (1227 words)
Columbus was not the first European to reach the Americas—Vikings from Scandinavia had briefly settled on the North American coast, in what is now Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, in the late 10th or early 11th century.
Although how much formal education Columbus received as a child is not known, the schools of Italian craft guilds (which Columbus, as the son of a wool weaver, would have attended) did offer a rudimentary level of reading and writing.
In 1474 Columbus was hired as a sailor on a ship bound for the island of Khíos in the Aegean Sea, an arm of the eastern Mediterranean Sea.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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