FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Christmas carol

A Christmas carol (also called a noël) is a carol (song or hymn) whose lyrics are on the theme of Christmas, or the winter season in general. They are traditionally sung in the period before Christmas. The tradition of Christmas carols hails back as far as the thirteenth century, although carols were originally communal songs sung during celebrations like harvest tide as well as Christmas. It was only later that carols began to be sung in church, and to be specifically associated with Christmas. “Dickens” redirects here. ... A Christmas Carol in Prose, Being a Ghost Story of Christmas (commonly known as A Christmas Carol ) is what Charles Dickens described as his little Christmas Book and was first published on December 19, 1843 with illustrations by John Leech. ... Noël is a word of French origin referring either to the Christmas celebration or a Christmas carol. ... A carol is a festive song, generally religious but not necessarily connected with church worship, and often with a dance-like or popular character. ... For other uses, see Song (disambiguation). ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Traditional carols have a strong tune and consist of a verse and/or chorus for group singing. They are often based on medieval chord patterns, and it is this that gives them their uniquely characteristic musical sound. Some carols like 'Personent hodie' and 'Angels from the Realms of Glory' can be traced directly back to the Middle Ages, and are amongst the oldest musical compositions still regularly sung. Carols suffered a decline in popularity after the Reformation in the countries where Reformation settled (although prominent Reformers like Martin Luther authored carols and encouraged their use in worship), but survived in their rural communities until the revival of interest in Carols in the 19th century. The first appearance in print of "God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen", "The First Nowell, the angel did say", "I Saw Three Ships Come Sailing In" and Hark the Herald Angels Sing" was in "Christmas Carols Ancient and Modern" (1833) by William B. Sandys. Composers like Arthur Sullivan helped to repopularize the carol, and it is this period that gave rise to such favorites as "Good King Wenceslas" and "It Came Upon the Midnight Clear." The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... God Rest Ye Merry, Gentlemen is a traditional Christmas hymn and one of the oldest Christmas carols. ... The First Noël (sometimes The First Nowell) is a traditional English Christmas carol, most likely from the 16th or 17th century, but possibly dating from as early as the 13th century. ... I Saw Three Ships is a traditional and popular Christmas carol from England. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Hark! the Herald Angels Sing Hark! The Herald Angels Sing is a Christmas hymn or carol written by Charles Wesley, the brother of John Wesley. ... William B. Sandys (1792 – February 18, 1874) (pronounced Sands), an English solicitor and Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, is remembered now for his publication Christmas Carols Ancient and Modern (London, Richard Beckley, 1833), a collection of seasonal carols that Sandys gathered and also apparently improvised. ... Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan (May 13, 1842 – November 22, 1900) was an English composer best known for his operatic collaborations with librettist W. S. Gilbert. ... Good King Wenceslas is a popular Christmas carol about a king who goes out to give alms to a poor peasant on St. ... It Came Upon A Midnight Clear was written by Edmund Sears (1810-1876), pastor of the Unitarian Church in Wayland, Massachusetts. ...


Today carols are regularly sung at Christian religious services. Some compositions have words which are clearly not of a religious theme, but are often still referred to as "carols." For example, the sixteenth century song ""A Bone, God Wot!" appears to be a wassailing song (which is sung during drinking or while requesting ale), is described in Cottonian collection in the British Museum as "A Christenmesse Carroll." Ref: [1]. This does not cite its references or sources. ...


It is difficult to draw a distinction between a Christmas carol and a Christmas song. For something to be sung by a church choir, or sung in the street by amateurs, the song would have to have a fairly rapid regular beat, which would therefore exclude a meandering crooning song such as White Christmas. A country music song such as Blue Christmas might qualify, but in this case it would have to be adopted by many choirs, over many years to be truly "vernacular", and so far it has failed to gain wide acceptance. Since the 1970s instrumental versions of Christmas carols (loudspeaker musak) have been played in shopping malls. The Concise Oxford Dictionary is more generous, as it defines a carol as a `religious song...associated with Christmas.` The 1995 re-release album cover of White Christmas A Christmas song is a song which is normally sung during the Christmas period, and usually has lyrical content addressing the holiday, the winter season, or both. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Blue Christmas is a Christmas song written by Billy Hayes and Jay W. Johnson. ... Muzak Holdings LLC is a company, founded in 1934, that is best known for distribution of music to retail stores and other companies. ... Concise Oxford Dictionary (COD) is probably the best-known smaller Oxford dictionaries. ...


Traditions featuring Christmas carols

The website www.oremus.org tracks the first publication of almost every well-known hymn in the UK. This makes it easy to confirm that almost all the well known carols were not sung in church until the second half of the 19th century. Hymns Ancient and Modern 1861 - 1874 gave us: "Come all ye Faithful", "Hark The Herald Angels Sing"; "While Shepherds Watched Their Flocks By Night"; "The First Nowell", "O Little Town of Bethlehem", "Silent Night", "Away in a Manger", "God Rest you Merry Gentlemen" and "Once in Royal David's City". In several cases the above hymns are noted as "traditional". This means that they were sung outside the church, and in some cases previously published as folk carols, not hymns. After the reformation and the English civil war churches reverted to singing psalms rather than hymns. The father of English hymnody was Isaac Watts (1674 - 1748). He didn't compose any carols, but his great successor Charles Wesley (1707 -1788) composed one. Charles wrote a poem called Hark! how all the welkin rings, which was eventually amended and adapted to become "Hark! the Herald Angels Sing". It had a solemn tune. In 1840 Felix Mendelssohn wrote a tune in a cantata which fitted the words quite well. William H Cummings adapted the tune to fix the words better. "Hymns Ancient and Modern" first printed the new version in 1861. Charles' brother John Wesley (1703 - 1791) was even accused of singing "unauthorized hymns" - you needed church courts to approve hymnals. "Silent Night" comes from Austria where there were no laws against hymns, because there was little dissent from Catholicism. The first English translation was in 1871 where it was published in a Methodist hymnal. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Hark! the Herald Angels Sing Hark! The Herald Angels Sing is a Christmas hymn or carol written by Charles Wesley, the brother of John Wesley. ... Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and known generally as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a German composer and conductor of the early Romantic period. ...


Early Carols

Nineteenth century antiquarians rediscovered early carols in museums. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, [1] about 500 have been found. Some are wassailing songs, some are religious songs in English, some are in Latin, and some are "macaronic" - a mixture of English and Latin. Since most people did not understand Latin, the implication is that these songs were composed for church choristers, or perhaps for an educated audience at the Royal courts. The most famous survival of these early macaronic carols is the "The Boar's Head". Allegedly, it has been sung at Christ Church Cambridge since 1607. The tradition of singing carols outside of church influence, early in the nineteenth century is best illustrated by Thomas Hardy's novel "Under the Greenwood Tree" (1872). In England, and some other countries (e.g. Poland (kolędowanie), Romania (colinde) and Bulgaria (koledari)), there is a tradition of Christmas caroling (earlier known as wassailing), in which groups of singers travel from house to house, singing carols, for which they are often rewarded with money, mince pies, or a glass of an appropriate drink. Money collected in this way is now normally given to charity. “Thomas Hardy” redirects here. ... Under the Greenwood Tree is a novel by Thomas Hardy, published anonymously in 1872. ... Colinde are traditional Romanian Christmas carols. ... Koledari (from the Slavic Koleda, Christmas) is the Bulgarian term for Christmas carolers. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


The idea of singing carols in church was instituted in 1880 (see article on Nine Lessons and Carols). The songs that were chosen for singing in church omitted the wassailing carols, and the words "hymn" and "carol" were used almost interchangeably. Shortly before, in 1878, the Salvation Army, under Charles Fry, instituted the idea of playing carols at Christmas, using a brass band. Carols can be sung by individual singers, but are also often sung by larger groups, including professionally trained choirs. Most churches have special services at which carols are sung, generally combined with readings from scripture about the birth of Christ, often this is based on the famous Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols at King's College, Cambridge. Some of these services also include other music written for Christmas, such as Benjamin Britten's "Ceremony of Carols" (for choir and harp), or excerpts from Handel's "Messiah." The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols is a format of Christian worship service celebrating the birth of Jesus and traditionally followed at Christmas. ... Shield of The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is a non-military evangelical Christian organisation. ... A brass band a musical group consisting mostly or entirely of brass instruments, often with a percussion section. ... The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols is a format of Christian worship service celebrating the birth of Jesus and traditionally followed at Christmas. ... Full name The King’s College of Our Lady and St Nicholas in Cambridge Motto Veritas et Utilitas Truth and usefulness Named after Henry VI Previous names - Established 1441 Sister College(s) New College, Oxford Provost Prof. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ... Messiah (HWV 56), is an oratorio by George Frideric Handel based on a libretto by Charles Jennens. ...


Carols for dancing

It is not clear whether the word carol derives from the French "carole" or the Latin "carula" meaning a circular dance. In any case the dancing seems to have been abandoned quite early, but some examples are very danceable. In the 1680s and 1690s two French composers incorporated carols into their works. Louis-Claude Daquin wrote 12 noels for organ. In 2002 Mark Darlow researched the verses that belonged with the tunes and arranged them for choir and orchestra. Marc-Antoine Charpentier wrote a few instrumental versions of noels, plus one major choral work "Messe de minuit pour Noël" (carols with orchestral links written by Charpentier). Louis-Claude Daquin (or dAcquin), (July 4, 1694 – June 15, 1772) was a French composer of Jewish birth writing in the Baroque and Galant styles. ... Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1643 - February 24, 1704) was a French composer of the Baroque era. ...


In a public radio program titled Carols for Dancing[2] the host of PRI's Sound & Spirit,[3] Ellen Kushner explores the history of Christmas carols and their roots in Medieval and Renaissance dance. Especially for the program, the musicians of Renaissonics,[4] performed the carols in a fashion informed by their work as an award-winning Renaissance dance band. PRI may refer to: IATA airport code for Praslin Island Airport, in the Seychelles The ISO 3166-1 3-letter country code and an abbreviation for Puerto Rico Pacific Research Institute, think tank Paleontological Research Institution Partido Revolucionario Institucional, Mexican political party Partito Repubblicano Italiano, Italian political party Penal Reform... Ellen Kushner is an American writer of fantasy novels. ...


Christmas Carols in classical music

Ralph Vaughan-Williams wrote his "Fantasia on Christmas Carols" in 1912. Victor Hely-Hutchinson wrote his "Carol Symphony" in 1927. Christina Rosetti wrote a poem called "In the Bleak Midwinter", and Gustav Holst set it to music in 1905, making it a modern Christmas Carol. Ralph Vaughan Williams (October 12, 1872 – August 26, 1958) was an influential British composer. ... Christian Victor Hely-Hutchinson (born December 26th 1901, Cape Town, South Africa) was a British composer. ... Christina Rossetti Christina Georgina Rossetti (December 5, 1830 – December 29, 1894) was an English poet and the sister of Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ... Gustav Holst Gustav Holst (September 21, 1874, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire - May 25, 1934, London) [1] [2] was an English composer and was a music teacher for over 20 years. ...


There is also a tradition of performances of serious music relating to Christmas in the period around Christmas, including Handel's "Messiah," the "Christmas Oratorio" by J. S. Bach, and "L'Enfance du Christ" by Berlioz. HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ... Messiah (1741) is an oratorio by George Frideric Handel. ... The Christmas Oratorio (German: Weihnachtsoratorium) BWV 248 is a work by Johann Sebastian Bach celebrating the Christmas season. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... Lenfance du Christ (English: The Childhood of Christ), Opus 25, is a choral work by the French composer Hector Berlioz, based on the story of Christs Nativity. ... Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ...


In Australia, where it is the middle of summer at Christmas, there is a tradition of Carols by Candlelight concerts which are held outdoors at night in cities and towns during the weeks leading up to Christmas. In Melbourne, "Carols by Candlelight" is held each Christmas Eve. Performers at the concerts including opera singers and musical theatre performers and popular music singers. People in the audience hold lit candles and join in singing some of the carols in accompaniment with the celebrities. Carols by Candlelight is an Australian Christmas tradition that has spread around the world. ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... Popular music is music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and are disseminated by one or more of the mass media. ...


Tchaikovsky's ballet "The Nutcracker" was first performed on December 17th 1892, and has come to be a Christmas tradition. It is performed more frequently at Christmas than at any other time of the year.


Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki extensively quotes the Christmas carol Silent Night in his Second Symphony, nicknamed the Christmas Symphony. Krzysztof Penderecki. ...


Star singers

In Austria and Germany, children dress up as "The Three Kings" and carry an imitation star on a pole. They go from house to house from New Year's day to January 6th, and sing religious songs. The children are called "Star singers". If they are rewarded with sweets, they may eat them. If they are rewarded with money, it is given to a Catholic church or to a charity. They put a chalk mark "C.M.B" on houses they have visited. Although this is sometimes taken as a reference to the three kings - Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar - it may originally have represented the words "Christus mansionem benedicat" (Christ bless this house).


French Christmas Carols

"Ça, Bergers, assemblons nous" is from the 16th century, and was sung aboard Jacques Cartier's ship on Christmas Day 1535. Perhaps the best known traditional French carol is "Il est né, le divin Enfant!", which comes from Provencal. In 1554 "La Grande Bible des Noels" was printed, in several versions in Orleans. It was a collection of French carols. "Chants de Noels anciens et nouveau" (1703) was printed by Christophe Ballard (1641 - 1715) in Paris.


Christmas Carol Trivia

  • Between 1647 and 1660, the celebration of Christmas was outlawed in England under Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth,
  • In 2003 the Austrian Trade Union Federation, representing 100,000 workers, claimed that the non-stop playing of Christmas carols in shopping malls was "psychological terror".[2] Their claim was dismissed.
  • Year 10 students in the UK now study Christmas Carols for their GCSE's.

GCSE is an acronym that can refer to: General Certificate of Secondary Education global common subexpression elimination - an optimisation technique used by some compilers This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9020427/carol
  2. ^ http://www.wgbh.org/carols
  3. ^ http://www.wgbh.org/pages/pri/spirit
  4. ^ http://renaissonics.com/h/index.html

Media

Image File history File links What_Child_is_This. ... What Child Is This? is a Christmas carol lyrically written in 1865 by William Chatterton Dix to the melody of Greensleeves. Although the chorus changes from verse to verse, many recorded versions simply use the first chorus throughout, in part due to the rather unfestive content of the second. ... Image File history File links Dance_Of_The_Sugar_Plum_Fairies. ... A performance of The Nutcracker The story of The Nutcracker and the Mouse King was written by E. T. A. Hoffmann. ... Image File history File links Oh_Little_Town_of_Bethlehem. ... Philip Brooks, an episcopal priest, was inspired in 1865 when he was visiting the town of Bethlehem. ... Image File history File links Silent_Night. ... Autograph of the carol by Gruber Silent Night (Stille Nacht) is a traditional and popular Christmas carol. ... Image File history File links Jesu,_Joy_of_Mans_Desiring2. ... Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben (Heart and Mouth and Deed and Life) is a cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... For other people named Bach and other meanings of the word, see Bach (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Deck_the_Halls. ... Deck the Halls is a secular Christmas carol. ... Image File history File links Oh_holy_night. ... O Holy Night is a well-known Christmas carol composed by Adolphe Adam in 1847 to the French poem Minuit, chrétiens by Placide Cappeau (also known as Cantique de Noël). It was translated into English by John Sullivan Dwight in 1855. ... Image File history File links Jingle_Bells. ... Jingle Bells, originally One Horse Open Sleigh, is one of the best known and commonly sung secular Christmas songs in the world. ... Image File history File links Jingle_Bells2. ... Jingle Bells, originally One Horse Open Sleigh, is one of the best known and commonly sung secular Christmas songs in the world. ... Image File history File links Oh_Christmas_Tree. ... O Tannenbaum, or, in its English version, O Christmas Tree is a Christmas carol of German origin. ... Image File history File links Midnight_clear. ... It Came Upon A Midnight Clear was written by Edmund Sears (1810-1876), pastor of the Unitarian Church in Wayland, Massachusetts. ... Image File history File links Angels_We_Have_Heard_On_High. ... Angels We Have Heard on High is a Christmas carol. ... Image File history File links Angels_We_Have_Heard_On_High2. ... Angels We Have Heard on High is a Christmas carol. ...

See also

A Christmas carol is a carol whose lyrics center on the theme of Christmas or that has become associated with the Christmas season even though its lyrics may not specifically refer to Christmas. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... “Holiday Song” redirects here. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Christmas Carols : Muppet christmas carols, Christmas carol songs -Christmascarnivals.com (434 words)
The lyrics of Christmas carols are chosen with so much care that they should reflect the holiday mood in them.
It is assumed that the first ever Christmas carol to be recorded was "Of the Father's Love Begotten," written by Aurelius Prudentius.
In the year 1447, Christmas carols gained more popularity when the printing press of the eminent discoverer Johannes Gutenberg was created.
Christmas carol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (743 words)
A Christmas carol (also called a noël) is a carol (song or hymn) whose lyrics are on the theme of Christmas, or the winter season in general.
Carols suffered a decline in popularity after the Reformation in the countries where Reformation settled, but survived in their rural communities until the revival of interest in Carols in the 19th century.
Christmas carols can also be played on musical instruments, and another tradition is for brass bands, such as the Salvation Army brass bands, to play carols before Christmas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m