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Encyclopedia > Christmas
Christmas
Christmas
Also called Christ's Mass
Nativity
Incarnation
Yule Tide
Noel
Winter Pascha
Observed by Christians around the world as well as many non-Christians
Type Christian, cultural
Significance Nativity of Jesus
Date December 25 in Western Christianity and some Eastern Orthodox Churches
December 24 in some countries
January 6 in the Armenian Apostolic Church
January 7 in most Eastern Orthodox Churches.
Observances Religious services, gift giving, family meetings, decorating trees
Related to Annunciation, Incarnation, Advent, Epiphany, Baptism of the Lord, Winter solstice

Christmas is an annual holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus. It refers both to the day celebrating the birth, as well as to the season which that day inaugurates, which concludes with the Feast of the Epiphany. The date of the celebration is traditional, and is not considered to be his actual date of birth. Christmas festivities often combine the commemoration of Jesus' birth with various cultural customs, many of which have been influenced by earlier winter festivals. Although nominally a Christian holiday, it is also observed as a cultural holiday by many non-Christians. Christmas is one of the major Christian holidays. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 599 pixels Full resolution (826 × 634 pixel, file size: 1. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ... Look up noel, noël in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... μ This article is about the Christian season. ... Adoration of the Magi by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, 17th century (Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio). ... The Baptism of the Lord is the name of a feast day observed in the Roman Catholic Church and in the Anglican (Episcopalian) Church. ... This article is about the astronomical and cultural event of winters solstice, also known as midwinter. ... For other uses, see Holiday (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christmastide (also Christmas or the Christmas season) is one of the seasons of the liturgical year of some Christian churches. ... The Wise Men (Magi) adoring the infant Jesus. ... For other uses, see Birthday (disambiguation). ... The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. ... This is an incomplete list of festivals and holidays that take place during the winter in the northern hemisphere, especially those commemorating the season. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


In most places around the world, Christmas Day is celebrated on December 25. Christmas Eve is the preceding day, December 24. In the United Kingdom and many countries of the Commonwealth, Boxing Day is the following day, December 26. In Catholic countries, Saint Stephen's Day or the Feast of St. Stephen is December 26. The Armenian Apostolic Church observes Christmas on January 6. Eastern Orthodox Churches that still use the Julian Calendar celebrate Christmas on the Julian version of 25 December, which is January 7 on the more widely used Gregorian calendar, because the two calendars are now 13 days apart. is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nativity of the Lord redirects here. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... Boxing Day is a public holiday observed in many Commonwealth countries on 26 December. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... St. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ...


The word Christmas originated as a contraction of "Christ's mass". It is derived from the Middle English Christemasse and Old English Cristes mæsse, a phrase first recorded in 1038, compounded from Old English derivatives of the Greek christos and the Latin missa.[1] In early Greek versions of the New Testament, the letter Χ (chi), is the first letter of Christ. Since the mid-16th century Χ, or the similar Roman letter X, was used as an abbreviation for Christ.[2] Hence, Xmas is often used as an abbreviation for Christmas. This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old English redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Look up Χ, χ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... For other uses, see X (disambiguation). ... This 1922 Ladies Home Journal advertisement uses Xmas. Xmas and X-mas are common abbreviations of the word Christmas. They are sometimes pronounced eksmas, but they, and variants such as Xtemass, originated as handwriting abbreviations for the pronunciation Christmas. The -mas part came from the Anglo-Saxon for festival, religious...


After the conversion of Anglo-Saxon Britain in the very early 7th century, Christmas was referred to as geol,[1] the name of the pre-Christian winter festival from which the current English word 'Yule' is derived.[3] For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ...


The prominence of Christmas Day increased gradually after Charlemagne was crowned on Christmas Day in 800. Around the 12th century, the remnants of the former Saturnalian traditions of the Romans were transferred to the Twelve Days of Christmas (25 December5 January). Christmas during the Middle Ages was a public festival, incorporating ivy, holly, and other evergreens, as well as gift-giving. For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Saturnalia (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about the religious period from Christmas to Epiphany. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Modern traditions have come to include the display of Nativity scenes, Holly and Christmas trees, the exchange of gifts and cards, and the arrival of Father Christmas or Santa Claus on Christmas Eve or Christmas morning. Popular Christmas themes include the promotion of goodwill and peace. A traditional nativity scene from Naples, Italy A nativity scene, also called a crib or crèche (meaning crib or manger in French) generally refers to any depiction of the birth or birthplace of Jesus. ... This article is about the plant. ... A Christmas tree in a German home One of the most popular traditions associated with the celebration of Christmas, the Christmas tree is normally an evergreen conifer tree that is brought in the house or used in the open, and is decorated with Christmas lights and colourful ornaments during the... Love gift Man presents a cut of meat to a youth with a hoop. ... Some christmas cards A Christmas card is a greeting card that is decorated in a manner that celebrates Christmas. ... Excerpt from Josiah Kings The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England Father Christmas is the name used in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and several other Commonwealth countries, for the gift-bringing figure of Christmas... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ...

Contents

The Nativity

German painting, 1457
German painting, 1457

The Nativity of Jesus refers to the Christian belief that the Messiah was born to the Virgin Mary. The story of Christmas is based on the biblical accounts given in the Gospel of Matthew, namely Matthew 1:18-Matthew 2:12 and the Gospel of Luke, specifically Luke 1:26-Luke 2:40. According to these accounts, Jesus was born to Mary, assisted by her husband Joseph, in the city of Bethlehem. According to popular tradition, the birth took place in a "stable", surrounded by farm animals, though neither the “stable” nor the animals are mentioned in the Biblical accounts. However, a "manger" is mentioned in Luke 2:7 where it states "She wrapped him in cloths and placed him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn." Early iconographic representations of the nativity confirm that the stable and manger were located within a cave (which still exists under the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem) [1]. Shepherds from the fields surrounding Bethlehem were told of the birth by an angel, and were the first to see the child.[4] Christians believe that the birth of Jesus fulfilled many prophecies made hundreds of years before his birth.[citation needed] The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Virgin Mary redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Saint Joseph (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ...


Remembering or re-creating the Nativity is a central way that Christians celebrate Christmas. There is a very long tradition of the Nativity of Jesus in art. The Eastern Orthodox Church practices the Nativity Fast in anticipation of the birth of Jesus, while much of the Western Church celebrates Advent. In some Christian denominations, children perform plays re-telling the events of the Nativity, or sing carols that reference the event. Some Christians also display a small re-creation of the Nativity, known as a Nativity scene, in their homes, using figurines to portray the key characters of the event. Live Nativity scenes, and tableaux vivants are also performed, using actors and live animals to portray the event with more realism.[5] The Nativity Fast, practiced by the Eastern Orthodox Church, is believed to enable participants to draw closer to God by denying the body of worldly pleasure in preparation for celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ, which is held on December 25th (Julian Calendar). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... μ This article is about the Christian season. ... List of Christian denominations ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... A traditional nativity scene from Naples, Italy A nativity scene, also called a crib or crèche (meaning crib or manger in French) generally refers to any depiction of the birth or birthplace of Jesus. ... Tableau vivant, Folies Bergères c. ...


Nativity scenes traditionally include the Three Wise Men, Balthazar, Melchior, and Caspar, although their names and number are not referred to in the Biblical narrative, who are said to have followed a star, known as the Star of Bethlehem, found Jesus, and presented gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh.[6] Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ... Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... 100g of Myrrh. ...


In the U.S., Christmas decorations at public buildings once commonly included Nativity scenes. This practice has led to many lawsuits, as groups such as the American Civil Liberties Union believe it amounts to the government endorsing a religion, which is prohibited by the United States Constitution. In 1984, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Lynch vs. Donnelly that a Christmas display (which included a Nativity scene) owned and displayed by the city of Pawtucket, Rhode Island did not violate the First Amendment.[7] Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is an American organization consisting of two separate entities: the ACLU Foundation, a non-profit organization that focuses on litigation and communication efforts, and the American Civil Liberties Union which focuses on legislative lobbying and does not have non-profit status. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Pawtucket is a city in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. ...


History

Pre-Christian origins

A winter festival was traditionally the most popular festival of the year in many cultures. Reasons included less agricultural work needing to be done during the winter, as well as people expecting longer days and shorter nights after the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere.[8] In part, the Christmas celebration was created by the early Church in order to entice pagan Romans to convert to Christianity without losing their own winter celebrations.[9][8] Certain prominent gods and goddesses of other religions in the region had their birthdays celebrated on December 25, including Ishtar, Babylonian goddess of fertility, love, and war, Sol Invictus and Mithras. Various traditions are considered to have been syncretised from winter festivals including the following: This is an incomplete list of festivals and holidays that take place during the winter in the northern hemisphere, especially those commemorating the season. ... This article is about the astronomical and cultural event of winters solstice, also known as midwinter. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Ishtar (disambiguation). ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Natalis Solis Invicti

Main article: Sol Invictus
Mosaic of Jesus Christ depicted as Sol (the Sun god) in Mausoleum M in the pre-fourth-century necropolis under St Peter's Basilica in Rome. It is named Christo Sole (Christ the Sun) and is dated to the late 3rd century by the Italian archaeologists.
Mosaic of Jesus Christ depicted as Sol (the Sun god) in Mausoleum M in the pre-fourth-century necropolis under St Peter's Basilica in Rome. It is named Christo Sole (Christ the Sun) and is dated to the late 3rd century by the Italian archaeologists.[10]

The Romans held a festival on December 25 called Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, "the birthday of the undefeated sun." The use of the title Sol Invictus allowed several solar deities to be worshipped collectively, including Elah-Gabal, a Syrian sun god; Sol, the god of Emperor Aurelian (AD 270–274); and Mithras, a soldiers' god of Persian origin.[11] Emperor Elagabalus (218–222) introduced the festival, and it reached the height of its popularity under Aurelian, who promoted it as an empire-wide holiday.[12] Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... Image File history File links ChristAsSol. ... Image File history File links ChristAsSol. ... Interior view, with the nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the undefeated Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... The Trundholm sun chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating, the sun, an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology Statue of Hathor - Luxor Museum Sun god redirects here. ... Ä’l (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Standards Of Learning SOL stands for The Standards Of Learning. ... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus[1] (September 9, 214–September 275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... Elagabalus Elagabalus (c. ...


December 25 was also considered to be the date of the winter solstice, which the Romans called bruma.[13] It was therefore the day the Sun proved itself to be "unconquered" despite the shortening of daylight hours. (When Julius Caesar introduced the Julian Calendar in 45 BC, December 25 was approximately the date of the solstice. In modern times, the solstice falls on December 21 or 22.) The Sol Invictus festival has a "strong claim on the responsibility" for the date of Christmas, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia.[1] Several early Christian writers connected the rebirth of the sun to the birth of Jesus[14] "O, how wonderfully acted Providence that on that day on which that Sun was born . . . Christ should be born", Cyprian wrote.[1] This article is about the astronomical and cultural event of winters solstice, also known as midwinter. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is about Cyprian, bishop of Carthage. ...


Yule

Main article: Yule

Pagan Scandinavia celebrated a winter festival called Yule, held in the late December to early January period. Yule logs were lit to honor Thor, the god of thunder, with the belief that each spark from the fire represented a new pig or calf that would be born during the coming year. Feasting would continue until the log burned out, which could take as many as twelve days.[8] In pagan Germania (not to be confused with Germany), the equivalent holiday was the mid-winter night which was followed by 12 "wild nights", filled with eating, drinking and partying.[15] As Northern Europe was the last part to Christianize, its pagan celebrations had a major influence on Christmas. Scandinavians still call Christmas Jul. In English, the Germanic word Yule is synonymous with Christmas,[16] a usage first recorded in 900. For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see yule log (disambiguation) A chocolate yule log. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... This article is about the astronomical and cultural event of winters solstice, also known as midwinter. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ...


Christian origins

Origen, a father of the Christian church, argued against the celebration of birthdays, including the birth of Christ.
Origen, a father of the Christian church, argued against the celebration of birthdays, including the birth of Christ.

It is unknown exactly when or why December 25 became associated with Christ's birth. The New Testament does not give a specific date.[17] Sextus Julius Africanus popularized the idea that Christ was born on December 25 in his Chronographiai, a reference book for Christians written in AD 221.[14] This date is nine months after the traditional date of the Incarnation (March 25), now celebrated as the Feast of the Annunciation. March 25 was considered to be the date of the vernal equinox and early Christians believed this was also the date Christ was crucified. The Christian idea that Christ was conceived on the same date that he died on the cross is consistent with a Jewish belief that a prophet lived an integral number of years.[18] Image File history File links Origen3. ... Image File history File links Origen3. ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Sextus Julius Africanus, a Christian traveller and historian of the 3rd century, was probably born in Libya, and may have served under Septimius Severus against the Osrhoenians in AD 195. ... A reference work is a compendium of information, usually of a specific type, compiled for ease of reference. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ...


The celebration of Christmas as a feast did not arise for some time after Chronographai was published. Tertullian does not mention it as a major feast day in the Church of Roman Africa. In 245, the theologian Origen denounced the idea of celebrating Christ's birthday "as if he were a king pharaoh". He contended that only sinners, not saints, celebrated their birthdays.[19] Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... In the History of Christianity, African Rite refers to a now defunct Roman Catholic Western liturgical rite. ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... Saints redirects here. ...


The earliest reference to the celebration of the nativity on December 25 is found in the Chronography of 354, an illuminated manuscript compiled in Rome in 354.[1][20] In the East, early Christians celebrated the birth of Christ as part of Epiphany (January 6), although this festival focused on the baptism of Jesus.[21] The Chronography of 354 was an important historical codex, containing a number of individually important documents. ... In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... The Wise Men (Magi) adoring the infant Jesus. ... In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ...


Christmas was promoted in the Christian East as part of the revival of Catholicism following the death of the pro-Arian Emperor Valens at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. The feast was introduced to Constantinople in 379, and to Antioch in about 380. The feast disappeared after Gregory of Nazianzus resigned as bishop in 381, although it was reintroduced by John Chrysostom in about 400.[1] As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Goths Commanders Valens â€  Fritigern, Alatheus, Saphrax Strength 15,000–30,000 10,000–20,000 Casualties 10,000–20,000 Unknown The second Battle of Adrianople (August 9, 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between a Roman army led by the Roman... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Saint Gregory of Nazianzus (329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... This article refers to the Christian saint. ...


The Twelve Days of Christmas are the twelve days from the day after Christmas Day, December 26, which is St. Stephen's Day, to the Feast of Epiphany on January 6 that encompass the major feasts surrounding the birth of Christ. In the Latin Rite, one week after Christmas Day, January 1, has traditionally been the celebration the Feast of the Naming and Circumcision of Christ, but since Vatican II, this feast has been celebrated as the Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God. This article is about the religious period from Christmas to Epiphany. ... St Stephens Day, or the Feast of St Stephen, is a Christian saints day celebrated on 26 December in the Western Church and 27 December in the Eastern Church. ... The Wise Men (Magi) adoring the infant Jesus. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Feast of the Circumcision of Our Lord is a feast day formerly celebrated by the Roman Catholic Church on 1 January as a holy day of obligation (a day on which Catholics must attend Mass). ... The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ...


In some traditions the 12 days of Christmas start on Christmas Day (25 December) and the 12th day is therefore 5 January.


Middle Ages

Adoration of the Magi by Don Lorenzo Monaco (1422).
Adoration of the Magi by Don Lorenzo Monaco (1422).

In the Early Middle Ages, Christmas Day was overshadowed by Epiphany, which in the west focused on the visit of the magi. But the Medieval calendar was dominated by Christmas-related holidays. The forty days before Christmas became the "forty days of St. Martin" (which began on November 11, the feast of St. Martin of Tours), now known as Advent.[22] In Italy, former Saturnalian traditions were attached to Advent.[22] Around the 12th century, these traditions transferred again to the Twelve Days of Christmas (December 26January 6); a time that appears in the liturgical calendars as Christmastide or Twelve Holy Days.[22] The prominence of Christmas Day increased gradually after Charlemagne was crowned Emperor on Christmas Day in 800, and King Edmund the Martyr was anointed on that day in 855. King William I of England was crowned on Christmas Day 1066. Christmas during the Middle Ages remained a public festival, incorporating ivy, holly, and other evergreens, as well as gift-giving.[23] Christmas gift-giving during the Middle Ages was practiced more often between people with legal relationships (i.e. tenant and landlord) than between close friends and relatives.[23] By the High Middle Ages, the holiday had become so prominent that chroniclers routinely noted where various magnates celebrated Christmas. King Richard II of England hosted a Christmas feast in 1377 at which twenty-eight oxen and three hundred sheep were eaten.[22] The Yule boar was a common feature of medieval Christmas feasts. Caroling also became popular, and was originally a group of dancers who sang. The group was composed of a lead singer and a ring of dancers that provided the chorus. Various writers of the time condemned caroling as lewd, indicating that the unruly traditions of Saturnalia and Yule may have continued in this form.[22] "Misrule" — drunkenness, promiscuity, gambling — was also an important aspect of the festival. In England, gifts were exchanged on New Year's Day, and there was special Christmas ale.[22] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3176x2648, 995 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Christmas ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3176x2648, 995 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Christmas ... Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ... The Flight into Egypt (c. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statue of Saint Martin cutting his cloak in two. ... μ This article is about the Christian season. ... This article is about the religious period from Christmas to Epiphany. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christmastide (also Christmas or the Christmas season) is one of the seasons of the liturgical year of some Christian churches. ... is the holy period, from December 26th to January 6th, in the esoteric and astrological interpretation of the Christmas season. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... Edmund the Martyr (841–20 November 869) was a King of East Anglia. ... William I of England (c. ... Species Hedera algeriensis – Algerian Ivy Hedera azorica – Azores Ivy Hedera canariensis – Canaries Ivy Hedera caucasigena Hedera colchica – Caucasian Ivy Hedera cypria Hedera helix – Common Ivy Hedera hibernica – Irish Ivy Hedera maderensis – Madeiran Ivy Hedera maroccana Hedera nepalensis – Himalayan Ivy Hedera pastuchowii – Pastuchovs Ivy Hedera rhombea – Japanese Ivy Hedera sinensis... This article is about the plant. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... For the short novel by Charles Dickens, see A Christmas Carol. ... This article is about the date January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Excerpt from Josiah King's The Examination and Trial of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England.
Excerpt from Josiah King's The Examination and Trial of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England.

Image File history File links FatherChristmastrial. ... Image File history File links FatherChristmastrial. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

From the Reformation into the 1800s

During the Reformation, some Protestants condemned Christmas celebration as "trappings of popery" and the "rags of the Beast". The Roman Catholic Church responded by promoting the festival in a more religiously oriented form. Following the Parliamentary victory over King Charles I during the English Civil War, England's Puritan rulers banned Christmas, in 1647. Pro-Christmas rioting broke out in several cities, and for several weeks Canterbury was controlled by the rioters, who decorated doorways with holly and shouted royalist slogans.[24] The Restoration of Charles II in 1660 ended the ban, but many of the clergy still disapproved of Christmas celebrations. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The name Charles I is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland Charles I of France (also known as Charles the Bald) Charles I of Spain (also known as Charles V of the German Empire) Charles I of Romania Charles I... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ...


In Colonial America, the Puritans of New England disapproved of Christmas; its celebration was outlawed in Boston from 1659 to 1681. At the same time, Christian residents of Virginia and New York observed the holiday freely. Christmas fell out of favor in the United States after the American Revolution, when it was considered an English custom.[25] Indeed, one of the American Revolutionaries' greatest successes was perpetuated by attacking regular British army troops on on Christmas in the Battle of Trenton. By the 1820s, sectarian tension in England had eased and British writers began to worry that Christmas was dying out, in particular the writer William Winstanley played a crucial role in popularising the festival again. They imagined Tudor Christmas as a time of heartfelt celebration, and efforts were made to revive the holiday. Charles Dickens's book A Christmas Carol, published in 1843, played a major role in reinventing Christmas as a holiday emphasizing family, goodwill, and compassion over communal celebration and hedonistic excess.[26] Interest in Christmas in America was revived in the 1820s by several short stories by Washington Irving appearing in his The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon and "Old Christmas", and by Clement Clarke Moore's (or, possibly, by Henry Beekman Livingston) 1822 poem A Visit From St. Nicholas (popularly known by its first line: Twas the Night Before Christmas). Irving's stories depicted harmonious warm-hearted holiday traditions he claimed to have observed in England. Although some argue that Irving invented the traditions he describes, they were widely imitated by his American readers.[27] The poem A Visit from Saint Nicholas popularized the tradition of exchanging gifts and seasonal Christmas shopping began to assume economic importance.[28] In her 1850 book "The First Christmas in New England", Harriet Beecher Stowe includes a character who complains that the true meaning of Christmas was lost in a shopping spree.[29] Christmas was declared a United States Federal holiday in 1870, signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant. This article is about the colonial history of the United States. ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Boston redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Belligerents Continental Army a Hessian Brigade Commanders George Washington Johann Rall† Strength 2,400 18 guns [1] 1,400 6 guns [2] Casualties and losses 2 dead, On the march 4 wounded 23 dead, 92 wounded, 913 captured The Battle of Trenton was a battle which took place on December... Sectarianism refers (usually pejoratively) to a rigid adherence to a particular sect or party or religious denomination. ... Tudor usually relates to the Tudor period in English history, which refers to the period of time between 1485 and 1558/1603 when the Tudor dynasty held the English throne. ... Dickens redirects here. ... For other uses, see A Christmas Carol (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American author of the early 19th century. ... Headline text ... Clement Clarke Moore, (July 15, 1779 – July 10, 1863), is best known as the credited author of A Visit From St. ... Cover of a 1912 edition of the poem, illustrated by Jessie Willcox Smith. ... Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was an American author and abolitionist, whose novel Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) attacked the cruelty of slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential, even in Britain. ... In the United States, a Federal holiday is a holiday recognized by the United States Government. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ...


Santa Claus and other bringers of gifts

Santa Claus hands out gifts during the US Civil War in Thomas Nast's first Santa Claus cartoon, Harper's Weekly, 1863.
Main article: Santa Claus

Originating from Western culture, where the holiday is characterized by the exchange of gifts among friends and family members, some of the gifts are attributed to a character called Santa Claus (also known as Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas or St. Nikolaus, Sinterklaas, Kris Kringle, Père Noël, Joulupukki,Babbo Natale, Weihnachtsmann, Saint Basil and Father Frost). Image File history File links Summary Thomas Nast immortalized Santa Claus with an illustration for the January 3, 1863 issue of Harpers Weekly The first Santa Claus appeared as a small part of a large illustration titled A Christmas Furlough in which Nast set aside his regular news and... Image File history File links Summary Thomas Nast immortalized Santa Claus with an illustration for the January 3, 1863 issue of Harpers Weekly The first Santa Claus appeared as a small part of a large illustration titled A Christmas Furlough in which Nast set aside his regular news and... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) was a famous German-American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ... Teresa Bagioli Sickles confession, 1859 Harpers Weekly (A Journal of Civilization) was an American political magazine based in New York City. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... For other uses, see Holiday (disambiguation). ... A gift or present is the transfer of money or goods without requiring something in return (at least not immediately); by extension it can be anything that makes the other more happy or less sad, especially as a favor, including forgiveness, and kindness (even when the other is not kind). ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... Excerpt from Josiah Kings The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England Father Christmas is the name used in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and several other Commonwealth countries, for the gift-bringing figure of Christmas... For the literary magazine, see St. ... Sinterklaas in 2007 Sinterklaas (also called Sint-Nicolaas in Dutch ( ) and Saint Nicolas in French) is a traditional holiday figure in the Netherlands and Belgium, celebrated every year on Saint Nicholas eve (December 5) or, in Belgium, on the morning of December 6. ... Joulupukki is the Finnish name for Santa Claus or Father Christmas. ... Santa Claus. ... Basil (ca. ... In the culture of the eastern Slavs the traditional character Ded Moroz (Russian: ) plays a role similar to that of Santa Claus. ...


The popular image of Santa Claus was created by the German-American cartoonist Thomas Nast (1840–1902), who drew a new image annually, beginning in 1863. By the 1880s, Nast's Santa had evolved into the form we now recognize. The image was standardized by advertisers in the 1920s.[30] A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) was a famous German-American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. ...


Father Christmas, who predates the Santa Claus character, was first recorded in the 15th century, but was associated with holiday merrymaking and drunkenness.[31] In Victorian Britain, his image was remade to match that of Santa. The French Père Noël evolved along similar lines, eventually adopting the Santa image. In Italy, Babbo Natale acts as Santa Claus, while La Befana is the bringer of gifts and arrives on the eve of the Epiphany. It is said that La Befana set out to bring the baby Jesus gifts, but got lost along the way. Now, she brings gifts to all children. In some cultures Santa Claus is accompanied by Knecht Ruprecht, or Black Peter. In other versions, elves make the toys. His wife is referred to as Mrs. Claus. MERRYMAKING ~dekoboko na mainichi to, aikawarazu na bokura~ (メリメイキング~凸凹な毎日と、あいかわらずな僕ら~) is the seventh single by Japanese band AN CAFE, released in 2005. ... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini Drunkenness is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of alcohol to a degree that mental and physical facilities are noticeably impaired. ... Père Noël is the French equivalent of the British Father Christmas and the American Santa Claus. ... Befana of Campomarino di Maruggio (Italy) La Befana is a character in Italian folklore, similar to Saint Nicholas or Santa Claus. ... The Wise Men (Magi) adoring the infant Jesus. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Krampus (2003 Perchtenlauf in Woelfnitz, Austria) Knecht Ruprecht, companion of Father Christmas or Saint Nicholas, is also known as Servant Ruprecht, Farmhand Ruprecht, Pelzebock, Pelznickel (Nicholas in furs), and Schmutzli in Switzerland, sometimes associated with Saint Rupert. ... The Dutch version, called Zwarte Piet Knecht Ruprecht, companion of Father Christmas or Saint Nicholas, is also known as Servant Ruprecht, Farmhand Ruprecht, Pelzebock, Pelznickel (Nicholas in furs), Zwarte Piet or Zwarte Peter in the Netherlands and Flanders, Black Peter, and Schmutzli Samichlaus in Switzerland, sometimes associated with Saint Rupert. ... Read psychedelic section for amazing info! on the experiments of real elves good for school projects This article is about the small mythical creature, for the 2003 film, see Elf (film). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mrs. ...


The current tradition in several Latin American countries (such as Venezuela) holds that while Santa makes the toys, he then gives them to the Baby Jesus, who is the one who actually delivers them to the children's homes. This story is meant to be a reconciliation between traditional religious beliefs and modern day globalization, most notably the iconography of Santa Claus imported from the United States. For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the central figure in Christian theology. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

In Alto Adige/Südtirol (Italy), Austria, Czechia, Southern Germany, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Slovakia and Switzerland, the Christkind (Ježíšek in Czech, Jézuska in Hungarian and Ježiško in Slovak) brings the presents. The German St. Nikolaus is not identical with the Weihnachtsman (who is the German version of Santa Claus). St. Nikolaus wears a bishop's dress and still brings small gifts (usually candies, nuts and fruits) on December 6 and is accompanied by Knecht Ruprecht. Although many parents around the world routinely teach their children about Santa Claus and other gift bringers, some have come to reject this practice, considering it deceptive.[32] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 367 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (504 × 822 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Scrooges Third Visitor hand colored etching by John Leech from A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens (1812 - 1870) source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 367 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (504 × 822 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Scrooges Third Visitor hand colored etching by John Leech from A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens (1812 - 1870) source: http://www. ... Ebenezer Scrooge encounters Ignorance and Want in Dickenss novel, A Christmas Carol Ebenezer Scrooge is the main character in Charles Dickens 1843 novel, A Christmas Carol. ... The Ghost of Christmas Present was a character in what was one of the best-known works of the English novelist, Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol. ... Portrait of John Leech. ... Dickens redirects here. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see A Christmas Carol (disambiguation). ... The Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Bozen, or Alto Adige/Südtirol (official in Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: ; also in Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: ) is an autonomous province of Italy. ... Czechia is an official shorthand term for the Czech Republic. ... The Christkind (Christ Child) is the traditional Christmas giftbringer in Southern Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Liechtenstein. ... Ježíšek (=the Child Jesus) is a Christmas gift-giving figure used in the Czech Republic. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Krampus (2003 Perchtenlauf in Woelfnitz, Austria) Knecht Ruprecht, companion of Father Christmas or Saint Nicholas, is also known as Servant Ruprecht, Farmhand Ruprecht, Pelzebock, Pelznickel (Nicholas in furs), and Schmutzli in Switzerland, sometimes associated with Saint Rupert. ... Parenting comprises all the tasks involved in raising a child to an independent adult. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ...


Christmas tree and other decorations

Main article: Christmas tree

The Christmas tree is often explained as a Christianization of pagan tradition and ritual surrounding the Winter Solstice, which included the use of evergreen boughs,[33] and an adaptation of pagan tree worship.[34] The English language phrase "Christmas tree" is first recorded in 1835[31] and represents an importation from the German language. The modern Christmas tree tradition is believed to have begun in Germany in the 18th century[34] though many argue that Martin Luther began the tradition in the 16th century.[35][36] From Germany the custom was introduced to England, first via Queen Charlotte, wife of George III, and then more successfully by Prince Albert during the reign of Queen Victoria. Around the same time, German immigrants introduced the custom into the United States.[37] Christmas trees may be decorated with lights and ornaments. For other uses, see Christmas tree (disambiguation). ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... This article is about plant types. ... Tree worship refers to the tendency of many societies throughout history to worship or otherwise mythologize trees. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Queen Charlotte was the name of at least three women: Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, wife of King George III of the United Kingdom. ... George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738–29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain, and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Charles Augustus Emanuel, later HRH The Prince Consort; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... For the ITV Christmas special, see Christmas Lights. ... Categories: Stub | Christmas traditions ...

Dedek Mraz; The Slovenian version of Santa, Ded Moroz or Father Frost.

Since the 19th century, the poinsettia has been associated with Christmas. Other popular holiday plants include holly, mistletoe, red amaryllis, and Christmas cactus. Along with a Christmas tree, the interior of a home may be decorated with these plants, along with garlands and evergreen foliage. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... Binomial name Willd. ... This article is about the plant. ... Families Santalaceae (Viscaceae) Loranthaceae Misodendraceae Mistletoe is the common name for a group of hemi-parasitic plants in the order Santalales that grow attached to and within the branches of a tree or shrub. ... Binomial name L. Amaryllis is a monotypic (only one species) genus of plant also known as the Belladonna Lily or naked ladies. ... The common holiday cacti (Thanksgiving Cactus, Christmas Cactus, Easter Cactus) have many Latin names, but are closely related. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about plant types. ...


In Australia, North and South America, and to a lesser extent Europe, it is traditional to decorate the outside of houses with lights and sometimes with illuminated sleighs, snowmen, and other Christmas figures. Municipalities often sponsor decorations as well. Christmas banners may be hung from street lights and Christmas trees placed in the town square.[38] North American redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Scene from winter nearly anywhere snow may fall on a handy hill—Children at play sledding. ... Snowman Snowman A snowman family A snowman is a man-like figure constructed from compacted snow. ... A high pressure sodium vapor street lamp from Australia. ...


In the Western world, rolls of brightly-colored paper with secular or religious Christmas motifs are manufactured for the purpose of wrapping gifts. The display of Christmas villages has also become a tradition in many homes during this season. Other traditional decorations include bells, candles, candy canes, stockings, wreaths, and angels. Occident redirects here. ... A Department 56 New England series village display A Christmas village (or putz) is a decorative, miniature-scale village often set up during the Christmas season. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... This article is on the source of light. ... Candy cane A candy cane is a hard cane-shaped candy stick. ... A stocking is a close-fitting, variously elastic garment covering the foot and lower part of the leg, but usually not intended to conceal the leg. ... Look up wreath in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ...


Christmas decorations are traditionally taken down on Twelfth Night, the evening of January 5. Twelfth Night is a holiday in some branches of Christianity marking the coming of the Epiphany, concluding the Twelve Days of Christmas, and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as the evening of the fifth of January, preceding Twelfth Day, the eve of the Epiphany, formerly the last day... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Christmas stamps

Christmas stamp 2000 from Faroe Island, featuring quote from John 1:14, designed by Anker Eli Petersen.
Christmas stamp 2000 from Faroe Island, featuring quote from John 1:14, designed by Anker Eli Petersen.
Main article: Christmas stamp

A number of nations have issued commemorative stamps at Christmastime. Postal customers will often use these stamps for the mailing of Christmas cards, and they are popular with philatelists. These stamps are regular postage stamps, unlike Christmas seals, and are valid for postage year-round. They usually go on sale some time between early October and early December, and are printed in considerable quantities. For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... The legend of Gram and Grani, 2001 stamp Anker Eli Petersen (born 7 June 1959 in Tvøroyri, Faroe Islands) is a faroese writer and artist. ... This 1973 Christmas stamp of Canada features a dove as Christmas ornament. ... This 1998 stamp of the Faroe Islands marks the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ... Some christmas cards A Christmas card is a greeting card that is decorated in a manner that celebrates Christmas. ... Close examination of the Penny Red, left, reveals a 148 in the margin, indicating that it was printed with plate #148. ... This 1974 stamp from Japan depicts a Class 8620 steam locomotive. ... The US Christmas seal of 1925 features holly and mistletoe behind the candles. ...


In 1898 a Canadian stamp was issued to mark the inauguration of the Imperial Penny Postage rate. The stamp features a map of the globe and bears an inscription "XMAS 1898" at the bottom. In 1937, Austria issued two "Christmas greeting stamps" featuring a rose and the signs of the zodiac. In 1939, Brazil issued four semi-postal stamps with designs featuring the three kings and a star of Bethlehem, an angel and child, the Southern Cross and a child, and a mother and child. Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zodiac (disambiguation). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A German semi-postal of 1972, 60pf postage + 30pf surcharge A semi-postal stamp or semipostal stamp is a postage stamp issued to raise money for some purpose (such as a charitable cause) and thus sold over and above the cost of postage. ... Three Kings can refer to several things: Three Kings, a 1999 American movie. ... Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... Southern Cross is the English name of Crux Australis, a constellation visible in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The US Postal Service regularly issues both a religious-themed and a secular-themed stamp each year. A USPS Truck at Night A U.S. Post Office sign The United States Postal Service (USPS) is the United States government organization responsible for providing postal service in the United States and is generally referred to as the post office. ...


Economics of Christmas

Christmas display in a Brazilian shopping mall.

Christmas is typically the largest annual economic stimulus for many nations. Sales increase dramatically in almost all retail areas and shops introduce new products as people purchase gifts, decorations, and supplies. In the U.S., the "Christmas shopping season" generally begins on Black Friday, the day after Thanksgiving, though many American stores begin selling Christmas items as early as October.[39] Image File history File linksMetadata DSC04820. ... Image File history File linksMetadata DSC04820. ... Christmas themes have long been an inspiration to artists, writers, and weavers of folklore. ... Holiday Song redirects here. ... Black Friday is the day after Thanksgiving and is the beginning of the traditional Christmas shopping season in the United States. ... For the Canadian holiday, see Thanksgiving (Canada). ...


In most areas, Christmas Day is the least active day of the year for business and commerce; almost all retail, commercial and institutional businesses are closed, and almost all industries cease activity (more than any other day of the year). In England and Wales, the Christmas Day (Trading) Act 2004 prevents all large shops from trading on Christmas Day. Scotland is currently planning similar legislation. Film studios release many high-budget movies in the holiday season, including Christmas films, fantasy movies or high-tone dramas with high production values. The Christmas Day (Trading) Act 2004 is an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that prevents shops over 280 sq m/3,000 sq ft from opening on Christmas Day. ... A film studio is a controlled environment for the making of a film. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ...


An economists analysis calculates that Christmas is a deadweight loss under orthodox microeconomic theory, due to the surge in gift-giving. This loss is calculated as the difference between what the gift giver spent on the item and what the gift receiver would have paid for the item. It is estimated that in 2001 Christmas resulted in a $4 billion deadweight loss in the U.S. alone.[40][41] Because of complicating factors, this analysis is sometimes used to discuss possible flaws in current microeconomic theory. Other deadweight losses include the effects of Christmas on the environment and the fact that material gifts are often perceived as white elephants, imposing cost for upkeep and storage and contributing to clutter.[42] Economists are scholars conducting research in the field of economics. ... In economics, a deadweight loss (also known as excess burden) is a permanent loss of well being to society that can occur when equilibrium for a good or service is not Pareto optimal, (that at least one individual could be made better off without others being made worse off). ... Microeconomics (literally, very small economics) is a social science which involves study of the economic distribution of production and income among individual consumers, firms, and industries. ... For other uses, see White elephant (disambiguation). ...


Alternative names

There are several alternative terms for Christmas. Crimbo is a slang term which first appeared in print in 1928; the variant form Crimble was first used by John Lennon in a 1963 Beatles' Fan Club Christmas single. Xmas is a long established abbreviation, though it is involved in the secularization of Christmas debate. Yule is used in Northern Europe. In the USA, the term(s) "holiday" or "season" may be used, as addressed at Christmas controversy. Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ... This 1922 Ladies Home Journal advertisement uses Xmas. Xmas and X-mas are common abbreviations of the word Christmas. They are sometimes pronounced eksmas, but they, and variants such as Xtemass, originated as handwriting abbreviations for the pronunciation Christmas. The -mas part came from the Anglo-Saxon for festival, religious... Official Target logo with an affixed Merry Christmas greeting, after 2005 public pressure to include Christmas. The secularization of Christmas and the War on Christmas refer to the notion that the Christmas holiday is under attack from a general secular trend or from persons and/or organizations with a deliberate... For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ... Merry Christmas redirects here. ... Christmas controversy refers to publicized controversy surrounding public acknowledgment or celebration of the Christmas holiday in media, advertising, government, and various secular environments. ...


Controversy

Main article: Christmas controversy

Throughout the 20th century, the United States experienced what became known as the Christmas controversies, despite it being declared a federal holiday on June 26, 1870 by then-U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant. The importance of the economic impact of the secular Christmas holiday was reinforced in the 1930s when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed moving the Thanksgiving holiday date to extend the Christmas shopping season and boost the economy during the Great Depression.[43] Religious leaders protested this move, with a New York Times roundup of Christmas sermons showing the most common theme as the dangers of an increasingly commercial Christmas.[44] Christmas controversy refers to publicized controversy surrounding public acknowledgment or celebration of the Christmas holiday in media, advertising, government, and various secular environments. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Christmas controversy refers to publicized controversy surrounding the public acknowledgement or celebration of the Christmas holiday in media, advertising, government, and other secular environments. ... FDR redirects here. ... For other uses, see Thanksgiving (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

"Now it is Christmas again" (1907) by Carl Larsson.

Some considered the U.S. government's recognition of Christmas as a federal holiday to be a violation of the separation of church and state. This was brought to trial several times, recently including in Lynch v. Donnelly (1984)[7] and Ganulin v. United States (1999).[45] Now it is Christmas again - painting from 1907 by the Swedish artist Carl Larsson Copyright expired This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Now it is Christmas again - painting from 1907 by the Swedish artist Carl Larsson Copyright expired This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ...


On December 6, 1999, the verdict for Ganulin v. United States (1999) declared that "the establishment of Christmas Day as a legal public holiday does not violate the Establishment Clause because it has a valid secular purpose." This decision was upheld by the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals on December 19, 2000. [46] At the same time, many devout Christians objected to what they saw as the vulgarization and co-optation of one of their sacred observances by secular commercial society and calls to a return to "the true meaning of Christmas" are common. is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Debates about Christmas in America continued into the 21st century. In 2005, some Christians, along with American political commentators such as Bill O'Reilly, protested what they perceived to be the secularization of Christmas. They felt that the holiday was threatened by a general secular trend, or by persons and organizations with an anti-Christian agenda. The perceived trend was also blamed on political correctness.[47] It has been suggested that Bill OReilly political beliefs and points of view be merged into this article or section. ... Christmas controversy refers to publicized controversy surrounding public acknowledgment or celebration of the Christmas holiday in media, advertising, government, and various secular environments. ... This article is about secularization. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ...


Books

  • Christmas in America: A History, by Penne L. Restad (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). ISBN 0-19-509300-3
  • The Battle for Christmas, by Stephen Nissenbaum (1996; New York: Vintage Books, 1997). ISBN 0-679-74038-4
  • The Origins of Christmas, by Joseph F. Kelly (August 2004: Liturgical Press) ISBN 978-0814629840
  • Christmas Customs and Traditions, by Clement A. Miles (1976: Dover Publications) ISBN 978-0486233543
  • The World Encyclopedia of Christmas, by Gerry Bowler (October 2004: McClelland & Stewart) ISBN 978-0771015359
  • Santa Claus: A Biography, by Gerry Bowler (November 2007: McClelland & Stewart) ISBN 978-0771016684
  • There Really Is a Santa Claus: The History of St. Nicholas & Christmas Holiday Traditions, by William J. Federer (December 2002: Amerisearch) ISBN 978-0965355742
  • St. Nicholas: A Closer Look at Christmas, by Jim Rosenthal (July 2006: Nelson Reference) ISBN 1418504076
  • Just say Noel: A History of Christmas from the Nativity to the Nineties, by David Comfort (November 1995: Fireside) ISBN 978-0684800578
  • 4000 Years of Christmas: A Gift from the Ages, by Earl W. Count (November 1997: Ulysses Press) ISBN 978-1569750872

See also

Find more about Christmas on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
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Learning resources

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Christmas time

Nativity of the Lord redirects here. ... Christmas Sunday is the Sunday nearest to Christmas. ... Christmas around the world redirects here. ... Christmastide (also Christmas or the Christmas season) is one of the seasons of the liturgical year of some Christian churches. ... Holiday season can be a reference to a number of things. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Midwinter Christmas or Yulefest is a Midwinter/Yuletide related celebration custom in Australia and New Zealand during the wintertime (which on the Southern Hemisphere falls into the June-July-August period. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the northern winter solstice In astronomy, the winter solstice is the moment when the earth is at a point in its orbit where one hemisphere is most inclined away from the sun. ... This article is about the religious period from Christmas to Epiphany. ... Yule is the winter solstice Blót (celebration) in Asatru, the pagan practices of the Germanic peoples prior to the arrival of Christianity. ...

Christmas topics

Holidays Portal

The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. ... Image File history File links 500px-Xmas_tree_animated. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Christmas", The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913.
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  3. ^ "The Christmas Season" The Voice, CRI/Voice, Institute, 2006.
  4. ^ Luke 2:1–6
  5. ^ Krug, Nora. "Little Towns of Bethlehem", The New York Times, November 25, 2005.
  6. ^ Matthew 2:1–11
  7. ^ a b Lynch vs. Donnelly (1984)
  8. ^ a b c ""Christmas – An Ancient Holiday", The History Channel, 2007.
  9. ^ ""Saturnalia", The History Channel, 2007.
  10. ^ Joseph F. Kelly, The Origins of Christmas, Liturgical Press, 2004, p. 67-69.
  11. ^ ""Mithraism", The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913.
  12. ^ "Sol." Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago (2006).
  13. ^ Bruma, University of Tennessee
  14. ^ a b "Christmas, Encyclopædia Britannica Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica 2006.
  15. ^ Reichmann, Ruth, "Christmas".
  16. ^ Yule. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
  17. ^ "Christmas, Encyclopædia Britannica Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006.
  18. ^ "The Feast of the Annunciation", Catholic Encyclopedia, 1998.
  19. ^ Origen, "Levit., Hom. VIII"; Migne P.G., XII, 495; quoted by Natal Day The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1911
  20. ^ This document was prepared privately for a Roman aristocrat, The reference to Christmas states, "VIII kal. ian. natus Christus in Betleem Iudeæ". It is in a section based on an earlier manuscript produced in 336. This document also contains the earliest reference to the feast of Sol Invictus.
  21. ^ Pokhilko, Hieromonk Nicholas, "The Formation of Epiphany according to Different Traditions
  22. ^ a b c d e f Murray, Alexander, "Medieval Christmas", History Today, December 1986, 36 (12), pp. 31 – 39.
  23. ^ a b McGreevy, Patrick. "Place in the American Christmas," (JSTOR), Geographical Review, Vol. 80, No. 1. January 1990, pp. 32–42. Retrieved 10 September 2007.
  24. ^ Durston, Chris, "Lords of Misrule: The Puritan War on Christmas 1642–60", History Today, December 1985, 35 (12) pp. 7 – 14.
  25. ^ Andrews, Peter (1975). Christmas in Colonial and Early America. USA: World Book Encyclopedia, Inc.. ISBN 7-166-2001-4. 
  26. ^ Rowell, Geoffrey, "Dickens and the Construction of Christmas", History Today, December 1993, 43 (12), pp. 17 – 24.
  27. ^ Moore's poem transferred the genuine old Dutch traditions celebrated at New Year in New York, including the exchange of gifts, family feasting, and tales of “sinterklass” (a derivation in Dutch from “Saint Nicholas,” from whence comes the modern “Santa Claus”) to Christmas.The history of Christmas: Christmas history in America, 2006
  28. ^ usinfo.state.gov “Americans Celebrate Christmas in Diverse Ways” November 26, 2006
  29. ^ First Presbyterian Church of Watertown “Oh . . . and one more thing” December 11, 2005
  30. ^ Mikkelson, Barbara and David P., "The Claus That Refreshes", Snopes.com, 2006.
  31. ^ a b Harper, Douglas, Christ, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001.
  32. ^ Santa: The First Great Lie, essay by Mariane Matera, Citybeat issue 304
  33. ^ Robinson, B.A. "All about the Christmas tree: Pagan origins, Christian adaptation, & secular status" ReligiousTolerance.Org, December 13, 2003.
  34. ^ a b van Renterghem, Tony. When Santa was a shaman. St. Paul: Llewellyn Publications, 1995. ISBN 1-56718-765-X
  35. ^ The Chronological History of the Christmas Tree. The Christmas Archives. Retrieved on 2007-12-18.
  36. ^ Christmas Tradition - The Christmas Tree Custom. Fashion Era. Retrieved on 2007-12-18.
  37. ^ Morris, Desmond. Christmas Watching. London: Mackays of Chatham, 1992. ISBN 0-224-03598-3
  38. ^ Murray, Brian. "Christmas lights and community building in America," History Matters, Spring 2006.
  39. ^ Varga, Melody. "Black Friday, About:Retail Industry.
  40. ^ "The Deadweight Loss of Christmas", American Economic Review, December 1993, 83 (5)
  41. ^ "Is Santa a deadweight loss?" The Economist 20 December 2001
  42. ^ Reuters. "Christmas is Damaging the Environment, Report Says" December 16, 2005.
  43. ^ usinfo.state.gov “Americans Celebrate Christmas in Diverse Ways” November 26, 2006
  44. ^ New York Times “This Season's War Cry: Commercialize Christmas, or Else ” December 4, 2005
  45. ^ Ganulin v. United States (1999)
  46. ^ Court Decision - Ganulin v. United States
  47. ^ Cohen, Adam. "This season's war cry: Commercialize Christmas, or else." The New York Times, December 5, 2005.

The Catholic Encyclopedia is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the Roman Catholic Church, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. Starting in 1993, the encyclopedia (now in the public domain) was placed on the Internet through a world-wide... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The History Channel is a cable television channel, dedicated to the presentation of historical events and persons, often with frequent observations and explanations by noted historians as well as reenactors and witnesses to events, if possible. ... The History Channel is a cable television channel, dedicated to the presentation of historical events and persons, often with frequent observations and explanations by noted historians as well as reenactors and witnesses to events, if possible. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Llewellyn Worldwide (formerly Llewellyn Publications) is a New Age publisher, currently based in Woodbury, Minnesota, a suburb of St. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr Desmond Morris (born 24 January 1928 in the village of Purton, UK) is most famous for his work as a zoologist and ethologist. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Juletræet. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. ... A traditional nativity scene from Naples, Italy A nativity scene, also called a crib or crèche (meaning crib or manger in French) generally refers to any depiction of the birth or birthplace of Jesus. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Virgin Mary redirects here. ... For other uses, see Saint Joseph (disambiguation). ... This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ... Anbetung der Hirten (Adoration of the Shepherds) by Carlo Crivelli (1490) The Adoration of the shepherds, in Christian iconography, is a scene in which shepherds are near witnesses to the birth of Jesus, at his birthplace, typically depicted as a barn, near Bethlehem. ... Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ... Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). ... Herod the Great. ... The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... For the literary magazine, see St. ... Twelfth Night is a holiday in some branches of Christianity marking the coming of the Epiphany, concluding the Twelve Days of Christmas, and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as the evening of the fifth of January, preceding Twelfth Day, the eve of the Epiphany, formerly the last day... The Wise Men (Magi) adoring the infant Jesus. ... μ This article is about the Christian season. ... Christmastide (also Christmas or the Christmas season) is one of the seasons of the liturgical year of some Christian churches. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Excerpt from Josiah Kings The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England Father Christmas is the name used in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and several other Commonwealth countries, for the gift-bringing figure of Christmas... For the literary magazine, see St. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... Mrs. ... Read psychedelic section for amazing info! on the experiments of real elves good for school projects This article is about the small mythical creature, for the 2003 film, see Elf (film). ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religious period from Christmas to Epiphany. ... For other uses, see Christmas tree (disambiguation). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see yule log (disambiguation) A chocolate yule log. ... Stockings on a fireplace mantel. ... Christmas bauble (called a Christmas ball in American English) Christmas ornaments are decorations (usually made of glass, metal, wood or ceramics) that are used to festoon a Christmas tree. ... For the ITV Christmas special, see Christmas Lights. ... Alternate meaning: Christmas Card, an album from The Partridge Family. ... The daily Santa icon seen in the 2005 and 2006 websties. ... Santas Grotto is the mythological workshop where Santa Claus makes the toys and presents given out at Christmas. ... Erfurt, Germany A Christmas market, also known as Christkindlmarkt, Christkindlesmarkt, Christkindlmarket, and Weihnachtsmarkt, is a street market associated with the celebration of Christmas. ... Christmas around the world redirects here. ... The Philippines, a dominantly Catholic country, has earned the distinction of celebrating the worlds longest Christmas season. ... In Poland, Christmas Eve is a day first of fasting, then of feasting. ... TV redirects here. ... The following is an incomplete list of Christmas songs (hit singles and tracks) recorded by well known and obscure artists, many of which have hit on various charts around the world. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... The Christmas Club is a savings program that was first offered by various banks during the Great Depression. ... Christmas controversy refers to publicized controversy surrounding public acknowledgment or celebration of the Christmas holiday in media, advertising, government, and various secular environments. ... Christmas Creep is the commercial phenomenon of merchants advertising for Holiday Specials earlier and earlier every year. ... A cross, left near Ypres in Belgium in 1999, to commemorate the site of the Christmas Truce in 1914. ... Black Friday is the day after Thanksgiving and is the beginning of the traditional Christmas shopping season in the United States. ... The term Cyber Monday refers to the Monday immediately following Black Friday, the ceremonial kick-off of the holiday online shopping season in the United States between Thanksgiving Day and Christmas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Christmas Day (Trading) Act 2004 is an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that prevents shops over 280 sq m/3,000 sq ft from opening on Christmas Day. ... This is an incomplete list of festivals and holidays that take place during the winter in the northern hemisphere, especially those commemorating the season. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Christmas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5445 words)
The phrase "Christmas tree" is first recorded in 1835 and represents the importation of a tradition from Germany, where such trees became popular in the late 18th century.
The prominence of Christmas in Germanic nations may be a form of carryover from the pagan midwinter holiday of Yule.
Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol is the tale of curmudgeonly miser Ebenezer Scrooge.
Christmas Island - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2376 words)
Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands together are called the Australian Indian Ocean Territories and since 1997 share a single Administrator resident on Christmas Island.
Christmas Island residents are represented in the House of Representatives through the Northern Territory electorate of Lingiari and in the Senate by Northern Territory Senators.
In early 1986, the Christmas Island Assembly held a design competition for an island flag; the winning design was adopted as the informal flag of the territory for over a decade, and in 2002 it was made the official flag of Christmas Island.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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