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Encyclopedia > Christina of Sweden
Christina
Queen of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends;
Grand Princess of Finland; Duchess of Estonia, Karelia, Bremen, Verden, Stettin, Pomerania, Kashubia and Wendia; Princess of Rügen;
Lady of Ingria and Wismar
Reign 6 November 16326 June 1654
(caretaker government until
8 November 1644)
Coronation 20 October 1650
Born 8 December 1626
Birthplace Stockholm
Died 19 April 1689 (aged 62)
Place of death Rome
Buried St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
Predecessor Gustav II Adolf
Successor Charles X Gustav
Consort Unmarried
Issue None
Royal House Vasa
Royal motto Columna regni sapientia ("Wisdom is the prop of the realm")
Father Gustav II Adolf
Mother Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg

Christina (Swedish: Kristina) (8 December[1] 162619 April 1689), later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometimes Countess Dohna, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. She was the only surviving legitimate child of King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden and his wife Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. As the heiress presumptive, at the age of six, she succeeded her father to the throne of Sweden upon his death at the Battle of Lützen in the Thirty Years' War. Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... The title of King of the Goths was for many centuries borne by both the Kings of Sweden and the Kings of Denmark, denoting sovereignty or claimed sovereignty over the antique people of the Goths, which is sort of poetic explanation. ... The title of King of the Wends denoted sovereignty or claims over Slavic lands of southern coasts of the Baltic Sea, those otherwise called Mecklenburg, Holstein and Pomerania, and was from 12th century used by Kings of Denmark and from 16th century by Kings of Sweden. ... Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... Bremen-Verden was a dominion of Sweden from 1648 to 1719, when it was ceded to Hanover in the Treaty of Stockholm. ... Motto: none Voivodship West Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Szczecina Mayor Marian Jurczyk Area 301,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 413 600 1372/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1243 Latitude Longitude 14°34E 53°26N Area code +48 91 Car plates ZS Twin towns Berlin-Kreuzberg... Swedish Pomerania (Swedish: Svenska Pommern) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from the 17th to the 19th century, situated on the German Baltic Sea coast. ... Kashubians (also Kassubians, or Cassubians, in Kashubian: Kaszëbi) are a Slavic ethnic group living in modern-day northwestern Poland. ... Vend redirects here. ... Map of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania highlighting the district Rügen Rügen (Polish: Rugia) is an island located off the coast of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in the Baltic Sea. ... Ingria may be seen represented in the easternmost part of the Carta Marina (1539) Ingria (Finnish: , Russian: , Swedish: , Estonian: ) is a historical region, now situated mostly in Russia, comprising the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the... Wismar is a small port and Hanseatic League town in northern Germany on the Baltic Sea, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, about 45 km due east of Lübeck, and 30 km due north of Schwerin. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (775x990, 72 KB) Queen Christina of Sweden (1626-1689). ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... A caretaker is a term mainly used in the United Kingdom, meaning a concierge or janitor. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus at the famous turning point Battle of Breitenfield (1631) against the forces of the redoubtable Count Tilly. ... Charles X Gustav (Karl X Gustav) (November 8, 1622 – February 13, 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. ... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ... The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus at the famous turning point Battle of Breitenfield (1631) against the forces of the redoubtable Count Tilly. ... Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus at the famous turning point Battle of Breitenfield (1631) against the forces of the redoubtable Count Tilly. ... Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. ... An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honor, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ... The Battle of Lützen was one of the most decisive battles of the Thirty Years War. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I...


After having converted to Catholicism and abdicated her throne, she spent her latter years in France and Rome, where she was buried in St. Peter's Basilica. Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ...

Contents

Early life

Christina was born in Stockholm and her birth occurred during a rare astrological conjunction that fueled great speculation on what influence the child, fervently hoped to be a boy, would later have on the world stage.[2] The king had already sired two sons, one of whom was stillborn and the other lived only one year, heightening pressures for a male heir to be produced. She was educated in the manner typical of men, and frequently wore men's clothes (such as dresses with short skirts, stockings and shoes with high heels - all these features being useful when not riding pillion). For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... An astrological chart (or horoscope) _ Y2K Chart — This particular chart is calculated for January 1, 2000 at 12:01:00 A.M. Eastern Standard Time in New York City, New York, USA. (Longitude: 074W0023 - Latitude: 40N4251) Astrology (from Greek: αστρολογία = άστρον, astron, star + λόγος, logos, word) is... A pillion is a pad or cushion (seating) behind the seat of the driver (rider) of a motorcycle, moped, or horse for a second person who is said to ride pillion (and is also often called a pillion). Bitch seat is somewhat vulgar American motorcycle slang for this seat. ...


Christina's mother, Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, came from the Hohenzollern family. She was a woman of quite distraught temperament, and her attempts to bestow guilt on Christina for her difficult birth, or just the horror story itself, may have prejudiced Christina against the prospect of having to produce an heir to the throne. Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ...


Her father gave orders that Christina should be brought up as a prince. Even as a child she displayed great precociousness. In 1649, when she was twenty-three, she invited the philosopher Descartes to Sweden to tutor her (so early in the morning, according to one popular account, that the lessons hastened Descartes' death from pneumonia in 1650). Christina also took the oath as king, not queen, because her father had wanted it so. Growing up, she was nicknamed the "Girl King." René Descartes (French IPA:  Latin:Renatus Cartesius) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


Queen regnant

Queen Christina in discussion with French philosopher René Descartes.
Queen Christina in discussion with French philosopher René Descartes.

The Crown of Sweden was hereditary in the family of Vasa, and from Karl IX's time excluding those Vasa princes who had been traitors or descended from deposed monarchs. Gustav Adolf's younger brother had died years earlier, and therefore there were only females left. Despite the fact that there were living female lines descended from elder sons of Gustav I Vasa, Christina was the heiress presumptive. Although she is often called "queen", her father brought her up as a prince and her official title was King. Image File history File links René_Descartes_i_samtal_med_Sveriges_drottning,_Kristina. ... Image File history File links René_Descartes_i_samtal_med_Sveriges_drottning,_Kristina. ... René Descartes (French IPA:  Latin:Renatus Cartesius) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ...


National policy was directed during the first half of Christina's reign by her guardian, regent and adviser Axel Oxenstierna, chancellor to her father and until her majority in 1644 the principal member of the governing regency council. Count Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna   listen? or Oxenstjerna (June 16, 1583 - August 28, 1654), Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, was born at FÃ¥nö in Uplandia, and received his education with his brothers at the universities of Rostock, Jena and Wittenberg. ...


As ruler, Christina resisted demands from the other estates (clergy, burgesses and peasants) in the Riksdag of the Estates of 1650 for the reduction of tax-exempt noble landholdings. Several princes of Europe aspired to her hand; but she rejected them all. The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


To prevent a renewal of applications on this subject, in 1649 she appointed her cousin Charles X Gustav of Sweden (also called Karl) her successor, but without the smallest participation in the rights of the crown during her own life. Charles X Gustav (Karl X Gustav) (November 8, 1622 – February 13, 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. ...


It was under Christina that Sweden undertook its short-lived effort at North American colonization, known as "New Sweden". Fort Christina, the first European settlement in the environs of what is now Wilmington, Delaware (and the first permanent settlement in the Delaware Valley as a whole) was named for the Queen. North American redirects here. ... New Sweden, or Nya Sverige, was a small Swedish settlement along the Delaware River on the Mid-Atlantic coast of North America. ... Fort Christina was the first Swedish settlement in North America and the principal settlement of the New Sweden colony. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... : Chemical Capital of the World , Corporate Capital of the World , Credit Card Capital of the World : A Place to Be Somebody United States Delaware New Castle 17. ... The Delaware Valley is a term used widely to refer to the metropolitan area centered on the city of Philadelphia in the United States. ...


Christina was interested in theatre and ballet; a French ballet-troup under Antoine de Beaulieu was employed by the court from 1638, and there were also an Italian and a French Orchestra at court, which all inspired her much. She invited foreign companies to play at Bollhuset, such as an Italian Opera troupe in 1652 and a Dutch theatre troupe in 1653; she was also herself an amateur-actor, and amateur-theatre was very popular at court in her days. Her court poet Georg Stiernheilm wrote her several plays in the Swedish language, such as Den fångne Cupido eller Laviancu de Diane performed at court with Christina in the main part of the goddess Diana. She founded the dance order Amaranterordern in 1653. Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... Bollhuset, also called by the names , , and during the centuries, was the name of the first theatre of Stockholm, Sweden; it was the first Swedish theatre and the first real theatre building in Scandinavia. ...


Abdication

Christina abdicated her throne on June 5, 1654 in favour of her cousin Charles Gustavus in order to either practice openly her previously secret Catholicism, or to accept the same publicly so as to be at the centre of a scientific and artistic renaissance. The sincerity of her conversion has been questioned. In 1651, the Jesuit Paolo Casati had been sent on a mission to Stockholm in order to gauge the sincerity of her intention to become Catholic. is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Charles X Gustav (Karl X Gustav) (November 8, 1622 – February 13, 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Paolo Casati (in Latin, Paulus Casatus) (1617-1707) was an Italian Jesuit mathematician. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ...


Her conversion was however not the only reason for her abdication, as there was increasing discontent with, in the words of her critics, her arbitrary and wasteful ways. Within ten years she had created 17 counts, 46 barons and 428 lesser nobles; to provide these new peers with adequate appanages, she had sold or mortgaged crown property representing an annual income of 1,200,000 riksdaler. There were clear signs that Christina was growing weary of the cares of what remained a provincial government in spite of a large conquered territory. The system of appanage has greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and explains the flag of many provinces of France. ... The Riksdaler was the name of the currency used in Sweden until 1873 when it was replaced with the krona as an effect of the Scandinavian Monetary Union. ...


Political contributions

The importunity of the senate and Riksdag on the question of her marriage was a constant source of irritation. In retirement she could devote herself wholly to art and science, and the opportunity of astonishing the world by the unique spectacle of a great king, in the prime of life, voluntarily resigning her crown, strongly appealed to her vivid imagination. It is certain that towards the end of her reign she behaved as if she were determined to do everything in her power to make herself as little missed as possible. From 1651 there was a notable change in her behavior. She cast away every regard for the feelings and prejudices of her people. She ostentatiously exhibited her contempt for the Protestant religion. Her foreign policy was flighty to the verge of foolishness. She contemplated an alliance with Spain, a state quite outside the orbit of Sweden's influence, the first fruits of which were to have been an invasion of Portugal. She utterly neglected affairs in order to plunge into a whirl of dissipation with her foreign favorites. The situation became impossible, and it was with an intense feeling of relief that the Swedes saw her depart, in masculine attire, under the name of Count Dohna[citation needed].


Setting off to Rome

Upon conversion she took a new name, Maria Christina Alexandra, and moved to Rome, where her wealth and former position made her a centre of society. Her status as the most notable convert to Catholicism of the age, and as the most famous woman at the time, made it possible for her to ignore or flout the most common requirements of obeisance to the Catholic faith. She herself remarked that her Catholic faith was not of the common order; indeed, before converting she had asked church officials how strictly she would be expected to obey the church's common observances, and received reassurances. Christina's visit to Rome was the triumph of Pope Alexander VII and the occasion for splendid Baroque festivities. For several months she was the only preoccupation of the Pope and his court. The nobles vied for her attention and treated her to a never-ending round of fireworks, jousts, fake duels, acrobatics, and operas. At the Palazzo Aldobrandini, where she was welcomed by a crowd of 6,000 spectators, she watched in amazement at the procession of camels and elephants in Oriental garb, bearing towers on their backs. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Alexander VII, né Fabio Chigi (February 13, 1599 – May 22, 1667) was Pope from April 7, 1655 until his death in 1667. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...

Celebrations for Christina of Sweden at Palazzo Aldobrandini-Chigi on 28 February 1656.
Celebrations for Christina of Sweden at Palazzo Aldobrandini-Chigi on 28 February 1656.

Having run out of money and surfeited with an excess of pageantry, Christina resolved, in the space of two years, to visit France. Here she was treated with respect by Louis XIV, but the ladies were shocked with her masculine appearance and demeanor and the unguarded freedom of her conversation. When visiting the ballet with la Grande Mademoiselle, she, as the latter recalls, "surprised me very much - applauding the parts which pleased her, taking God to witness, throwing herself back in her chair, crossing her legs, resting them on the arms of her chair, and assuming other postures, such as I had never seen taken but by Travelin and Jodelet, two famous buffoons... She was in all respects a most extraordinary creature".[3] is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ...


In 1656, Christina planned to become Queen of Naples. Her plans involved the help of French military. She had made an agreement with Cardinal Mazarin. Apartments were assigned to her at Fontainebleau, where she committed an action which has indelibly stained her memory and for which in other countries (says her biographer) she would have paid the forfeit of her own life. This was the execution of marchese Gian Rinaldo Monaldeschi, her master of the horse, who had betrayed Christina's plans in the autumn of 1657. He was summoned into a gallery in the palace; letters were then shown to him, at the sight of which he turned pale and entreated for mercy; but he was instantly stabbed by two of her own domestics in an apartment adjoining that in which she herself was. The killing of Monaldeschi was legal since Christina had judicial rights over the members of her court. It was however seen as murder. The French court was offended by this deed; yet it met with vindicators, Gottfried Leibniz among them. Christina sensed that she was now regarded with horror in France, and would gladly have visited England, but she received no encouragement from Cromwell. She returned to Rome and resumed her amusements in the arts and sciences. // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino (July 14, 1602 – March 9, 1661) was an accomplished Italian politician who served as the chief minister of France from 1642 until his death. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region Île-de-France Department Seine-et-Marne (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Fontainebleau Canton Fontainebleau (chief town) Intercommunality Communauté de communes de Fontainebleau-Avon Mayor Frédéric Valletoux (2005-2008) Statistics Altitude 42–150 (avg. ... The Monaldeschi were one of the powerful noble families of Orvieto, members of the Guelf party who contested with murders and violence the Ghibelline Filippeschi for control of the commune of Orvieto and the castelli of Umbria. ... Leibniz redirects here. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...


After the death of Charles Gustav in 1660, she took a journey to Sweden to recover her crown, but her estranged subjects rejected her claims. She submitted to a second renunciation of the throne and returned to Rome. Some differences with the Pope made her resolve in 1662 once more to return to Sweden; but the conditions annexed by the senate to her residence there were now so mortifying that she proceeded no farther than Hamburg. She went back to Rome and cultivated a correspondence with the learned men there, and in other parts of Europe, as well as acting as patron to musicians such as Arcangelo Corelli and Alessandro Scarlatti. // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... Arcangelo Corelli Arcangelo Corelli (February 17, 1653 – January 8, 1713) was an influential Italian violinist and composer of Baroque music. ... Alessandro Scarlatti Alessandro Scarlatti (May 2, 1660 – October 24, 1725) was a Baroque composer especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. ...


She died on April 19, 1689, leaving her large and important library, originally amassed as war booty by her father Gustavus from throughout his European campaign, to the Papacy. Among other paintings, Titian's Venus Anadyomene originally was in the possession of Queen Christina. Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... For other uses, see Titian (disambiguation). ... Venus Anadyomene (Greek - literally Venus rising from the sea), is a c. ...


She is one of only three women to be given the honor of being buried in the grottoes of St. Peter's Basilica, alongside the remains of the popes. A monument to her was carved later on and adorns a column close to the permanent display of Michelangelo's Pietà. At the opposite pillar across the nave is the Monument to the Royal Stuarts, commemorating the other 17th century monarchs who lost their thrones due to their Catholicism. The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... This article is about the most famous Pietà Florentine Pietà (or Deposition), the Rondanini Pietà and the Palestrina Pietà The Pietà (1498–99) by Michelangelo is a marble sculpture in St. ... Monument to the royal Stuarts, Rome The Monument to the Royal Stuarts is a memorial in St. ...


Personal relationships

Christina resolutely refused to marry in spite of the fact that her counsellors reminded her of her duty to give Sweden an heir. One of her aphorisms reads 'Marriage is as good as incompatible with love'. One of the explanations for the contemporary rumours that Chrsitina sexually preferred women to men may be her critical opinion of marriage in general. The fact she cross-dressed was widely noted, her clothing was a mix between masculine and feminine styes and she wore men's shoes. Rumour had it that she might have been a hermaphrodite - and perhaps that is how she herself understood her own sex. This has led to her posthumously becoming an icon of the modern transgendered community. Some historians have tried to prove that Christina was physically a mixture of a man and woman, and in 1965 this led to an investigation of her mortal remains which showed she had a normal female body[4].


Christina sat, talked, walked and moved in her way her contemporaries described as masculine. She preferred men's company to women's unless the women were very beautiful, in which case she courted them. The passion of Christina's youth was a woman, Ebba Sparre. Christina spent most of her spare time - including the nights - with 'la belle comtese' - often calling attention to her beauty. She even introduced her to the English ambassador Whitelocke as her 'bed-fellow', asking him if he found Sparre's reason as striking as her beauty. When Christina left Sweden she wrote passionate love-letters to Sparre, in which she told her that she would always love her.


Christina also had relationships with men. The strongest evidence of a lasting platonic love-affair from afar surfaced as encrypted letters she had sent to a Cardinal Decio Azzolino (with whom she was already at the time rumored to be a lover), which were decrypted in the 19th century. They speak of intense but sublimated erotic desire. She later named him as her sole heir. Azzolino was the leader of the free thinking "Flying Squad" (Squadrone Volante) movement within the Catholic Church.


Legacy

Queen Christina's monument in St. Peter's Basilica
Queen Christina's monument in St. Peter's Basilica

The complex character of Christina has inspired numerous plays, books, and operatic works. August Strindberg's 1901 Kristina depicts her as a protean, impulsive creature. "Each one gets the Christina he deserves" she remarks. The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ...   (January 22, 1849 â€“ May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ... Kristina may refer to: the Swedish name of Christina of Sweden the Swedish name of Ristiina, a town in Finland Categories: ...


The most famous fictional treatment is the classic feature film Queen Christina from 1933 starring Greta Garbo. This film, while entertaining, had almost nothing to do with the real Christina. Another feature film, The Abdication, starred the Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann, and was based on a play by Ruth Wolff. This highly fictionalized feature film, based on the life of Queen Christina of Sweden, starred Greta Garbo and John Gilbert and was released in December 1933. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Greta Garbo (September 18, 1905 – April 15, 1990) was a Swedish-born actress during Hollywoods silent film period and part of its Golden Age. ... Liv Johanne Ullmann (born December 16, 1938) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe-winning Norwegian actress, author and film director. ...


The Finnish author Zacharias Topelius' historical allegory Tähtien Turvatit also portrays her, like her father, as having a mercurial temperament, quick to anger, quicker to forgive. Kaari Utrio has also portrayed her tormented passions and thirst for love. Topelius in a picture published in the Swedish periodical Svenska Familj-Journalen 1866. ... Kaari Marjatta Utrio (born July 28, 1942, proper surname Utrio-Linnilä, is a Finnish writer. ...


Christina has become an icon for the lesbian and feminist communities (and inspired comedian Jade Esteban Estrada to portray her in the solo musical ICONS: The Lesbian and Gay History of the World (Vol. 2). This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ... Jade Esteban Estrada (born September 17, 1975 at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas) is a successful Latin pop singer, comedian, choreographer and actor. ...


Ancestors

Christina's ancestors in three generations

 
 
 
 
Gustav I of Sweden (Vasa)
 
 
Charles IX of Sweden (Vasa)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Margaret Leijonhufvud
 
 
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (Vasa)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
 
 
Christina of Holstein-Gottorp
 
 
 
 
 
 
Christine of Hesse
 
Christina of Sweden (Vasa)
 
 
 
 
 
Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg
 
 
John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
Catherine, Princess of Brandenburg-Küstrin
 
 
Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia
 
 
Anna, Duchess of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marie Eleonore of Cleves
 

Gustav I of Sweden, commonly known as Gustav Vasa, but originally known as Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496 – September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ... Margareta Leijonhufvud. ... The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus at the famous turning point Battle of Breitenfield (1631) against the forces of the redoubtable Count Tilly. ... Duke Adolf in the cuirass, paimting by a unknown author, 1586 Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp (25 January 1526 – 1 October 1586) was the first Duke of Holstein-Gottorp from the line of Holstein-Gottorp of the House of Oldenburg. ...   Christina of Holstein-Gottorp (13 April 1573 – 8 December 1625) was a Queen-Consort of Sweden. ... Christine of Hesse-Kassel (29 June 1543 – 13 May 1604) was duchess of Holstein-Gottorp as a wife of Duke Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp. ... Joachim Friedrich (27 January 1546 in Cölln — 18 July 1608) of the Hohenzollern dynasty succeeded his father John George as margrave and elector of Brandenburg in 1598, and was in turn succeeded at his death by his son John Sigismund. ... John or Johann Sigismund Hohenzollern (1572-1619) succeeded his father Joachim Friedrich as margrave of Brandenburg and duke of Ducal Prussia in 1608. ... Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. ... Albert Frederick (7 May 1553- 28 August 1618) was duke of Ducal Prussia from 1568 until his death. ... Anna, Duchess of Prussia and Jülich-Cleves-Berg (3 July 1576 - 30 August 1625) was the daughter of Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia and Marie Eleanore of Cleves and became the wife of John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Christina
Born: December 8, 1626 Died: April 19, 1689
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Gustav II Adolf
as King of Sweden
Queen regnant of Sweden
1632-1654
Succeeded by
Karl X Gustav
as King of Sweden

Fort Christina was the first Swedish settlement in North America and the principal settlement of the New Sweden colony. ... Modern Sweden emerged out of the Kalmar Union formed in 1397 and by the unification of the country by King Gustav Vasa in the 16th century. ... New Sweden, or Nya Sverige, was a small Swedish settlement along the Delaware River on the Mid-Atlantic coast of North America. ... Alessandro Scarlatti Alessandro Scarlatti (May 2, 1660 – October 24, 1725) was a Baroque composer especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... This is a list of Swedish queens consort. ... Queen Village is a neighborhood in the South Philadelphia section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, just south of the Center City district. ... Coenraad van Beuningen, 1673, by Caspar Netscher Coenraad van Beuningen (1622 - Amsterdam, 26 October 1693) was the Republic most experienced diplomat, burgemeester of Amsterdam in 1669, 1672, 1680, 1681, 1683 and 1684, and from 1681 a VOC director. ... The Dutch scholar and manuscript collector Isaac Vossius (Leiden 1618 – London February 21, 1689) was the son of the better-known humanist Gerhard Johann Vossius. ... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus at the famous turning point Battle of Breitenfield (1631) against the forces of the redoubtable Count Tilly. ... This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Charles X Gustav (Karl X Gustav) (November 8, 1622 – February 13, 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. ... This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... The House of Munsö is the Scandinavian semi-legendary dynasty which is descended from Björn Ironside, one of the sons of Ragnar Lodbrok. ... Eric the Victorious (VI), or Erik Segersäll, (985?- 995), was king of the Swedes during the last two decades of the 10th century. ... Olof Björnsson (ca 970 - 975), was a semi-legendary Swedish king, who according to Hervarar saga and the Styrbjarnar þáttr Svíakappa ruled together with his brother Eric the Victorious. ... Coin minted for Olof Skötkonung in Sigtuna Olof of Sweden or Olof Skötkonung/Skottkonung (the meaning of the cognomen is disputed) was the son of Eric the Victorious and Sigrid the Haughty. ... Coin minted for Anund Jakob Anund Jakob (Old Icelandic: Önundr Óláfsson, Old Swedish: Æmundær colbrænnæ, meaning Emund coal-burner) was King of Sweden 1022-1050. ... Emund the Old, Emund den Gamle, (king of Sweden 1050-1060) was an illegitimate son of Olof Skötkonung. ... The House of Stenkil was the first Geatish dynasty on the Swedish throne. ... Stenkil (Old Norse Steinkel) (1028–1066) was a Jarl and King of Sweden from 1060 to his death. ... At the death of his father Stenkil, Erik Stenkilsson or Erik VII (king of Sweden 1066-1067) made war on Erik the Pagan (Eric VIII) (king of Sweden 1066-1067) for the Swedish throne. ... At the death of his father Stenkil, Erik Stenkilsson or Erik VII (king of Sweden 1066-1067) made war on Erik the Pagan (Eric VIII) (king of Sweden 1066-1067) for the Swedish throne. ... Halsten Stenkilsson was king of Sweden for a short time, 1067-1070, before he was deposed, according to Adam of Bremen. ... Anund GÃ¥rdske came from Kievan Rus, but is only mentioned by Adam of Bremen. ... The Swedes rebelled against the Anund Gårdske because he did not want to worship the Norse gods and Håkan the Red became king, 1070-1079, although he was a Christian. ... Halsten Stenkilsson was king of Sweden for a short time, 1067-1070, before he was deposed, according to Adam of Bremen. ... ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Eric of Good Harvests or Eirik Arsale (Swedish: Erik Ã…rsäll, Old Norse: Eiríkr hinn ársæli) was a semi-historical king of Sweden during the last decades of the 11th century and the son of the pagan Swedish king Blot-Sweyn[1]. Like his father before him, Eric... ... King Philip (Swedish: ) was King of Sweden 1105–1118. ... Inge the Younger was the King of Sweden in the early 12th century and the son of king Halsten[1][2] and he was probably Halstens youngest son. ... Ragnvald Knaphövde or Ragnvald the Fool (king 1125) is only mentioned in the Westrogothic law. ... Magnus Nilsson, Mogens Nielsen, or Magnus the Strong (born c. ... The house of St Eric was one of the two noble families, dynastiesk, which rivalled for the kingship of Sweden between 1150 and 1220. ... After the extinction of the House of Stenkil and the coronation of Sverker I of Sweden in 1130, a civil war commenced. ... Sverker I Kolson or Sverker the Elder (died c. ... The third seal of the City of Stockholm, depicting the crowned head of Eric the Saint, attested for the first time in 1376. ... Magnus (died 1161), son of Henry (known as Magnus Henriksson or Magnus Henriksen), was a Danish lord and the king of Sweden between 1160 and 1161, being afterwards treated as usurper. ... Charles Sverkersson - seal Charles VII Sverkersson or Karl Sverkersson in Swedish was king of Sweden and Earl of Götaland from circa 1161 to 1167, when he was assassinated, he was the first Swedish king with the name Charles. ... Kol Sverkerson bastard son of Sverker I of Sweden, named after the grandparent as traditional in medival Sweden. ... Boleslas Sverkerson (Swedish: Burislev Sverkersson) was the son of Sverker the Elder, King of Sweden and his second wife Rikissa of Poland, and was the younger brother of king Karl Sverkerson and jarl John Sverkerson. ... Seal of Canute I Canute I Eriksson or Knut Eriksson in Swedish was king of Sweden from 1167 to 1195. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Erik X ( c 1180 – 1216), Erik Knutsson (Eric son of Canute) was the King of Sweden between 1208 and 1216. ... Johan Sverkersson (c. ... Eric XI of Sweden Eric XI Ericsson (1216 – February 2, 1250) den läspe och halte: the stuttering and lame, was king of Sweden 1222 – 1229 and 1234 – 1250. ... Canute II (in Sweden called Knut LÃ¥nge till Sko) was king of Sweden from 1229 to 1234. ... Eric XI of Sweden Eric XI Ericsson (1216 – February 2, 1250) den läspe och halte: the stuttering and lame, was king of Sweden 1222 – 1229 and 1234 – 1250. ... House of Bjelbo, also known as House of Bjälbo (Bjälboätten in Swedish) or House of Folkung (Folkungaätten in Swedish), was an Ostrogothian Swedish family that provided for several medieval Swedish bishops, jarls and kings. ... Valdemar Birgersson (1239-1302), King of Sweden 1250-1275/1288/1302, was the son of princess Ingeborg Eriksdotter of Sweden and Birger Jarl, Earl Birger Magnusson of Bjälbo, who more or less ruled Sweden from 1248 under king Eric Ericsson the Lame his brother in law. ... Sigillum ad causas for Magnus II of Sweden Magnus II Ericson, Magnus VII of Norway, (1316–1377), King of Sweden, Norway and Terra Scania, son of Duke Eric and Ingeborg, daughter of Hakon V of Norway. ... Birger Magnusson (1280 – 1321) was hailed king when he was four years old. ... Sigillum ad causas for Magnus II of Sweden Magnus Ericson, Magnus VII of Norway, the fourth Magnus to have been proclaimed king of Sweden (1316 – December 1, 1377), King of Sweden, Norway, and Terra Scania, son of Duke Eric Magnusson of Sweden and Ingeborg, daughter of Haakon V of Norway. ... Eric XII Magnusson (1339-1359) was rival King of Sweden and to his father Magnus II from 1356 to his death in 1359. ... Sigillum ad causas for Magnus II of Sweden Magnus Ericson, Magnus VII of Norway, the fourth Magnus to have been proclaimed king of Sweden (1316 – December 1, 1377), King of Sweden, Norway, and Terra Scania, son of Duke Eric Magnusson of Sweden and Ingeborg, daughter of Haakon V of Norway. ... Haakon VI Magnusson (appr. ... The Grand Ducal House of Mecklenburg, the more common name for the House of Nikloting, was a North German dynasty that ruled until 1918. ... Albert of Sweden (or Albrecht von Mecklenburg in German or Albrekt av Mecklenburg in Swedish) was born in 1338 and became king of Sweden in 1363. ... The Kalmar Union flag. ... Queen Margaret I for Queens Margaret of Denmark, see Queen Margaret of Denmark, and for a namesake queen consort of Scotland, see Margaret of Denmark Margaret Valdemarsdotter (1353 – October 28, 1412) was Queen of Norway, Regent of Denmark and of Sweden, and founder of the so-called Kalmar Union which... Eric of Pomerania A caricature of the king, the only contemporary likeness of him in existence Eric of Pomerania, Erik af Pommern, Erik VII (Danish title), Erik av Pommern (Eirik III) (Norwegian title) Erik av Pommern (Eric XIII) (Swedish title) or Eryk Pomorski (Polish title), was adopted by Margaret I... Late 19th century model for a statue of Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson to be placed in Örebro; no contemporary image of Engelbrekt is known Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson (1390s – May 4, 1436) was a Swedish statesman and rebel leader. ... Eric of Pomerania A caricature of the king, the only contemporary likeness of him in existence Eric of Pomerania, Erik af Pommern, Erik VII (Danish title), Erik av Pommern (Eirik III) (Norwegian title) Erik av Pommern (Eric XIII) (Swedish title) or Eryk Pomorski (Polish title), was adopted by Margaret I... Charles VIII of Sweden, Charles I of Norway, a. ... Eric of Pomerania A caricature of the king, the only contemporary likeness of him in existence Eric of Pomerania, Erik af Pommern, Erik VII (Danish title), Erik av Pommern (Eirik III) (Norwegian title) Erik av Pommern (Eric XIII) (Swedish title) or Eryk Pomorski (Polish title), was adopted by Margaret I... Charles VIII of Sweden, Charles I of Norway, a. ... Christopher of Bavaria, known by his Danish and Norwegian title as Christoffer (III) af/av Bayern and by his Swedish title as Kristofer av Bayern (26 February 1418-6 January 1448) was union king of Denmark and Norway (1440-1448), and of Sweden (1441-1448). ... Bengt Jönsson Oxenstierna, (1390s-1450) Swedish statesman and co-regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, from January to June of 1448, together with his brother Nils Jönsson Oxenstierna. ... Nils Jönsson Oxenstierna, (1390s-1450s) Swedish statesman and co-regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, from January to June of 1448, together with his brother Bengt Jönsson Oxenstierna. ... Charles VIII of Sweden, Charles I of Norway, a. ... Jöns Bengtsson (Oxenstierna), (1417 – 1467) Swedish clergyman and regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, in 1457, shared with Erik Axelsson (Tott), and alone 1465-1466. ... Erik Axelsson (Tott), (c 1419-1481) Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, in 1457, shared with Jöns Bengtsson (Oxenstierna), and alone 1466-1467. ... Christian I of Denmark (1426 – 1481), Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1448 – 1481), Norway (1450 – 1481) and Sweden (1457 – 1464), under the Kalmar Union. ... Kettil Karlsson (Vasa) (1433 – August 11, 1465) was a Swedish clergyman and regent of Sweden under the Kalmar Union from February 1464 to August 1465, interluded by a six month interregnum of king Charles VIII of Sweden. ... Charles VIII of Sweden, Charles I of Norway, a. ... Kettil Karlsson (Vasa) (1433 – August 11, 1465) was a Swedish clergyman and regent of Sweden under the Kalmar Union from February 1464 to August 1465, interluded by a six month interregnum of king Charles VIII of Sweden. ... Jöns Bengtsson (Oxenstierna), (1417 – 1467) Swedish clergyman and regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, in 1457, shared with Erik Axelsson (Tott), and alone 1465-1466. ... Erik Axelsson (Tott), (c 1419-1481) Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, in 1457, shared with Jöns Bengtsson (Oxenstierna), and alone 1466-1467. ... Charles VIII of Sweden, Charles I of Norway, a. ... Sten Sture the Elder (Sten Sture den äldre; 1440–December 14, 1503) was a Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden during the Union of Kalmar (1470–1497 and 1501–1503). ... John of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden John, Johann, Johan II, Danish and Norwegian name Hans (2 February 1455 – 22 July 1513 ), was a Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1481 – 1513), Norway (1483 – 1513) Sweden (1497 – 1501), under the Kalmar Union, and also Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. ... Sten Sture the Elder (Sten Sture den äldre; 1440–December 14, 1503) was a Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden during the Union of Kalmar (1470–1497 and 1501–1503). ... Svante Nilsson, (1460 – January 2, 1512) was a Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden under the Kalmar Union, 1504 - January 2, 1512. ... Erik Trolle (died 1530), elected regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, in 1512. ... Sten Sture the Younger, or Sten Sture den yngre, Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, 1512 - February 5, 1520. ... Christian II (July 2, 1481 – January 25, 1559) was a Danish monarch and King of Denmark, Norway (1513 – 1523) and Sweden (1520 – 1521), under the Kalmar Union. ... Gustav I of Sweden, commonly known as Gustav Vasa, but originally known as Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496 – September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ... Gustav I of Sweden, commonly known as Gustav Vasa, but originally known as Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496 – September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... Eric XIV (December 13, 1533 – February 26, 1577) was King of Sweden from 1560 until he was deposed in 1568. ... John III (Johan III) (December 23, 1537 – November 17, 1592) was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. ... Sigismund III Vasa (Polish: ) (20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he was known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 until he was deposed in 1599. ... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ... The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus at the famous turning point Battle of Breitenfield (1631) against the forces of the redoubtable Count Tilly. ... The House of Pfalz-Zweibrücken was the Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720. ... Charles X Gustav (Karl X Gustav) (November 8, 1622 – February 13, 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. ... Charles XI (Karl XI) (November 24, 1655 – April 5, 1697) was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death. ... Charles XII redirects here. ... Ulrika Eleonora (January 23, 1688 – November 24, 1741) was Queen regnant of Sweden from November 30, 1718, to February 29, 1720, and then Queen consort until her death. ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel in German) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Frederick I (Fredrik I) (April 23, 1676–March 25, 1751), was King of Sweden from 1720 and (as Friedrich I von Hessen-Kassel) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1730 until his death. ... The House of Holstein-Gottorp, a cadet branch of the Oldenburg dynasty, ruled Sweden from 1751 until 1818, and Norway from 1814 to 1818. ... Adolf Frederick King of Sweden Adolf Frederick (Adolf Fredrik) (May 14, 1710 – February 12, 1771), was King of Sweden from 1751 until his death. ... Gustav III, King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends, etc. ... For other people and places of the same name, see Gustaf Adolf (disambiguation). ... Charles XIII (Swedish: ) (7 October 1748 - 5 February 1818), was King of Sweden from 1809 and King of Norway (where he was known as Karl II) from 1814 until his death. ... The House of Bernadotte, the current Royal House of the Kingdom of Sweden, has reigned since 1818. ... Charles XIV John (Swedish: Carl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 – March 8, 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Karl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. ... Oscar I, born Joseph François Oscar Bernadotte (July 4, 1799, Paris–July 8, 1859, Stockholm), was King of Sweden and Norway from 1844 to his death. ... Karl XV (Karl Ludvig Eugén) (May 3, 1826 – September 18, 1872) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Karl IV) from 1859 until his death. ... King Oscar II of Sweden and Norway (January 21, 1829 - December 8, 1907), born Oscar Frederik, ruled Norway from 1872 until 1905 and Sweden from 1872 until his death. ... Gustaf V (Oscar Gustaf Adolf) (June 16, 1858 – October 29, 1950) was King of Sweden from 1907 until his death. ... Gustaf VI Adolf (Oskar Fredrik Wilhelm Olaf Gustaf Adolf) (November 11, 1882 – September 15, 1973) was King of Sweden from 1950 until his death. ... Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the current Swedish monarch and head of state of the Kingdom of Sweden. ...

References

  1. ^ Note that the birth date is December 8 in the Julian calendar, which was in effect in Sweden at the time, corresponding to December 18 in the Gregorian calendar.
  2. ^ http://www.sweden.se/templates/cs/BasicFactsheet____4403.aspx
  3. ^ Memoirs of Mademoiselle de Montpensier. H. Colburn, 1848. Page 48.
  4. ^ Christina, Queen of Sweden: The Restless Life of a European Eccentric by Veronica Buckley, London, Oct 2004

The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ...

Bibliography

  • Christine of Sweden. Sweden.se. Retrieved on 1998-01-01.
  • Queen Christina of Sweden. About: Women's History. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  • Åkerman, S. (1991). Queen Christina of Sweden and her circle : the transformation of a seventeenth century philosophical libertine. New York: E.J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-09310-9. 
  • Buckley, Veronica (2005). Christina; Queen of Sweden. London: Harper Perennial. ISBN 1-84115-736-8. 
  • Meyer, Carolyn. Kristina, the Girl King: Sweden, 1638. 
  • Essen-Möller, E. (1937). Drottning Christina. En människostudieur läkaresynpunkt. Lund: C.W.K. Gleerup. 
  • Goldsmith, Margaret L. (1935). Christina of Sweden; a psychological biography. London: A. Barker Ltd. 
  • Hjortsjö, Carl-Herman (1966). The Opening of Queen Christina's Sarcophagus in Rome. Stockholm: Norstedts. 
  • Hjortsjö, Carl-Herman (1966). Queen Christina of Sweden: A medical/anthropological investigation of her remains in Rome (Acta Universitatis Lundensis). Lund: C.W.K. Gleerup. 
  • Mender, Mona (1997). Extraordinary women in support of music. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, pp. 29-35. 
  • von Platen, Magnus (1966). Christina of Sweden: Documents and Studies. Stockholm: National Museum. 
  • Stolpe, Sven (1996). Drottning Kristina. Stockholm: Aldus/Bonnier. 
  • Lars Löfgren, "Svensk teater", ("Swedish Theatre").

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Christina of Sweden - LoveToKnow 1911 (802 words)
CHRISTINA (1626-1689), queen of Sweden, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus and Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, was born at Stockholm on the 8th of December 1626.
She seemed to consider Swedish affairs as far too petty to occupy her full attention; while her unworthy treatment of the great chancellor was mainly due to her jealousy of his extraordinary reputation and to the uneasy conviction that, so long as he was alive, his influence must at least be equal to her own.
Twice she returned to Sweden (1660 and 1667) in the vain hope of recovering the succession, finally settling in Rome, where she died on the 19th of April 1689, poor, neglected and forgotten.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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