FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Christina Hoff Sommers

Christina Hoff Sommers (born 1950) is an American author who researches culture, adolescents, and morality in American society. Her best known books are Who Stole Feminism?: How Women Have Betrayed Women and The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism Is Harming Our Young Men. A former university philosophy professor in Ethics at Clark University in Worcester, MA, she is a resident scholar at a organization called the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, and a member of the Board of Advisors of the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education. She speaks on college campuses through the Clare Boothe Luce Policy Institute's campus lecture program. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Equity feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994). ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Authorship redirects here. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research is a think tank founded in 1943 whose stated mission is to support the foundations of freedom - limited government, private enterprise, vital cultural and political institutions, and a strong foreign policy and national defense. ... The FIRE logo. ...


Sommers earned her B.A. at New York University where she graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1971. She received her Ph.D. in philosophy at Brandeis University in 1979. New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ... The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an honor society which considers its mission to be fostering and recognizing excellence in undergraduate liberal arts and sciences. ... Usen Castle, the most recognized building on campus Brandeis University is a private university located in Waltham, Massachusetts, United States. ...

Contents

Summary

In her books and articles Hoff Sommers questions the integrity of some modern feminist research, including that done by Carol Gilligan and Naomi Wolf among others (see feminism). Hoff Sommers details how flawed reports have commanded large research grants and have been instrumental in setting misguided legislation and education policy. For example, the often quoted March of Dimes study which says that 'domestic violence is the leading cause of birth defects,' does not even exist, yet it may have played a role in setting the scope of the Violence Against Women Act, which allocates one billion dollars a year in federal funds for fighting domestic violence[citation needed]. Carol Gilligan (1936– ) is an American feminist, ethicist, and psychologist best known for her work with and against Lawrence Kohlberg on ethical community and ethical relationships, and certain subject-object problems in ethics. ... Naomi Wolf (born 1962) is an American writer. ... Feminists redirects here. ... The Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (VAWA) is a United States federal law. ...


In his book “Pedagogy of the Oppressed” the political scientist Paulo Freire set forth the principal that all struggles tend towards supremacy movements in the absence of unusually enlightened internal guidance. In "Who Stole Feminism" Hoff Sommers applies this principal to feminism by outlining the transition from "equity feminism" to "gender feminism". She describes equity feminism as encapsulating the concepts of equal legal and civil rights and many of the original goals of the first wave of the women's movement; while describing "gender feminism" as accenting the differences of genders for the purposes of creating privilege for women in academia, government, industry, or advancing personal agendas. (This thesis is echoed by Tammy Bruce, former president of NOW, in her book “The New Thought Police.”) Paulo Freire Paulo Freire (Recife, Brazil September 19, 1921 - São Paulo, Brazil May 2, 1997) was a Brazilian educator and influential theorist of education. ... Equity feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994). ... Gender feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994) to critique the mainstream of the contemporary feminist movement, which she felt was unduly gynocentric. ... Equity feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994). ... First-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The Feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement and Womens Liberation) campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, discrimination and sexual violence. ... Gender feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994) to critique the mainstream of the contemporary feminist movement, which she felt was unduly gynocentric. ... Tammy Bruce (born August 19, 1962) is a pro-choice lesbian feminist who hosts The Tammy Bruce Show, a radio talk show broadcast on over 160 stations in the United States. ...


Hoff Sommers does not hold out much hope current leaders will provide enlightened guidance. After attending the Heilbrun conference she writes of them:

The women at the Heilbrun conference are the New Feminists: articulate, prone to self-dramatization, and chronically offended. Many of the women on the "Anger" panel were tenured professors at prestigious universities. All had fine and expensive educations. Yet, listening to them one would never guess that they live in a country whose women are legally as free as the men and whose institutions of higher learning now have more female than male students.[1]

Reminiscent of the book, "The Manipulated Mind", Hoff Sommers suggests that feminist leaders are not only placing their political goals above academic honesty, but they are also indoctrinating impressionable university students not with grounded science, but rather with disingenuous emotionally charged pseudo information. Examples of this may be found in Naomi Wolf's “Fire with Fire”, where Wolf tells women to bring out their mean girl traits (See Rachel Simmons, “Odd Girl Out”), to trade acts of vengeance against men (“cross targeting”), and to engage in vicious gossip for the cause (“tell men's secrets,” she writes). Rachel Simmons, born August 10, 1974, is an American author of the book Odd Girl Out: The Hidden Culture of Aggression in Girls. ...

Gender feminism

Hoff Sommers coined the term, "Gender feminism", in her book Who Stole Feminism? (Simon & Schuster, 1994). She uses the phrase to describe feminism which criticizes contemporary gender roles and aims to eliminate them altogether. In current usage, gender feminism may also describe feminism which seeks to use legal means to give preference to women in such areas as spousal abuse, child custody, sexual harassment, divorce proceedings, and pay equity. Supporters assert that such activity leads to further equality among the sexes, while critics argue that this amounts only to reverse discrimination and encourages political, legal, social and economic rent-seeking activity based on gender.[citation needed] A bagpiper in military uniform. ... The phenomenon of rent-seeking was first identified in connection with monopolies by Gordon Tullock, in a paper in 1967. ...


Hoff Sommers claims that gender feminism characterizes most of the body of modern feminist theory. Hoff Sommers prefers what she calls equity feminism, the goal of which is to establish full legal equality of women and men, and equality of opportunity. Hoff Sommers argues that while the feminists she designates as gender feminists advocate preferential treatment and portraying women as victims, equity feminism provides a viable alternative form of feminism. She uses the terms to critique the contemporary academic and middle-class feminist movement, which she felt was obsessively gynocentric and misandric.[citation needed] Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Equity feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994). ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Responses to Hoff Sommers

Although Sommers calls herself feminist, some critics see her as antifeminist, saying she attacks basic claims of feminism[2][3]. Sommers disagrees that she 'attacks the basic claims of feminism', arguing instead that she supports the original ideals of feminism, and only opposes the modern gender feminism. Antifeminism refers to the disbelief in or opposition to the economic, political and social equality of women. ...


A formal response to Christina Hoff Sommer's charges against the American Association of University Women, AAUW, appears on the web at [4](reference 1). Wiki editors are unaware of Hoff Sommers countering these responses. Hoff Sommers is also criticized in a work on political correctness in [5](reference 8). [It would be nice to have more specifics from the Wilson reference.]


These responses address some of the charges Hoff Sommers has made, but not all, and not some of the more egregious ones, such as citing a study that does not exist. Apparently there have been neither formal actions against the authors who are accused of academic dishonesty, nor formal actions against Hoff Sommers for making false allegations. This is a confusing outcome for those who would like to cite the targeted research, and for those who would like to weigh the merit of the thesis of transition in the feminist movement.


Books

  • Who Stole Feminism?: How Women Have Betrayed Women (1994) ISBN 0-684-80156-6
  • The War against Boys: How Misguided Feminism Is Harming Our Young Men (June 2001) ISBN 0-684-84957-7
  • Vice and Virtue in Everyday Life
  • Right and Wrong: Basic Readings in Ethics
  • One Nation Under Therapy: How the Helping Culture is Eroding Self-Reliance

References

  1. ^ American Association of University Women: Responding to Who Stole Feminism? by Christina Hoff Sommers .
  2. ^ McElroy, Wendy. "Prostitution: Reconsidering Research", SpinTech, (magazine), 1999-11-12. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. 
  3. ^ LaFramboise, LaFramboise (1996). The Princess at the Window: A New Gender Morality. Toronto, Canada: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-025690-3. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. “Over the past few years, a growing number of women have written books critical of mainstream feminism. Among them [...] Christina Hoff Sommers.” 
  4. ^ Hoff Sommers, Christina (1994). Who Stole Feminism?: How Women Have Betrayed Women. New York: Simon and Schuster, 22. ISBN 0-671-79424-8 (hb), ISBN 0-684-80156-6 (pb), LCC HQ1154.S613 1994. 
  5. ^  ibid. p. 21
  6. ^ Jennifer Pozner: Female Anti-Feminism for Fame and Profit.
  7. ^ Flood, Michael (2004-07-07). "Backlash: Angry men's movements", in Stacey Elin Rossi, ed.: The Battle and Backlash Rage On. N.p.: XLibris, 273. ISBN 1-4134-5934-X. 
  8. ^ Wilson, John (December 2005). The Myth Of Political Correctness. N.p.: Duke University Press, 224. ISBN 978-0822317135. 

Wendy McElroy is a Canadian individualist anarchist and individualist feminist. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Donna Laframboise is a Canadian feminist, journalist and author critical of recent developments in feminism. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Library of Congress reading room The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. ... Dr Michael Flood is an Australian sociologist. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Wilson may refer to: // John Wilson (Scottish politician), member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) John Wilson (British politician), leader, Greater London Council, 1984 John Wilson (British Columbia politician) (born 1944), member of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, Canada John Wilson (Massachusetts), member of the U.S. House of... December 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → 31 December 2005 (Saturday) 25-year-old Scottish human rights worker Kate Burton and her parents are freed unharmed in the Gaza Strip by the Palestinian gunmen who kidnapped them two days earlier. ...

Further reading

  • Sterling Harwood, "Introduction: A Statistical Portrait," in Sterling Harwood, ed., Business as Ethical and Business as Usual (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 2000), pp. 166-167.

See also

The Clare Boothe Luce Policy Institute is a think tank created by Michelle Easton in 1993 in order to serve as a female counterpart to the Young Americas Foundation. ... The Independent Womens Forum (IWF) is an organization that, according to its website, was established to combat the women-as-victim, pro-Big Government ideology of radical feminism. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Christina Hoff Sommers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (650 words)
Christina Hoff Sommers (born 1950) is an American author who researches culture, adolescents, and morality in American society.
Christina Hoff Sommers argues that "gender feminism" is opposed to "equity feminism" (she coined these terms).
Sommers recognizes, however, that the view she considers mainstream is not the loudest voice in feminism.
BookPage Interview July 2000: Christina Hoff Sommers (990 words)
Sommers, who took academic feminists to task in her 1994 book Who Stole Feminism?, says these groups have promoted misleading and incorrect data, an assertion she probes in her book.
Sommers explains that she would also like to see a "major correction in the schools of education in their offerings on gender education." She recommends a new study be required reading: "Trends in Educational Equity of Girls & Women" by the U.S. Department of Education.
Sommers has had to go to bat for her own son, who once got in "big" trouble during a school field trip for jumping up and swatting a restaurant awning that the class passed on the street.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m