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Encyclopedia > Christianity
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Christianity


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Jesus Christ
Virgin birth · Crucifixion · Resurrection
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Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament.[2] As of the early 21st century, it has between 1.5 billion[3][4] and 2.1 billion adherents,[5] representing about a quarter to a third of the world's population.[6] It is the state religion of at least fifteen countries.[7] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... Christian music (sometimes marketed as Inspirational music, Praise music, Worship music, or Contemporary Christian Music/CCM) is music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life, as well as (in terms of the varying music styles) to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A liturgy is a... For Dom Guérangers series of books, see The Liturgical Year. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article presents a description of Jesus life, as based on the four gospels. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church...


Its followers, known as Christians, believe that Jesus is[8] the Son of God and the Messiah (or Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament, the part of their scriptures they have in common with Judaism.[9] To Christians, Jesus Christ is a teacher, the model of a pious life, the revealer of God, and most importantly the saviour of humanity who suffered, died, and was resurrected in order to bring about salvation from sin.[10] Christians maintain that Jesus ascended into heaven and most denominations teach that Jesus will judge the living and the dead, granting everlasting life to his followers. Christians describe the New Testament account of Jesus' ministry as the Gospel, or "good news". For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of... Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , Aramaic/Syriac: , ; Arabic: ‎, ) Literally, Messiah means The Anointed (One), typically someone anointed with holy anointing oil. ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Bible prophecy, or biblical prophecy is the belief that the exegesis and hermeneutics that relate to those scriptures containing various prophecies regarding global politics, natural disasters, the future of the nation of Israel, the coming of a Messiah and a Messianic Kingdom, and the ultimate destiny of humankind are true. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In spiritual terminology, piety is a virtue. ... Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown, which could not be known apart from the unveiling (Goswiller 1987 p. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre based on a german documentary, claimed to be the site of Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... The Christian doctrine of the Ascension holds that Jesus bodily ascended to heaven following his resurrection. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Trinity is often regarded as an essential doctrine of mainstream Christianity. The common understanding of the Holy Trinity, espoused in the Nicene Creed, is one God who exists in three Persons – Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit – who are coequal, co-eternal, of the same substance. "Father, Son and Holy Spirit" represents both the immanence and transcendence of God. God is believed to be infinite and God's presence may be perceived through the actions of Jesus and the Holy Spirit.[11] This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Homoousianism (from the Greek ομολοζ meaning same and ousia meaning essence or being) is the offical doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church with regard to the ontological status of the three parts of the Trinity: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... Immanence, derived from the Latin in manere to remain within, refers to philosophical and metaphysical theories of the divine as existing and acting within the mind or the world. ... Transcendence may refer to: Transcendence (mathematics) Transcendental number, a real number that is not the root of any polynomial with rational coefficients Transcendental element, an element of a field extension that is not the root of any polynomial with coefficients from the base field Transcendental function, a function which does...


The disciples were first called Christians (Greek Χριστιανός), meaning "followers of Christ", in Antioch.[12] Ignatius of Antioch was the first Christian to use the label in self-reference. The earliest recorded use of the term Christianity (Greek Χριστιανισμός) was also by Ignatius of Antioch, around AD 100.[13] In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ...


Like Judaism and Islam, Christianity is classified as an Abrahamic religion (see also Judeo-Christian).[14][15][16] Through missionary work and colonisation, Christianity spread firstly in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and parts of India and subsequently throughout the entire world.[17] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Saint Thomas Christians are a group of Christians from the Malabar coast (now Kerala) in South India, who follow Syriac Christianity. ...

Contents

Beliefs

The Sermon On the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch, Danish painter, d. 1890.
The Sermon On the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch, Danish painter, d. 1890.

In spite of important differences of interpretation and opinion, Christians share a set of beliefs that they hold as essential to their faith.[18] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... Carl Heinrich Bloch (May 23, 1834 – February 22, 1890) was a Danish painter. ...


Jesus Christ

The focus of a Christian's life is a firm belief in Jesus as the Son of God and the "Messiah" or "Christ". The title "Messiah" comes from the Hebrew word מָשִׁיחַ (māšiáħ) meaning anointed one. The Greek translation Χριστός (Christos) is the source of the English word "Christ".[19] Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of... Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , Aramaic/Syriac: , ; Arabic: ‎, ) Literally, Messiah means The Anointed (One), typically someone anointed with holy anointing oil. ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... This page is about the title. ...

A depiction of Jesus and Mary, the Theotokos of Vladimir (12th century)

Christians believe that, as the Messiah, Jesus was anointed by God as ruler and savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus' coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept. The core Christian belief is that, through the death and resurrection of Jesus, sinful humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.[20] Download high resolution version (456x681, 221 KB)Our Lady of Vladimir (12th century), the holy protectress of Russia, now in the Tretyakov Gallery. ... Download high resolution version (456x681, 221 KB)Our Lady of Vladimir (12th century), the holy protectress of Russia, now in the Tretyakov Gallery. ... Theotokos of Vladimir The Theotokos of Vladimir, also known as Our Lady of Vladimir, the Virgin of Vladimir or Vladimirskaya (Russian: ), is one of the most venerated Orthodox icons. ... To anoint is to grease with perfumed oil, animal fat, or melted butter, a process employed ritually by many religions and races. ... The Messianic Prophecies of Jesus are the passages in the Old Testament which Christians believe are prophecies of the coming of Jesus, whom Christians call the Christ (or the Messiah). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre based on a german documentary, claimed to be the site of Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus. ... Original Sin redirects here. ... The Fountain of Eternal Life in Cleveland, Ohio Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of living in physical or spiritual form for an infinite length of time, or in a state of timelessness. ...


While there have been theological disputes over the nature of Jesus, Christians generally believe that Jesus is God incarnate and "true God and true man" (or both fully divine and fully human). Jesus, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, yet he did not sin. As fully God, he defeated death and rose to life again. According to the Bible, "God raised him from the dead,"[21] he ascended to heaven, is "seated at the right hand of the Father"[22] and will return again[23] to fulfil the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment and final establishment of the Kingdom of God. Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... The hypostatic union (also known as the mystical union), in Christian theology, refers to the dual nature of Jesus Christ as being simultaneously God and Man. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Also refers to the process of gaining Enlightenment and several meditation techniques. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... In Abrahamic religions, messianic prophecies describe the coming, acts, authority, personality, nature, etc. ... Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all variously describe a resurrection of the dead, usually a resurrection of all people to face God on Judgment Day. ... Judgment Day redirects here. ... Kingdom of Heaven redirects here. ...


According to the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born from the Virgin Mary. Little of Jesus' childhood is recorded in the canonical Gospels, however infancy Gospels were popular in antiquity. In comparison, his adulthood, especially the week before his death, are well documented in the Gospels contained within the New Testament.[neutrality disputed] The Biblical accounts of Jesus' ministry include: his baptism, miracles, preaching, teaching, and deeds. For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. ... Virgin Mary redirects here. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... Several surviving infancy gospels give an idea of the miracle literature that was created in the early Christian church to satisfy the hunger of early Christians for more detail about the early life of their Savior. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry, which may be categorized into cures, exorcisms, dominion over nature, three instances of raising the dead, and various others. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years. ...


Death and resurrection of Jesus

The Crucifixion by Diego Velázquez (17th century)

Christians consider the resurrection of Jesus to be the cornerstone of their faith and the most important event in human history.[24] Within the body of Christian beliefs, the death and resurrection of Jesus are two core events on which much of Christian doctrine and theology depend.[25][26] According to the New Testament, Jesus, the central figure of Christianity, was crucified, died, buried within a tomb, and resurrected three days later.[27] The New Testament mentions several resurrection appearances of Jesus on different occasions to his twelve apostles and disciples, including "more than five hundred brethren at once",[28] before Jesus' Ascension. Jesus's death and resurrection are the essential doctrines of the Christian faith, and are commemorated by Christians during Good Friday and Easter, particularly during the liturgical time of Holy Week. Arguments over death and resurrection claims occur at many religious debates and interfaith dialogues.[29] A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre based on a german documentary, claimed to be the site of Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (768x836, 41 KB)O JESUS WHAT DID U DO NOW! // Cristo de Velázquez. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (768x836, 41 KB)O JESUS WHAT DID U DO NOW! // Cristo de Velázquez. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... In the Supper at Emmaus, Caravaggio depicted the moment the disciples recognise Jesus The Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported in the New Testament to have occurred after his death and burial. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... Also refers to the process of gaining Enlightenment and several meditation techniques. ... Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... For Dom Guérangers series of books, see The Liturgical Year. ... For the 1958 novel of the same name by Louis Aragon, see La Semaine Sainte. ... discussion redirects here. ... The term interfaith or interfaith dialogue refers to cooperative and positive interaction between people of different religious traditions, (ie. ...


As Paul the Apostle, an early Christian convert, wrote, "If Christ was not raised, then all our preaching is useless, and your trust in God is useless".[30][31] The death and resurrection of Jesus are the most important events in Christian Theology, as they form the point in scripture where Jesus gives his ultimate demonstration that he has power over life and death and thus the ability to give people eternal life.[32] St. ... Christian doctrine redirects here. ... Immortality is the concept of existing for a potentially infinite or indeterminate length of time. ...


Generally, Christian churches accept and teach the New Testament account of the resurrection of Jesus.[33][34] Some modern scholars use the belief of Jesus' followers in the resurrection as a point of departure for establishing the continuity of the historical Jesus and the proclamation of the early church.[35] Some liberal Christians do not accept a literal bodily resurrection,[36][37] seeing the story as richly symbolic and spiritually nourishing[clarify] myth. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ...


Soteriology

Main articles: Soteriology and Salvation

Soteriology is the branch of Christian theology that deals with salvation through Jesus Christ.[38] Christians believe salvation is a gift by means of the unmerited grace of God. Christians believe that, through faith in Jesus, one can be saved from sin and eternal death. The crucifixion of Jesus is explained as an atoning sacrifice, which, in the words of the Gospel of John, "takes away the sins of the world." One's reception of salvation is related to justification.[39] Soteriology is the study of salvation. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... Soteriology is the study of salvation. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God. ...


The operation and effects of grace are understood differently by different traditions. Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy teach the necessity of the free will to cooperate with grace.[40] Reformed theology places distinctive emphasis on grace by teaching that individuals are completely incapable of self-redemption, but the grace of God overcomes even the unwilling heart.[41] Arminianism takes a synergistic approach while Lutheran doctrine teaches justification by grace alone through faith alone.[42] Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Reformed theology is a branch of Protestant Christian theology based primarily on the theology of Jesus. ... Total depravity (also called total inability and total corruption) is a theological doctrine that derives from the Augustinian doctrine of original sin and is advocated in many Protestant confessions of faith and catechisms, including those of Lutheranism,1 Anglicanism and Methodism,2 Arminianism, and Calvinism. ... Irresistible Grace (or efficacious grace) is a doctrine in Christian theology particularly associated with Augustinism, Thomism [1] and Calvinism which teaches that the saving grace of God is effectually applied to those whom He has determined to save (the elect) and, in Gods timing, overcomes their resistance to obeying... Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacob Hermann, who was best known by the Latin form of his name, Jacobus Arminius. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ...


Trinity

Main article: Trinity
The "Hospitality of Abraham" by Andrei Rublev: The three angels represent the three persons of God
The "Hospitality of Abraham" by Andrei Rublev: The three angels represent the three persons of God

This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2497, 683 KB) Description: Title: de: Heilige Dreifaltigkeit Technique: de: Tempera, grundiertes Holz Dimensions: de: 112 × 141 cm Country of origin: de: Rußland Current location (city): de: Moskau Current location (gallery): de: Tretjakow-Galerie Other notes: de: Ikonenmalerei Source: The... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2497, 683 KB) Description: Title: de: Heilige Dreifaltigkeit Technique: de: Tempera, grundiertes Holz Dimensions: de: 112 × 141 cm Country of origin: de: Rußland Current location (city): de: Moskau Current location (gallery): de: Tretjakow-Galerie Other notes: de: Ikonenmalerei Source: The...

Trinitarians

The term trinitarian denotes those Christians who hold to a belief in the concept of Trinity. Trinity refers to the teaching that the one God comprises three distinct, eternally co-existing persons; the Father' (from whom the Son and Spirit proceed), the Son (incarnate in Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit. Together, these three persons are sometimes called the Godhead,[43][44][45] although there is no single term in use in Scripture to denote the unified Godhead.[46] In the words of the Athanasian Creed, an early statement of Christian belief, "the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God, and yet there are not three Gods but one God.".[47] In Christianity, the Godhead is a term denoting deity or divinity. ... The Athanasian Creed (Quicunque vult) is a statement of Christian doctrine traditionally ascribed to St. ...


According to this doctrine, God is not divided in the sense that each person has a third of the whole; rather, each person is considered to be fully God (see Perichoresis). The distinction lies in their relations, the Father being unbegotten; the Son being eternal yet begotten of the Father; and the Holy Spirit 'proceeding' from Father and (in Western theology) from the Son.[48] Regardless of this apparent difference in their origins, the three 'persons' are each eternal and omnipotent. This is thought by Trinitarian Christians to be the revelation regarding God's nature which Jesus Christ came to deliver to the world, and is the foundation of their belief system. Perichoresis in theology, referred to the mutual inter-penetration and indwelling of the Father and the Son. ... While in the popular mind, eternity often simply means existing for an infinite, i. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is the power to do absolutely anything. ...


The word trias, from which trinity is derived, is first seen in the works of Theophilus of Antioch. He wrote of "the Trinity of God (the Father), His Word (the Son) and His Wisdom (Holy Spirit)".[49] The term may have been in use before this time. Afterwards it appears in Tertullian.[50][51] In the following century the word was in general use. It is found in many passages of Origen.[52] Theophilus, Patriarch of Antioch (Eusebius Ecclesiastical History iv. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ...


Non-trinitarians

Main article: Nontrinitarianism

Nontrinitarianism includes all Christian beliefs systems that reject the Trinity, the doctrine that God is three distinct persons in one being. Various nontrinitarian views, such as adoptionism and Arianism, existed before the Trinity was formally defined as doctrine in AD 325.[53] Nontrinitarianism later appeared again in the Gnosticism of the Cathars in the 11th through 13th centuries, in the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, and in Restorationism during the 19th century. The nontrinitarian view was rejected by many early Christian bishops such as Irenaeus and subsequently by the Ecumenical Councils.[54] During the Reformation some nontrinitarians rejected these councils as spiritually tainted,[55] though most Christians continued to accept the value of many of the councils. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Nontrinitarianism refers to Christian... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Nontrinitarianism refers to Christian... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Christian doctrine redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Adoptionism is a minority Christian belief that Jesus was born merely human and that he became divine later in his life. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect god, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration The term Restorationism is used to describe both the late middle ages (15-16th century) movement that preceded the protestant reformation, and recent religious movements. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An...


Casper Schwenckfeld and Melchior Hoffman advanced the view that Christ was only divine and not human.[56][57] Michael Servetus denied that the traditional doctrine of the Trinity was necessary to defend the divinity of Christ. He claimed that Jesus was God Himself in the flesh.[58] Modalists, such as Oneness Pentecostals, regard God as a single person, with the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit considered modes or roles by which the unipersonal God expresses himself,[59] in this way they parallel ancient Sabellians.[60][61] Latter-day Saints (commonly called Mormons) accept the divinity of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, but deny that they are the same being. Rather, they believe them to be separate beings united perfectly in will and purpose, thus making up one single Godhead. They believe that the Father, like the Son, has a glorified physical body.[62] Kaspar Schwenkfeld von Ossig (also as Caspar Schwenckfeld von Ossig) (1490-December 10, 1561), was a Silesian nobleman who became a Christian Reformer and spiritualist. ... Melchior Hoffman or Hofmann (c. ... Michael Servetus. ... Oneness Pentecostalism is a movement of Pentecostal Christianity that teaches the atoning death of Jesus Christ, His resurrection, His soon return, and the inerrancy of the word of God. ... In Christianity, Sabellianism (also known as modalism, modalistic monarchianism, or modal monarchism) is the nontrinitarian belief that the Heavenly Father, Resurrected Son and Holy Spirit are different modes or aspects of one God (for us only), rather than three distinct persons (in Himself). ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... For more general information about religious denominations that follow the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Mormonism, depending on era and denomination within the Latter Day Saint movement, has accommodated a diverse range of views of the concept of the Christian Godhead including forms of modalism, binitarianism, tritheism, henotheism, and trinitarianism. ...


Scriptures

Main article: Bible

Christianity regards the Bible, a collection of canonical books in two parts (the Old Testament and the New Testament), as authoritative. It is believed by Christians to have been written by human authors under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, and therefore for many it is held to be the inerrant Word of God.[63][64][65] The books that are considered canon in the Bible vary depending upon the denomination using or defining it. These variations are a reflection of the range of traditions and councils that have convened on the subject. The Bible always includes books of the Jewish scriptures, the Tanakh, and includes additional books and reorganizes them into two parts: the books of the Old Testament primarily sourced from the Tanakh (with some variations), and the 27 books of the New Testament containing books originally written primarily in Greek[66]. The Roman Catholic and Orthodox canons include other books from the Septuagint Greek Jewish canon which Roman Catholics call Deuterocanonical.[67] Protestants consider these books apocryphal. Some versions of the Christian Bible have a separate Apocrypha section for the books not considered canonical by the publisher[68] . The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints also considers the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price to be scriptural texts which, along with the Bible, collectively make up the Standard Works of the LDS Church[69] For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A tradition is a story or a custom that is memorized and passed down from generation to generation, originally without the need for a writing system. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible, in contrast to the protocanonical books which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... // The Book of Mormon [1] is one of the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Doctrine and Covenants The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes abbreviated and cited as D&C) is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. ... For other uses of Pearl of Great Price, see the Pearl of Great Price page. ... The Standard Works of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) consists of several books that constitute its open, scriptural canon, and include the following: The Holy Bible (King James version)* The Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ The Doctrine and Covenants The Pearl...


Interpretation

Though Christians largely agree on the content of the Bible, there is significant divergence in its interpretation, or exegesis. In antiquity, two schools of exegesis developed in Alexandria and Antioch. Alexandrine interpretation, exemplified by Origen, tended to read Scripture allegorically, while Antiochene interpretation adhered to the literal sense, holding that other meanings (called theoria) could only be accepted if based on the literal meaning.[70] Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of an authoritative text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... During the first Christian centuries the schools of Alexandria and Antioch were the main theological centers. ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...


Roman Catholic

Roman Catholic theology distinguishes two senses of scripture: the literal and the spiritual.[71]


The literal sense of understanding scripture is the meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture and discovered by exegesis, following the rules of sound interpretation. It has three subdivisions: the allegorical, moral, and anagogical (meaning mystical or spiritual) senses. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

Roman Catholic theology adds other rules of interpretation that include: The Ascension from a Speculum Humanae Salvationis ca 1430, see below Typology is a theological doctrine of theory of types and their antitypes found in Scripture. ... In Black is the traditional Exodus Routes as agreed on by Biblical Scholars, Historians, and Geologists. ... For the eschatological beliefs of various religions, see End Times. ... St. ...

  • the injunction that all other senses of sacred scripture are based on the literal;[73]
  • that the historicity of the Gospels must be absolutely and constantly held;[74]
  • that scripture must be read within the "living Tradition of the whole Church";[75] and
  • that "the task of interpretation has been entrusted to the bishops in communion with the successor of Peter, the Bishop of Rome".[76]

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ...

Protestant

Many Protestant Christians believe that the Bible is a self-sufficient revelation, the final authority on all Christian doctrine, and contains all revealed truth necessary for salvation. This concept is known as Sola scriptura.[77] Many Protestants stress the literal sense or historical-grammatical method,[78] some even to the extent of rejecting other senses altogether. Other Protestant interpreters make use of typology.[79] Protestants characteristically believe that ordinary believers may reach an adequate understanding of Scripture because Scripture itself is clear (or "perspicuous"), because of the help of the Holy Spirit, or both. Martin Luther believed that without God's help Scripture would be "enveloped in darkness."[80] He advocated "one definite and simple understanding of Scripture."[80] John Calvin wrote, "all who...follow the Holy Spirit as their guide, find in the Scripture a clear light."[81] The Second Helvetic (Latin for "Swiss")[82] Confession, composed by the pastor of the Reformed church in Zurich (successor to Protestant reformer Zwingli) was adopted as a declaration of doctrine by most European Reformed churches.[83] The Confession contains this statement about interpreting Scripture: Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown, which could not be known apart from the unveiling (Goswiller 1987 p. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about theological concept. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ...

"We hold that interpretation of the Scripture to be orthodox and genuine which is gleaned from the Scriptures themselves (from the nature of the language in which they were written, likewise according to the circumstances in which they were set down, and expounded in the light of like and unlike passages and of many and clearer passages)." The writings of the Church Fathers, and decisions of Ecumenical Councils, though "not despise[d]," were not authoritative and could be rejected.

Second Helvetic Confession (1566) Helvetic Confessions, the name of two documents expressing the common belief of the Reformed churches of Switzerland. ...

Creeds

Main article: Creeds

Creeds (from Latin credo meaning "I believe") are concise doctrinal statements or confessions, usually of religious beliefs. They began as baptismal formulas and were later expanded during the Christological controversies of the fourth and fifth centuries to become statements of faith. This article is about statements of belief; Creed is also the name of a rock band, and a village in Cornwall A creed is a statement of belief—usually religious belief—or faith. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Apostles Creed

The Apostles Creed (Symbolum Apostolorum) was developed between the second and ninth centuries. It is the most popular creed used in worship by Western Christians. Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was apparently used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome.[84] Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Apostles Creed (in Latin, Symbolum (Credo) Apostolicum), is an early statement of Christian belief, possibly from the first or second century, but more likely post-Nicene Creed in the early 4th Century AD. The theological specifics of the creed appear to be a refutation of Gnosticism, an early heresy. ...

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Nicene Creed

The Nicene Creed, largely a response to Arianism, was formulated at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 respectively,[85] and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the Council of Ephesus in 431.[86] Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... Cyril of Alexandria The Council of Ephesus was held in the Church of Mary in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great; Ephesus was the city of Artemis (see Acts 19:28). ...


The Chalcedonian Creed, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451,[87] though not accepted by the Oriental Orthodox Churches,[88] taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably": one divine and one human, and that both natures are perfect but are nevertheless perfectly united into one person.[89] The Chalcedonian Creed was adopted at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 in Asia Minor. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... The hypostatic union (also known as the mystical union), in Christian theology, refers to the dual nature of Jesus Christ as being simultaneously God and Man. ...


The Athanasian Creed, received in the western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance."[90] The Athanasian Creed (Quicunque vult) is a statement of Christian doctrine traditionally ascribed to St. ...


Most Catholics, Protestants, and Orthodox accept the creeds.[91] Restorationists oppose the use of creeds.[92] For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration Restorationism refers to several unaffiliated religious movements that believe that grave defects were introduced by Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Christians into Christianity. ...


Afterlife and Eschaton

Main article: Christian eschatology

Most Christians believe that upon bodily death the soul experiences the particular judgment and is either rewarded with eternal heaven or condemned to an eternal hell. The elect are called "saints" (Latin sanctus: "holy") and the process of being made holy is called sanctification. In Catholicism, those who die in a state of grace but with either unforgiven venial sins or incomplete penance, undergo purification in purgatory to achieve the holiness necessary for entrance into heaven. At the second coming of Christ at the end of time, all who have died will be resurrected bodily from the dead for the Last Judgement, whereupon Jesus will fully establish the Kingdom of God in fulfillment of scriptural prophecies.[93][94] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian theology, Christian eschatology is the... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... In Christian eschatology, particular judgment is the doctrine that immediately after death the eternal destiny of each separated soul is decided by the just judgment of God. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ... For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... For the eschatological beliefs of various religions, see End Times. ... Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all variously describe a resurrection of the dead, usually a resurrection of all people to face God on Judgment Day. ... Image:Michelangelo - Fresco of the Last Judgment. ... Kingdom of Heaven redirects here. ... Bible prophecy, or biblical prophecy is the belief that the exegesis and hermeneutics that relate to those scriptures containing various prophecies regarding global politics, natural disasters, the future of the nation of Israel, the coming of a Messiah and a Messianic Kingdom, and the ultimate destiny of humankind are true. ...


Some groups do not distinguish a particular judgment from the general judgment at the end of time, teaching instead that souls remain in stasis until this time.[95] These groups, and others that do not believe in the intercession of saints, generally do not employ the word "saint" to describe those in heaven. General judgment is the Christian theological concept of a judgment of the souls of the dead by nation and as a whole. ... Soul sleep is a belief held by some Christians claiming that between death and the resurrection of the dead, the body and soul rest together in unconsciousness. ... // Christianity In Christian practice, intercessory prayer is the act of one person praying for or on behalf of another person or situation. ...


Universal Reconciliation is the view that all will eventually experience salvation, rejecting the concept that hell is literally everlasting.[96][97] Christians espousing this view are known as Universalists, not to be confused with Unitarian Universalists.[98] Origen, a 3rd century proponent of universal reconciliation In Christian theology, universal reconciliation or universal salvation, is the doctrine or belief that all will eventually find salvation and reconciliation with God. ... Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to traditional Christian belief in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). ...


Worship

Main article: Christian worship

Justin Martyr described 2nd century Christian liturgy in his First Apology (c. 150) to Emperor Antoninus Pius, and his description remains relevant to the basic structure of Christian liturgical worship: Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... The First Apology was an early work of Christian apologetics addressed by Justin Martyr to the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ...

Samples of Christian religious objects- The Holy Bible, a Crucifix, and a Rosary.
Samples of Christian religious objects- The Holy Bible, a Crucifix, and a Rosary.
"And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need."[99]

Thus, as Justin described, Christians assemble for communal worship on Sunday, the day of the resurrection, though other liturgical practices often occur outside this setting. Scripture readings are drawn from the Old and New Testaments, but especially the Gospels. Often these are arranged on an annual cycle, using a book called a lectionary. Instruction is given based on these readings, called a sermon, or homily. There are a variety of congregational prayers, including thanksgiving, confession, and intercession, which occur throughout the service and take a variety of forms including recited, responsive, silent, or sung. The Lord's Prayer, or Our Father, is regularly prayed. The Eucharist (called Holy Communion, or the Lord's Supper) is the part of liturgical worship that consists of a consecrated meal, usually bread and wine. Justin Martyr described the Eucharist: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 453 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 453 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crucifix (disambiguation). ... Our Lady of Lourdes appearing at Lourdes with Rosary beads. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... In geosciences, an annual cycle is the part of a measured quantitys fluctuation that is attributed to Earths changing position in orbit over the course of the year. ... A Lectionary is a book or listing that contains a collection of scripture readings for Christian worship. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...

"And this food is called among us Eukaristia [the Eucharist], of which no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has enjoined. For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these; but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Saviour, having been made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh."[99]

Some Christian denominations view communion as indicating those who are already united in the church, restricting participation to their members not in a state of mortal sin (closed communion). Most other churches view communion as a means to unity, rather than an end, and invite all Christians or even anyone to participate (open communion). In some denominations, participation is decided by prior arrangement with a church leader. List of Christian denominations ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... Mortal sin, according to the beliefs of Roman Catholicism, is a sin that, unless confessed and absolved (or at least sacramental confession is willed if not available), condemns a persons soul to Hell after death. ... Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Some groups depart from this traditional liturgical structure. A division is often made between "High" church services, characterized by greater solemnity and ritual, and "Low" services, but even within these two categories there is great diversity in forms of worship. Seventh-day Adventists meet on Saturday (the original Sabbath), while others do not meet on a weekly basis. Charismatic or Pentecostal congregations may spontaneously feel led by the Holy Spirit to action rather than follow a formal order of service, including spontaneous prayer. Quakers sit quietly until moved by the Holy Spirit to speak. Some Evangelical services resemble concerts with rock and pop music, dancing, and use of multimedia. For groups which do not recognize a priesthood distinct from ordinary believers the services are generally lead by a minister, preacher, or pastor. Still others may lack any formal leaders, either in principle or by local necessity. Some churches use only a cappella music, either on principle (e.g. many Churches of Christ object to the use of instruments in worship) or by tradition (as in Orthodoxy). High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... In Christianity, a church service is a term used to describe a formalized period of worship, often but not exclusively occurring on Sunday, or Saturday in the case of a church practicing Sabbatarianism. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[3]) Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The charismatic movement began... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Christian rock (occasionally abbreviated CR) is a form of rock music played by bands whose members are Christian and who often focus the lyrics on matters concerned with the Christian faith. ... For other types of minister, see Minister In Christian churches, a minister is a man or woman who serves a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such persons can minister as a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain, Deacon or Elder. ... Preacher is a term the for someone who preaches sermons or gives homilies. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A pastor is an... This article is about the vocal technique. ... The Churches of Christ discussed in this article are not part of the United Church of Christ; the International Churches of Christ; the Disciples of Christ; the Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science); The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or any other denomination within the Latter Day...


Worship can be varied for special events like baptisms or weddings in the service or significant feast days. In the early church Christians and those yet to complete initiation would separate for the Eucharistic part of the worship. In many churches today, adults and children will separate for all or some of the service to receive age-appropriate teaching. Such children's worship is often called Sunday school or Sabbath school (Sunday schools are often held before rather than during services). This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... // Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ... Sunday school, Indians and whites. ... Sabbath School is a function of the Seventh-day Adventist church that roughly parallels Sunday School in most other Protestant denominations. ...


Sacraments

Main article: Sacrament
The Eucharist

In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite, instituted by Christ, that mediates grace, constituting a sacred mystery. The term is derived from the Latin word sacramentum, which was used to translate the Greek word for mystery.[100] Views concerning both what rites are sacramental, and what it means for an act to be a sacrament vary among Christian denominations and traditions.[100] In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Image File history File links Fractio-panis1. ... Image File history File links Fractio-panis1. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... The term Sacred Mysteries is used in the Eastern Churches to refer to what the Western Church calls Sacraments and Sacramentals. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


The most conventional functional definition of a sacrament is that it is an outward sign, instituted by Christ, that conveys an inward, spiritual grace through Christ. The two most widely accepted sacraments are Baptism and the Eucharist, however, the majority of Christians recognize seven Sacraments or Divine Mysteries: Baptism, Confirmation (Chrismation in the Orthodox tradition), and the Eucharist, Holy Orders, Reconciliation of a Penitent (confession), Anointing of the Sick, and Matrimony.[100] Taken together, these are the Seven Sacraments as recognised by churches in the High church tradition - notably Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Independent Catholic, Old Catholic and some Anglicans. Most other denominations and traditions typically affirm only Baptism and Eucharist as sacraments, while some Protestant groups, such as the Quakers, reject sacramental theology.[100] Some Christian denominations who believe these rites do not communicate grace prefer to call them ordinances. This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... See Reform Judaism article about its Confirmation ceremony. ... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Eastern Christianity. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Catholic deacon candidates prostrate before the altar of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles during a 2004 diaconate ordination liturgy In a general sense, the term Holy Orders refers to those in the Christian religion who have been ordained in Apostolic Succession. ... This article is about the practice of confession in the Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ... Extreme Unction, part of The Seven Sacraments (1445) by Roger van der Weyden. ... Ancient Christian Marriage symbol: two gold rings and Greek letters chi (X) and rho (P) for Jesus Christ // The Christian views of marriage historically have regarded marriage as ordained by God for the lifelong union of a man and a woman. ... The practice of the Roman Catholic Church includes seven sacraments. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... Catholic sacraments redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Eastern Christianity. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... Independent Catholic Churches are Christian denominations (or congregations) claiming valid apostolic succession of their bishops but are not a part of the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Old Catholic Churches under the Archbishop of Utrect or the Anglican Communion. ... The Old Catholic Church is not so much a religious denomination, as a community, part of whose member churches split from the Roman Catholic church in 1870. ... Like other churches in the Catholic tradition, the Anglican Communion recognises seven sacraments. ... List of Christian denominations ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... Ordinance is a Protestant Christian term for baptism, communion and other religious rituals. ...


Liturgical calendar

Main article: Liturgical year

Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Eastern Christians, and traditional Protestant communities frame worship around a liturgical calendar. This includes holy days, such as solemnities which commemorate an event in the life of Jesus or the saints, periods of fasting such as Lent, and other pious events such as memoria or lesser festivals commemorating saints. Christian groups that do not follow a liturgical tradition often retain certain celebrations, such as Christmas, Easter and Pentecost. A few churches make no use of a liturgical calendar.[101] For Dom Guérangers series of books, see The Liturgical Year. ... For Dom Guérangers series of books, see The Liturgical Year. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, the Holy Days of Obligation are the days, other than Sundays, on which the faithful are required to attend Mass. ... A Solemnity of the Roman Catholic Church observes an event in the life of Jesus, Mary, and the saints, beginning on the evening prior to actual date. ... Saints redirects here. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... For other uses, see Lent (disambiguation). ... Memoria was the term for aspects involving memory in Western classical rhetoric. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ...


Symbols

Main article: Christian symbolism
An early circular ichthys symbol, created by combining the Greek letters ΙΧΘΥΣ into a wheel. Ephesus, Asia Minor.

The cross, which is today one of the most widely recognised symbols in the world, was used as a Christian symbol from the earliest times.[102][103] In his book De Corona, written in the year 204, Tertullian tells how it was already a tradition for Christians to trace repeatedly on their foreheads the sign of the cross.[104] Although the cross was known to the early Christians, the crucifix did not appear in use until the fifth century.[105] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian symbolism... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The ichthys has been used to represent a number of ideas. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... A reliquary in the form of an ornate Christian Cross Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope... For other uses, see Crucifix (disambiguation). ...


Among the symbols employed by the primitive Christians, that of the fish seems to have ranked first in importance. From monumental sources such as tombs it is known that the symbolic fish was familiar to Christians from the earliest times. The fish was depicted as a Christian symbol in the first decades of the second century.[106] Its popularity among Christians was due principally, it would seem, to the famous acrostic consisting of the initial letters of five Greek words forming the word for fish (Ichthys), which words briefly but clearly described the character of Christ and the claim to worship of believers: Iesous Christos Theou Yios Soter, meaning, Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour.[106]


Christians from the very beginning adorned their tombs with paintings of Christ, of the saints, of scenes from the Bible and allegorical groups. The catacombs are the cradle of all Christian art. The first Christians had no prejudice against images, pictures, or statues. The idea that they must have feared the danger of idolatry among their new converts is disproved in the simplest way by the pictures even statues, that remain from the first centuries.[107] Other major Christian symbols include the chi-rho monogram, the dove (symbolic of the Holy Spirit), the sacrificial lamb (symbolic of Christ's sacrifice), the vine (symbolising the necessary connectedness of the Christian with Christ) and many others. These all derive from writings found in the New Testament.[105] For the Bronze Age culture, see Catacomb culture. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about Christian symbolism. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


History and origins

Main article: History of Christianity
Martyrdom of St. Ignatius, bishop of Antioch appointed by St. Peter.

Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Church historian redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ...

Early Church and Christological Councils

Christianity began as a Jewish sect.[108][109] The Christian Church traces its history to Jesus and the Twelve Apostles, and saw the early bishops of the Church as the successors of the Apostles in general. Central to the doctrines of the Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican Churches is Apostolic Succession, the belief that the bishops are the spiritual successors of the original twelve apostles, through the historically unbroken chain of consecration. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... This article is about religious groups. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article...


From the beginning, Christians were subject to various persecutions. This involved even death for Christians such as Stephen[110] and James, son of Zebedee.[111] Larger-scale persecutions followed at the hands of the authorities of the Roman Empire, beginning with the year 64, when, as reported by the Roman historian Tacitus, the Emperor Nero blamed them for that year's great Fire of Rome. According to Church tradition, it was under Nero's persecution that early Church leaders Peter and Paul were each martyred in Rome. Further widespread persecutions of the Church occurred under nine subsequent Roman emperors including Domitian, Decius and Diocletian. From the year 150, Christian teachers began to produce theological and "apologetic" works aimed at defending the faith. These authors are known as the Church Fathers, and study of them is called Patristics. Notable early Fathers include Ignatius of Antioch, Polycarp, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria and Origen. A Christian Dirce, by Henryk Siemiradzki. ... Look up Stephen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Saint James, son of Zebedee (d. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Nero Claudius Cæsar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ... According to the historian Tacitus, the Great Fire of Rome started on the night of 18 July in the year 64, among the shops clustered around the Circus Maximus. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... First Christians In its first three centuries, the Christian church endured regular (though not constant) persecution at the hands of Roman authorities. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Bust of Traianus Decius. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... For other uses, see Polycarp (disambiguation). ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ...


Christianity was legalized in the fourth century, when Constantine I issued the Edict of Milan in 313. Constantine was instrumental in the convocation of the First Council of Nicaea in 325, which sought to address the Arian heresy and formulated the Nicene Creed, which is still used by the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Anglican Communion, and many Protestant churches.[91] Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... The Edict of Milan was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


On 27 February 380, Emperor Theodosius I enacted a law establishing Catholic Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire.[112] This period of history was also marked by the inauguration of a series of Ecumenical (worldwide) Christological Councils which established and formally codified critical elements of the theology of the Church. In 382, the Council of Rome set the Canon of the Bible, listing the accepted books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Also, the Council of Ephesus in 431 declared that Jesus existed both as fully Man and fully God simultaneously, clarifying his status in the Trinity. The meaning of the Nicene Creed was also declared a permanent doctrine of the Church. is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Council of Rome was a... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Cyril of Alexandria The Council of Ephesus was held in the Church of Mary in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great; Ephesus was the city of Artemis (see Acts 19:28). ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ...


Medieval period

In 452, Pope Leo the Great met Attila the Hun, and dissuaded him from sacking Rome.[113] However, in 476, the last Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus was deposed.[113] Following the fall of the Roman Empire in the west, the church entered into a long period of missionary activity and expansion among the former barbarian tribes. Catholicism spread among the Germanic peoples (initially in competition with Arianism[114]), the Celts, the Slavic peoples; the Vikings and other Scandinavians; the Hungarians, the Baltic peoples and the Finns. The rise of Islam from 630 onwards, took the formerly Christian lands of the Levant, North Africa and much of Spain out of Christian control.[115] In 480, St. Benedict set out his Monastic Rule, establishing a system of regulations for the foundation and running of monasteries.[116] Monasticism became a powerful force throughout Europe,[114] and gave rise to many early centers of learning, most famously in Ireland, Scotland and Gaul, contributing to the Carolingian Renaissance of the 9th century. Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461) He was a Roman aristocrat and the first Pope to receive the title the Great. He is perhaps best known for having met Attila the Hun outside Rome near Governolo... Attila redirects here. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC  maximal Celtic expansion, by the 3rd century BC  the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period  areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today Celts (pronounced or , see pronunciation... Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Hungarian may refer to: Hungary or the Kingdom of Hungary. ... The Baltic Sea The Balts or Baltic peoples have lived around the eastern coast of Mare Suebicum, or Baltic Sea (Tacitus, AD 98) since ancient times. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about Saint Benedict of Nursia, for other uses of the name Benedict see Benedict (disambiguation) Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... This article is about the country. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ...


The Middle Ages brought about major changes within the church. Pope Gregory the Great dramatically reformed ecclesiastical structure and administration.[117] In the early 8th century, iconoclasm became a divisive issue, when it was sponsored by the Byzantine emperors. The popes challenged imperial power and preserved the use of images outside the empire. The Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea (787) finally pronounced in favour of icons.[118] In the early 10th century, western monasticism was further rejuvenated through the leadership of the great Benedictine monastery of Cluny.[119] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Gregory I Pope Saint Gregory I or Gregory the Great (called the Dialogist in Eastern Orthodoxy) (c. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Cluny nowadays The town of Cluny or Clugny lies in the modern-day département of Saône-et-Loire in the région of France, near Mâcon. ...


High Middle Ages

In the west, from the 11th century onward, older cathedral schools developed into universities (see University of Paris, University of Oxford, and University of Bologna.) Originally teaching only theology, these steadily added subjects including medicine, philosophy and law, becoming the direct ancestors of modern western institutions of learning.[120] A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Bologna (Italian: , UNIBO) is the oldest continually operating degree-granting university in the world, and the second biggest university in Italy. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


Accompanying the rise of the "new towns" throughout Western Europe, mendicant orders were founded, bringing the consecrated religious life out of the monastery and into the new urban setting. The two principal mendicant movements were the Franciscans[121] and the Dominicans[122] founded by St. Francis and St. Dominic respectively. Both orders made significant contributions to the development of the great universities of Europe. Another new order were the Cistercians, whose large isolated monasteries spearheaded the settlement of former wilderness areas. In this period church building and ecclesiastical architecture reached new heights, culminating in the orders of Romanesque and Gothic architecture and the building of the great European cathedrals.[123] The Mendicant (or Begging) Orders are religious orders which depend directly on the riches of the people for their livelihood. ... St Benedict of Nursia (c. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... Numerous saints have been named Francis. ... St Dominic presiding over an auto de fe, Spanish, 1475 Saint Dominic (born at Calaruega, Spain, around 1170; died August 6, 1221, at Bologna, Italy) founded the Dominican Order. ... Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin: ), otherwise White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular or apron is sometimes worn) is a Roman Catholic order of enclosed monks. ... Romanesque St. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ...

Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached the First Crusade.
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached the First Crusade.

From 1095 under the pontificate of Urban II, the Crusades were launched.[124] These were a series of military campaigns in the Holy Land and elsewhere, initiated in response to pleas from the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I for aid against Turkish expansion. The Crusades ultimately failed to stifle Islamic aggression and even contributed to Christian enmity with the sacking and occupation of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade.[125] Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, painting from c. ... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, painting from c. ... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the Livre des Passages dOutre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National) The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held in... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Urban II, né Otho of Lagery (or Otto or Odo) (1042 - July 29, 1099), pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099, was born into nobility in France at Lagery (near Châtillon-sur-Marne) and was church educated. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... Alexios I may refer to the following persons: Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor 1081–1118 Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Megas Comnenus, great-great-grandson of the above, Emperor of Trebizond 1204–1222 Patriarch Alexius I, 13th Patriarch of Moscow and all of Russia. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade...


Beginning around 1184, following the crusades brought about by the Cathar heresy,[126] various institutions, broadly referred to as the Inquisition, were established with the aim of suppressing heresy and securing religious and doctrinal unity within Christianity through conversion and prosecution of alleged heretics.[127] Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ...


East-West Schism

Main article: East-West Schism

Over a period stretching from the seventh to the fourteenth centuries, the Christian Church underwent a gradual schism that divided it into a Western (Latin) branch, now known as the Roman Catholic Church, and an Eastern (Greek) branch, which has become known as the Orthodox Church. These two churches disagree on a number of administrative, liturgical, and doctrinal issues, most notably papal primacy of jurisdiction.[128] The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The primacy of the Roman pontiff is the monarchical authority of the bishop of Rome, from the Holy See, over the several Churches that compose the Catholic Church in the Latin and Eastern Rites. ...


The Second Council of Lyon (1274) and the Council of Florence (1439) attempted to reunite the churches, but in both cases the Orthodox refused to ratify the decisions and the two principal churches remain in schism to the present day. The Second Council of Lyon was a Roman Catholic council convoked 31 March 1272, which convened in Lyon in 1274. ... A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ...


Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation

An icon depicting the First Council of Nicaea

The 15th-century Renaissance brought about a renewed interest in ancient and classical learning, and a re-examination of accepted beliefs. The discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492 brought about a new wave of missionary activity as the church sought to spread the faith throughout the colonies. Another major schism, the Reformation, resulted in the splintering of the Western Christian Church into several Christian denominations.[129] On 31 October 1517 Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses, which protested the sale of indulgences and moved on to deny several key points of Roman Catholic doctrine. Others like Zwingli and Calvin further criticized Roman Catholic teaching and worship. These challenges developed into the movement called Protestantism, which repudiated the primacy of the pope, the role of tradition, the seven sacraments, and other doctrines and practices.[130] The Reformation in England accelerated in 1534,[131] when the English Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy making the King of England Supreme Head of the Church of England. Beginning in 1536, the monasteries throughout England, Wales, and Ireland were dissolved. Pope Paul III then excommunicated King Henry VIII in 1538, beginning what would become a decisive schism between Rome and Canterbury.[132] Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... List of Christian denominations ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The 95 Theses. ... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ... Calvin may refer to: Calvin (Calvin and Hobbes) Calvin College, a college in Grand Rapids, Michigan People with the surname Calvin: John Calvin, theologian Melvin Calvin, American chemist Susan Calvin, fictional robopsychologist People with the given name Calvin: Calvin Coolidge, American President Calvin Cheng, fashion mogul Calvin Klein, fashion designer... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... The primacy of the Roman pontiff is the monarchical authority of the bishop of Rome, from the Holy See, over the several Churches that compose the Catholic Church in the Latin and Eastern Rites. ... The practice of the Roman Catholic Church includes seven sacraments. ... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House... First Act of Supremacy 1534 The Act of Supremacy 1534 (26 Hen. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... The Supreme Head of the Church of England was a title held by the King Henry VIII of England that signified his leadership over the Church of England. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (left) and his other grandson (right), Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death 1549. ... Excommunication is religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, holy seat) is the episcopal see of Rome. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ...


The Counter-Reformation, or Catholic Reformation, is the name given to the response of the Roman Catholic Church to the challenge of Protestantism. The Council of Trent clarified and reasserted Roman Catholic doctrine. During the following centuries, competition between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism became deeply entangled with political struggles among European states.[133] Meanwhile, partly from missionary zeal, but under the impetus of colonial expansion by the European powers, Christianity spread to the Americas, Oceania, East Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ...


Throughout Europe, the divides caused by the Reformation led to outbreaks of religious violence, which was furthered by the establishment of separate state religions in various regions[citation needed]. Ultimately, these differences led to the outbreak of conflicts in which religion played a key factor. The Thirty Years' War, the English Civil War, and the French Wars of Religion are prominent examples. These events intensified the Christian debate on persecution and toleration, particularly in England.[134] Religious violence Throughout history, religious beliefs have provoked some believers into violence. ... For other uses of the term, see Holy War. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ...


Christianity in the Modern Era

In the Modern Era, Christianity was confronted with various forms of skepticism and with certain modern political ideologies such as liberalism, nationalism and socialism. This included the anti-clericalism of the French Revolution, the Spanish Civil War, and general hostility of Marxist movements, especially the Russian Revolution. Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ... The Modern-Era of NASCAR is a dividing line in NASCARs history. ... This article is about the psychological term. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence, real or imagined[1], in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... The Russian Revolution (1917) was a series of economic and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...


Christian commitments in Europe dropped as modernity and secularism came into their own[clarify] in Western Europe, while religious commitments in America have been generally high in comparison to Western Europe. The late 20th Century has shown the shift of Christian adherents to the Third World and southern hemisphere in general, with Western Civilization no longer the chief standard bearer of Christianity.

 v  d  e  Christian Denominations in

Branches of Christianity in the present day

There is a diversity of doctrines and practices among groups calling themselves Christian. These groups are sometimes classified under denominations, though for theological reasons many groups reject this classification system.[135] Christianity may be broadly represented as being divided into four main groupings: Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, Protestantism and Restorationism[136][137] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ...


Roman Catholicism and other Catholic groups

Roman Catholicism: The Roman Catholic Church, or "Catholic" church, includes the local churches, headed by bishops, in communion with the Pope, the Bishop of Rome. Like the Eastern Orthodox, the Roman Catholic Church claims to have existed since the foundation of Christianity through Apostolic succession. Grouped into 23 particular rites, it is the largest single body, with more than one billion baptized members.[138] Catholic Church redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... A particular Church, in Catholic theology and Canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with Rome that are part of the Catholic Church as a whole. ...


Various small communities, such as the Old Catholic and Independent Catholic Churches, include "Catholic" in their title, but are not in communion with the See of Rome. The Old Catholic church is in communion with the Anglican Communion, which considers itself a branch of the Catholic Church. The Old Catholic Church is a community of Christian churches. ... Independent Catholic Churches are Christian denominations (or congregations) claiming valid apostolic succession of their bishops but are not a part of the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Old Catholic Churches under the Archbishop of Utrect or the Anglican Communion. ... The term Communion is derived from Latin communio (sharing in common). ... While all episcopal sees can be referred to as holy, the expression the Holy See (without further specification) is normally used in international relations (as well as in the canon law of the Catholic Church)[1] to refer to the central government of the Catholic Church, headed by the Bishop... The Old Catholic Church is a community of Christian churches. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Branch Theory is a theological concept of the Anglican Communion and particularly those Anglicans who ascribe to Anglo-Catholic theology. ...


Eastern Orthodoxy

Eastern Orthodoxy: Those churches in communion with the Patriarchal Sees of the East, such as the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and others.[139] A number of conflicts with Western Christianity over questions of doctrine and authority culminated in the Great Schism. Like the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church also claims a heritage from primeval Christianity and has an episcopal structure, though the autonomy of the individual, constituent churches is emphasized. It is the second largest single denomination in Christianity, with over 200 million adherents.[138] Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Throne inside the Patriarchade of Constantinople. ... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... It has been suggested that episcopal be merged into this article or section. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ...


Oriental Orthodoxy

Oriental Orthodoxy: Those Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus. They reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. Hence, these Churches are also called Old Oriental Churches or Non-chalcedonian churches. The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ...


Protestantism

In the 16th century, Martin Luther, Huldrych Zwingli, and John Calvin inaugurated what has come to be called Protestantism. Luther's primary theological heirs are known as Lutherans. Zwingli and Calvin's heirs are far broader denominationally, and are broadly referred to as the Reformed Tradition.[140] Most Protestant traditions branch out from the Reformed tradition in some way. In addition to the Lutheran and Reformed branches of the Reformation, there is Anglicanism after the English Reformation. The Anabaptist tradition was largely ostracized by the other Protestant parties at the time, but has achieved a measure of affirmation in more recent history. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... -1... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus re-baptizers[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ...


The oldest Protestant groups separated from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century Protestant Reformation, followed in many cases by further divisions.[141] For example, the Methodist Church grew out of Anglican minister John Wesley's evangelical and revival movement in the Anglican Church.[142][143] Several Pentecostal and non-denominational Churches, which emphasize the cleansing power of the Holy Spirit, in turn grew out of the Methodist Church.[144][143] Because Methodists, Pentecostals, and other evangelicals stress "accepting Jesus as your personal Lord and Savior,"[145] which comes from John Wesley's emphasis of the New Birth,[146] they often refer to themselves as being born-again.[147][148] Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination, and the second-largest Protestant one, in the United States. ... For other persons named John Wesley, see John Wesley (disambiguation). ... Look up evangelist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Holiness movement is composed of people who believe and propagate the belief that the carnal nature of man can be cleansed through faith and by the power of the Holy Spirit if one has had his sins forgiven through faith in Jesus. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination, and the second-largest Protestant one, in the United States. ... Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. ... For other persons named John Wesley, see John Wesley (disambiguation). ... The New Birth is how John Wesley and Methodism have traditionally referred to the born again experience. ... In Christianity, the term born again or regenerated is synonymous with spiritual rebirth—salvation. ...


Estimates of the total number of Protestants are very uncertain, partly because of the difficulty in determining which denominations should be placed in these categories, but it seems clear that Protestantism is the second largest major group of Christians after Roman Catholicism in number of followers (although the Eastern Orthodox Church is larger than any single Protestant denomination).[138]


Many members of the the Anglican Communion, a group of Anglican and Episcopal Churches that are descended from the Church of England, identify as both Protestant and Catholic.[149] Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ...


Some Christians who come out of the Protestant tradition identify themselves simply as "Christian", or "born-again Christian"; they typically distance themselves from the confessionalism and/or creedalism of other Christian communities[150] by calling themselves "non-denominational" – often founded by individual pastors, they have little affiliation with historic denominations. Born again is a soteriological term used primarily in the Evangelical, Fundamentalist, and Pentecostal branches of Protestant Christianity, where it is associated with salvation, conversion and spiritual birth. ... Confessionalism, in a religious (and particularly Christian) sense, is a belief in the importance of full and unambiguous assent to the whole of a religious teaching. ... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... In Christianity, the term non-denominational refers to those churches which have not formally aligned themselves with an established denomination, or remain otherwise officially autonomous. ...


Restorationism

Restorationism is composed of various unrelated Churches that believe they are restoring the "original version" of Christianity and not as "reforming" a Christian Church continuously existing from the time of Jesus.[151] They teach that the other three divisions of Christianity have introduced grave defects into Christianity, which is known as the Great Apostasy.[152][153] Some of these are historically connected to early-19th century Camp Meetings in the Midwest and Upstate New York. American Millennialism and Adventism, which arose from Evangelical Protestantism, produced the Jehovah's Witnesses movement (with 6.6 million members[154]), and, as a reaction specifically to William Miller, Seventh-day Adventists. Additionally, there are the following groups: Christadelphians, Churches of Christ with 2.6 million members, Disciples of Christ with 800,000 members,[155] and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the largest denomination of the Latter Day Saint movement with over 13 million members. Though Restorationists have some superficial similarities, their doctrine and practices vary significantly. For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration The term Restorationism is used to describe both the late middle ages (15-16th century) movement that preceded the protestant reformation, and recent religious movements. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Great Apostasy is... Millennialism (or chiliasm), from millennium, which literally means thousand years, is primarily a belief expressed in some Christian denominations, and literature, that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth where Christ will reign prior to the final judgment and future eternal state, primarily derived from the book... Adventist is also commonly used as an abbreviation for Seventh-day Adventist. ... William Miller or Bill Miller may refer to (items are alphabetized according to the word in boldface): // William Miller (Australian athlete) (1847-1939) Bill Miller (film producer) William Miller (minister) (1815-1874) William Harris Miller, Australian musician with 1970s band The Ferrets best known for their #2 hit Dont... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[3]) Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath. ... Christadelphians (From the Greek Brothers in Christ) are a religious group that developed in the United Kingdom and North America in the 19th century. ... The Churches of Christ discussed in this article are not part of the United Church of Christ; the International Churches of Christ; the Disciples of Christ; the Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science); The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or any other denomination within the Latter Day... The insignia of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ...

A simplified chart of historical developments of major groups within Christianity.

Mainstream Christianity is widely used to refer collectively to the common views of major denominations of Christianity (such as Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Anglicanism, Orthodox Christianity) as against the particular tenets of other sects or Christian denomination. The context is dependent on the particular issues addressed, but usually contrasts the orthodox majority view against heterodox minority views of groups like Restorationists. In the most common sense, "mainstream" refers to Nicene Christianity, or rather the traditions which continue to claim adherence to the Nicene Creed.[156] Image File history File links ChristianityBranches. ... Image File history File links ChristianityBranches. ... Look up mainstream in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... The term Cucumber may refer to: The Eastern Orthodox Church: the Eastern Christian churches of Byzantine tradition that adhere to the seven Ecumenical Councils. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination... in Christianity: Eastern Christianity Oriental Orthodoxy Orthodox Christianity Orthodoxy by country in Judaism: Orthodox Judaism Modern Orthodox Judaism Jewish organisations: Orthodox Union Categories: ... Heterodox literally means pertaining to other doctrines or other worship. ... Fourth-century inscription, representing Christ as the Good Shepherd. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ...


Ecumenism

Main article: Ecumenism
Christianity percentage by country
Christianity percentage by country

Most churches have long expressed ideals of being reconciled with each other, and in the 20th century Christian ecumenism advanced in two ways.[157] One way was greater cooperation between groups, such as the Edinburgh Missionary Conference of Protestants in 1910, the Justice, Peace and Creation Commission of the World Council of Churches founded in 1948 by Protestant and Orthodox churches, and similar national councils like the National Council of Churches in Australia which includes Roman Catholics.[158] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ... The Edinburgh Missionary Conference held in June of 1910 was both the culmination of nineteenth-century Christian missions and the formal beginning of the modern Christian ecumenical movement. ... The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... The National Council of Churches in Australia (NCCA) is an ecumenical organisation bringing together a number of Australias Christian churches in dialogue and practical cooperation. ...


The other way was institutional union with new United and uniting churches. Congregationalist, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches united in 1925 to form the United Church of Canada,[159] and in 1977 to form the Uniting Church in Australia. The Church of South India was formed in 1947 by the union of Anglican, Methodist, Congregationalist, Presbyterian, and Reformed churches.[160] United and uniting churches are churches that bring together (or unite) different (predominantly) Protestant denominations in one organisation. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The United Church of Canada (French: lÉglise Unie du Canada) is Canadas second largest church (after the Roman Catholic Church), and its largest Protestant denomination. ... Logo of the UCA The Uniting Church in Australia (UCA) was formed on June 22, 1977 when the Methodist Church of Australasia, Presbyterian Church of Australia and Congregational Union of Australia came together under the Basis of Union document. ... CSI St. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ...


Steps towards reconciliation on a global level were taken in 1965 by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches mutually revoking the excommunications that marked their Great Schism in 1054;[161] the Anglican Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC) working towards full communion between those churches since 1970;[162] and the Lutheran and Roman Catholic churches signing The Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification in 1999 to address conflicts at the root of the Protestant Reformation. In 2006 the Methodist church adopted the declaration.[163] The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... LWF logo The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) is a global association of national and regional Lutheran churches headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification [1] is a document created by and agreed to by clerical representatives of the Roman Catholic Church and the Lutheran World Federation as a result of extensive ecumenical dialogue, apparently resolving the conflict over the nature of Justification which was at the... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... The World Methodist Council is a group composed of most of the worlds Wesleyan / Methodist denominations, working toward mission and unity. ...


Figures

With an estimated number of adherents that ranges between 1.5 billion[164] and 2.1 billion,[164] split into around 34,000 separate denominations, Christianity is the world's largest religion.[165] The Christian share of the world's population has stood at around 33 per cent for the last hundred years. This masks a major shift in the demographics of Christianity; large increases in the developing world have been accompanied by substantial declines in the developed world, mainly in Europe and North America.[166] On current projections, by 2050 only about one-fifth of the world's Christians will be non-Hispanic whites.[167] It is still the predominant religion in Europe, the Americas, the Philippines, and Southern Africa.[168] However it is declining in some areas including Oceania (Australia and New Zealand), Northern Europe (including Great Britain,[169] Scandinavia and other places), France, Germany, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec, the Western and Northern portions of the United States, and parts of Asia (especially the Middle East[170][171][172], South Korea[173], Taiwan[174] and Macau[175]). List of Christian denominations ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... -1... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


In most countries in the developed world, church attendance among people who continue to identify themselves as Christians has been falling over the last few decades.[176] Some sources view this simply as part of a drift away from traditional membership institutions,[177] while others link it to signs of a decline in belief in the importance of religion in general.[178]


Christianity, in one form or another, is the sole state religion of the following nations: Argentina (Roman Catholic),[179] Bolivia (Roman Catholic),[180] Costa Rica (Roman Catholic),[181] Cyprus (Orthodox),[182] Denmark (Evangelical Lutheran),[183] El Salvador (Roman Catholic),[184] England (Anglican),[185] Finland (Evangelical Lutheran & Orthodox),[186][187] Greece (Greek Orthodox),[184] Iceland (Evangelical Lutheran),[188] Liechtenstein (Roman Catholic),[189] Malta (Roman Catholic),[190] Monaco (Roman Catholic),[191] Norway (Evangelical Lutheran),[192] Scotland (Presbyterian),[193] Switzerland (Roman Catholic, Old Catholic, or Protestant - denomination varies per canton)[194] and Vatican City (Roman Catholic).[195] South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Valais Ticino Graubünden (Grisons) Geneva Vaud Neuchâtel Jura Berne Thurgau Zurich Aargau Lucerne Solothurn Basel-Land Schaffhausen Uri Schwyz Glarus St. ...


See also

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... A Christian Dirce, by Henryk Siemiradzki. ... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX, Monotheism; William F. Albright, From the Stone Age to Christianity; H. Richard Niebuhr; About.com, Monotheistic Religion resources; Jonathan Kirsch, God Against the Gods; Linda Woodhead, An Introduction to Christianity; The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Monotheism; The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, monotheism; New Dictionary of Theology, Paul, p. 496-99; David Vincent Meconi, "Pagan Monotheism in Late Antiquity" in Journal of Early Christian Studies, p. 111–12
  2. ^ BBC, BBC - Religion & Ethics - Christianity
  3. ^ "between 1,250 and 1,750 million adherents, depending on the criteria employed": McGrath, Alister E. Christianity: An Introduction. 2006, page xv1.
  4. ^ "1.5 thousand million Christians": Hinnells, John R. The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion. 2005, page 441.
  5. ^ Major Religions Ranked by Size
  6. ^ Hinnells, John R. The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion. 2005, page 441.
  7. ^ see Christianity#Figures for information and references
  8. ^ Christians believe that Jesus is still alive in heaven, and that, as God, he exists in eternity, hence the use of "is".
  9. ^ Mortimer Chambers, The Western Experience Volume II chapter 5; The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion, p. 158.
  10. ^ McGrath, Alister E. Christianity:An Introduction, Blackwell Publishing (2006), p. 4-6. ISBN 1405108991.
  11. ^ Fowler, Jeaneane D. World Religions:An Introduction for Students. p. 58. Sussex Academic Press (1997). ISBN 1898723486.
  12. ^ Acts 11:26
  13. ^ Elwell, Walter A. & Comfort, Philip Wesley. Tyndale Bible Dictionary, p. 266, 828. Tyndale House Publishers (2001). ISBN 0842370897.
  14. ^ J.Z.Smith 98, p. 276.
  15. ^ Anidjar 2001, p. 3
  16. ^ Fowler, Jeaneane D. World Religions:An Introduction for Students. Sussex Academic Press (1997), p. 131. ISBN 1898723486.
  17. ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Oxford University Press (1990), p. 301–303.
  18. ^ Olson, Roger E. The Mosaic of Christian Belief. InterVarsity Press (2002). ISBN 9780830826957.
  19. ^ McGrath, Alister E. Christianity:An Introduction. Pp 4-6. Blackwell Publishing (2006). ISBN 1405108991.
  20. ^ Metzger, Bruce M. and Michael Coogan, editors. Oxford Companion to the Bible. Pp 513, 649. Oxford University Press (1993). ISBN 0195046455.
  21. ^ Acts 2:24, Romans 10:9, 1 Cor 15:15, Acts 2:31-32, 3:15, 3:26, 4:10, 5:30, 10:40-41, 13:30, 13:34, 13:37, 17:30-31, 1 Cor 6:14, 2 Cor 4:14, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:20, Col 2:12, 1 Thess 1:10, Heb 13:20, 1 Pet 1:3, 1:21
  22. ^ http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_Creed
  23. ^ Acts 1:9-11
  24. ^ Hanegraaff, Hank. Resurrection: The Capstone in the Arch of Christianity. Thomas Nelson (2000) IBSN 0849916437 .
  25. ^ The Significance of the Death and Resurrection of Jesus for the Christian. Australian Catholic University National. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
  26. ^ Why is the resurrection of Jesus Christ important?. Got Questions Ministries. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
  27. ^ John 19:30–31, Mark 16:1, Mark 16:6
  28. ^ 1 Cor. 15:6
  29. ^ Lorenzen, Thorwald. Resurrection, Discipleship, Justice: Affirming the Resurrection Jesus Christ Today. Smyth & Helwys (2003), p. 13. ISBN 1573123994 .
  30. ^ 1 Cor. 15:14)
  31. ^ Ball, Bryan and William Johnsson, editors. The Essential Jesus. Pacific Press (2002). ISBN 0816319294.
  32. ^ John 3:16, 5:24, 6:39–40, 6:47, 10:10, 11:25–26, and 17:3.
  33. ^ This is drawn from a number of sources, especially the early Creeds, the Catechism of the Catholic Church, certain theological works, and various Confessions drafted during the Reformation including the Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, works contained in the Book of Concord, and others.[citation needed][clarify]
  34. ^ Two denominations in which a resurrection of Jesus is not a doctrine are the Quakers and the Unitarians.[citation needed]
  35. ^ Fuller, Reginald H. The Foundations of New Testament Christology. Pg 11. Scribners (1965). ISBN 068415532X .
  36. ^ A Jesus Seminar conclusion: "in the view of the Seminar, he did not rise bodily from the dead; the resurrection is based instead on visionary experiences of Peter, Paul, and Mary."
  37. ^ Funk, Robert. The Acts of Jesus: What Did Jesus Really Do?. Polebridge Press (1998). ISBN 0060629789.
  38. ^ title url Soteriology. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company (2006). Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  39. ^ Metzger, Bruce M. and Michael Coogan, editors. Oxford Companion to the Bible. p. 405 Oxford University Press (1993). ISBN 0-19-504645-5.
  40. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, Grace and Justification
  41. ^ Westminster Confession, Chapter X; Charles Spurgeon, A Defense of Calvinism.
  42. ^ Richard D. Balge Martin Luther, Augustinian
  43. ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, p. 87-90.
  44. ^ T. Desmond Alexander, New Dictionary of Biblical Theology, p. 514-515
  45. ^ Alister E. McGrath, Historical Theology p. 61.
  46. ^ Metzger, Bruce M. and Michael Coogan, editors. Oxford Companion to the Bible. Pg. 782 Oxford University Press (1993). ISBN 0-19-504645-5.
  47. ^ J.N.D. Kelly, The Athanasian Creed, NY: Harper and Row, 1964.
  48. ^ Vladimir Lossky; Loraine Boettner
  49. ^ Theophilus of Antioch Apologia ad Autolycum II 15
  50. ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Pg 50. Oxford University Press (1990) IBSN 0198229283.
  51. ^ Tertullian De Pudicitia chapter 21
  52. ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Pg 53. Oxford University Press (1990) IBSN 0198229283.
  53. ^ von Harnack, Adolf (1894-03-01). History of Dogma. Retrieved on 2007-06-15. “[In the 2nd century,] Jesus was either regarded as the man whom God hath chosen, in whom the Deity or the Spirit of God dwelt, and who, after being tested, was adopted by God and invested with dominion, (Adoptian Christology); or Jesus was regarded as a heavenly spiritual being (the highest after God) who took flesh, and again returned to heaven after the completion of his work on earth (pneumatic Christology)”
  54. ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Pg 35. Oxford University Press (1990) IBSN 0198229283.
  55. ^ MacCulloch, Diarmaid. The Reformation: A History. Viking Adult (2004), p. 185-187.
  56. ^ R. Emmet McLaughlin Caspar Schwenckfeld, reluctant radical: his life to 1540, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986 ISBN 0-300-03367-2
  57. ^ Deppermann, Klaus. Melchior Hoffman: Social Unrest & Apocalyptic Vision in the Age of Reformation. ISBN 0-567-08654-2
  58. ^ Servetus, Michael. Restoration of Christianity. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 2007.
  59. ^ William Arnold, Is Jesus God the Father?
  60. ^ J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, p. 119-123
  61. ^ Robert Letham, The Holy Trinity: In Scripture, History, Theology, and Worship, p. 97-98.
  62. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 130:22
  63. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, Inspiration and Truth of Sacred Scripture (§105-108)
  64. ^ Second Helvetic Confession, Of the Holy Scripture Being the True Word of God
  65. ^ Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy, online text
  66. ^ PC(USA) - Presbyterian 101 - What is The Bible?
  67. ^ F.F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture; Catechism of the Catholic Church, The Canon of Scripture § 120
  68. ^ Metzger, Bruce M. and Michael Coogan, editors. Oxford Companion to the Bible. Pg. 39 Oxford University Press (1993). ISBN 0-19-504645-5.
  69. ^ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Scriptures, Internet Edition
  70. ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, p. 69-78.
  71. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, The Holy Spirit, Interpreter of Scripture § 115-118
  72. ^ 1 Corinthians 10:2
  73. ^ Thomas Aquinas"Whether in Holy Scripture a word may have several senses"; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, §116
  74. ^ Second Vatican Council Dei Verbum (V.19)
  75. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, "The Holy Spirit, Interpreter of Scripture" § 113
  76. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, "The Interpretation of the Heritage of Faith" § 85
  77. ^ Keith Mathison The Shape of Sola Scriptura (2001)
  78. ^ R.C. Sproul, Knowing Scripture, p. 45-61; Greg Bahnsen, A Reformed Confession Regarding Hermeneutics (art. 6)
  79. ^ E.g., in his commentary on Matthew 1 (§III.3) Matthew Henry interprets the twin-sons of Judah, Phares and Zara, as an allegory of the Gentile and Jewish Christians. For a contemporary treatment, see W. Edward Glenny, Typology: A Summary Of The Present Evangelical Discussion
  80. ^ a b Scott Foutz, Martin Luther and Scripture
  81. ^ John Calvin, Commentaries on the Catholic Epistles 2 Peter 3:14-18
  82. ^ http://mb-soft.com/believe/txh/helvconf.htm Article about Helvetic confessions
  83. ^ Second Helvetic Confession, Of Interpreting the Holy Scriptures; and of Fathers, Councils, and Traditions
  84. ^ Jaroslav Pelikan and Valerie Hotchkiss, editors. Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition]. Yale University Press 2003 ISBN 0300093896.
  85. ^ Catholics United for the Faith, "We Believe in One God"; Encyclopedia of Religion, "Arianism"
  86. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, "Council of Ephesus" (1913).
  87. ^ Matt Slick, Chalcedonian Creed; Christian History Institute, First Meeting of the Council of Chalcedon
  88. ^ British Orthodox Church, The Oriental Orthodox Rejection of Chalcedon
  89. ^ Pope Leo I, Letter to Flavian
  90. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, "Athanasian Creed" (1913).
  91. ^ a b Our Common Heritage as Christians. The United Methodist Church. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  92. ^ "The History of the Church", Howard A. White
  93. ^ Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologicum, Supplementum Tertiae Partis questions 69 through 99
  94. ^ Calvin, John. Institutes of the Christian Religion, Book Three, Ch. 25. www.reformed.org. Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
  95. ^ Spitz, Lewis, The Protestant Reformation. Concordia Publishing House (2003) ISBN 0570033209.
  96. ^ Canon F.W. Farrar “Mercy and Judgment” 1904 pages 378-382 http://www.tentmaker.org/books/mercyandjudgment/mercy_and_judgment_ch1.html
  97. ^ Thomas Talbott "Three Pictures of God in Western Theology" 1995pages 13-15 http://www.willamette.edu/~ttalbott/PICTURES.pdf
  98. ^ http://www.auburn.edu/~allenkc/chr-univ.html, retrieved April 11, 2009
  99. ^ a b Justin Martyr, First Apology §LXVII
  100. ^ a b c d (13 March 1997) The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd edition. USA: Oxford University Press, 1435-6. ISBN 0–19–211655–X. 
  101. ^ Hickman, Hoyt L., et al. Handbook of the Christian Year. Abingdon Press (1986). ISBN 0-687-16575-X
  102. ^ ANF04. Fathers of the Third Century: Tertullian, Part Fourth; Minucius Felix; Commodian; Origen, Parts First and Second | Christian Classics Ethereal Library
  103. ^ Minucius Felix speaks of the cross of Jesus in its familiar form, likening it to objects with a crossbeam or to a man with arms outstretched in prayer (Octavius of Minucius Felix, chapter XXIX).
  104. ^ "At every forward step and movement, at every going in and out, when we put on our clothes and shoes, when we bathe, when we sit at table, when we light the lamps, on couch, on seat, in all the ordinary actions of daily life, we trace upon the forehead the sign" (De Corona, chapter 3)
  105. ^ a b Dilasser, Maurice. The Symbols of the Church (1999). Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, hardcover: ISBN 0-8146-2538-x
  106. ^ a b Hassett, Maurice (1912). Symbolism of the Fish. Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved on 2007-11-26.
  107. ^ Fortescue, Adrian (1912). Veneration of Images. Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved on 2007-11-26.
  108. ^ Robinson, George. Essential Judaism: A Complete Guide to Beliefs, Customs and Rituals. New York: Pocket Books, 2000, p. 229.
  109. ^ Esler, Phillip F. The Early Christian World. Routledge (2004), p. 157-158.
  110. ^ Acts 7:59
  111. ^ 12:2
  112. ^ "It is our desire that all the various nations which are subject to our clemency and moderation should continue to the profession of that religion which was delivered to the Romans by the divine Apostle Peter, as it has been preserved by faithful tradition and which is now professed by the Pontiff Damasus and by Peter, Bishop of Alexandria, a man of apostolic holiness. ... We authorize the followers of this law to assume the title Catholic Christians; but as for the others, since in our judgment they are foolish madmen, we decree that they shall be branded with the ignominious name of heretics, and shall not presume to give their conventicles the name of churches." Halsall, Paul (June 1997). Theodosian Code XVI.i.2. Medieval Sourcebook: Banning of Other Religions. Fordham University. Retrieved on 2006-09-19.
  113. ^ a b Gonzalez, Justo L. 'The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation'(c) 1984 HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, p 243.
  114. ^ a b Gonzalez, Justo L. 'The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation'(c) 1984 HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, p 238.
  115. ^ Gonzalez, Justo L. 'The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation'(c) 1984 HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, pp 248-250.
  116. ^ Gonzalez, Justo L. 'The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation'(c) 1984 HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, pp 238-242.
  117. ^ Gonzalez, Justo L. 'The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation'(c) 1984 HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, p 244-247
  118. ^ Gonzalez, Justo L. 'The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation'(c) 1984 HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, p 260.
  119. ^ Gonzalez, Justo L. 'The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation'(c) 1984 HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, pp 278-281.
  120. ^ Gonzalez, Justo L. 'The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation'(c) 1984 HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, pp 305, 312, 314-15.
  121. ^ Gonzalez, Justo L. 'The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation'(c) 1984 HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, pp 303-307, 310-11, 384-386.
  122. ^ Gonzalez, Justo L. 'The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation'(c) 1984 HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, pp 305, 310-11, 316-317.
  123. ^ Gonzalez, Justo L. 'The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation'(c) 1984 HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, pp 321-323, 365-66.
  124. ^ Gonzalez, Justo L. 'The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation'(c) 1984 HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, pp 292-300.
  125. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Oxford History of the Crusades New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
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  127. ^ Gonzalez, Justo L. 'The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation'(c) 1984 HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, pp 310, 383, 385, 391.
  128. ^ The Great Schism: The Estrangement of Eastern and Western Christendom. Orthodox Information Centre. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  129. ^ Simon, Edith (1966). Great Ages of Man: The Reformation. Time-Life Books, p. 7. ISBN 0662278208. 
  130. ^ Simon, Edith (1966). Great Ages of Man: The Reformation. Time-Life Books, p. 39, 55-61.. ISBN 0662278208. 
  131. ^ Schama states that Henry's reforms were "a reformation but not the Protestant Reformation."
  132. ^ Simon Schama, A History of Britain. Hyperion (2000), p. 306-10. ISBN 0-7868-6675-6.
  133. ^ Simon, Edith (1966). Great Ages of Man: The Reformation. Time-Life Books, p. 109-120. ISBN 0662278208. 
  134. ^ A general overview about the English discussion is given in John Coffey (2000), Persecution and Toleration in Protestant England 1558-1689, Studies in Modern History, Pearson Education.
  135. ^ S. E. Ahlstrom characterized denominationalism in America as "a virtual ecclesiology" that "first of all repudiates the insistences of the Roman Catholic church, the churches of the 'magisterial' Reformation, and of most sects that they alone are the true Church." Ahlstrom p. 381. For specific citations, on the Roman Catholic Church see the Catechism of the Catholic Church §816; other examples: Donald Nash, Why the Churches of Christ are not a Denomination; Wendell Winkler, Christ's Church is not a Denomination; and David E. Pratt, What does God think about many Christian denominations?
  136. ^ Divisions of Christianity. North Virginia College. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  137. ^ [http://www.religioustolerance.org/ldswho.htm The LDS Restorationist movement, including Mormon denominations]. Religious Tolerance. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  138. ^ a b c Adherents.com, Religions by Adherents
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  140. ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Pp 251-59. Oxford University Press (1990) IBSN 0198229283.
  141. ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Pg 251. Oxford University Press (1990) IBSN 0198229283.
  142. ^ About The Methodist Church. Methodist Central Hall Westminster. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  143. ^ a b American Holiness Movement. Finding Your Way, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  144. ^ Christianity: Pentecostal Churches. Finding Your Way, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  145. ^ Statement of Belief. Cambridge Christ United Methodist Church. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  146. ^ The New Birth by John Wesley (Sermon 45). The United Methodist Church GBGM. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  147. ^ God's Preparing, Accepting, and Sustaining Grace. The United Methodist Church GBGM. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  148. ^ Total Experience of the Spirtit. Warren Wilson College. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  149. ^ Sykes, Stephen, John Booty, and Jonathan Knight. The Study of Anglicanism. p 219. Augsburg Fortress Publishers (1998). ISBN 080063151X.
  150. ^ Confessionalism is a term employed by historians to describe "the creation of fixed identities and systems of beliefs for separate churches which had previously been more fluid in their self-understanding, and which had not begun by seeking separate identities for themselves — they had wanted to be truly Catholic and reformed." MacCulloch, Reformation p. xxiv
  151. ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Pp 391-92. Oxford University Press (1990) IBSN 0198229283.
  152. ^ The Restorationist Movements. Religious Tolerance. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  153. ^ What is Restorationism?. Got Questions Ministries. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  154. ^ JW-Media.org Membership 2005
  155. ^ Statistical Report: Annual Council of the General Conference Committee Silver Spring, Marlyand, October 6—11, 2006
  156. ^ Nicene Creed. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica (2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  157. ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Pp 581-584. Oxford University Press (1990) IBSN 0198229283.
  158. ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Pg 584. Oxford University Press (1990) IBSN 0198229283.
  159. ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Pp 413-14. Oxford University Press (1990) IBSN 0198229283.
  160. ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, p. 498. Oxford University Press (1990) IBSN 0198229283.
  161. ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Pg 373. Oxford University Press (1990) IBSN 0198229283.
  162. ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Pg 583. Oxford University Press (1990) IBSN 0198229283.
  163. ^ Methodist Statement
  164. ^ a b Adherents.com – Number of Christians in the world
  165. ^ Major Religions Ranked by Size. Adherents. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  166. ^ Werner Ustorf, "A missiological postscript", in Hugh McLeod, Werner Ustorf (editors), The Decline of Christendom in Western Europe, 1750-2000, Cambridge University Press (2003), 219-220.
  167. ^ Philip Jenkins, The Next Christendom: The Coming of Global Christianity, Oxford University Press US (2002), page 3.
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  194. ^ Switzerland. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 2008-05-11.
  195. ^ Vatican. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2008-05-11.

Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... -1... Helmut Richard Niebuhr (1894-1962) was an American Christian ethicist best known for his 1951 book Christ and Culture and his 1960 book Radical Monotheism and Western Culture. ... The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... ntent creators will assume the audience already possesses. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Hendrik Hank Hanegraaff is an American author, radio talk-show host and advocate of evangelical Christianity. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reginald Horace Fuller (b. ... The Jesus Seminar is a research team of about 200 New Testament scholars founded in 1985 by the late Robert Funk and John Dominic Crossan under the auspices of the Westar Institute. ... The vision hypothesis is a term used to cover a range of theories that question the physical resurrection of Jesus, and suggest that sightings of a risen Jesus were visionary experiences. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Haddon Spurgeon, commonly C.H. Spurgeon, (June 19, 1834 – January 31, 1892) was a British Reformed Baptist preacher who remains highly influential amongst Christians of different denominations, among whom he is still known as the Prince of Preachers. ... Loraine Boettner (1901-03-07 to 1990-01-03) was an anti-Catholic American theologian who wrote books on Predestination, Roman Catholicism, the Trinity, Postmillennialism and Reformed Theology. ... Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Doctrine and Covenants The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes abbreviated and cited as D&C) is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy was formulated in October of 1978 by approximately 300 evangelical scholars at a conference sponsored by the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy, held in Chicago. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Greg L. Bahnsen (September 17, 1948 – December 11, 1995) was an influential Christian philosopher, apologist, and debater. ... Matthew Henry Matthew Henry (October 18, 1662 – June 22, 1714), was an English nonconformist clergyman. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Church historian redirects here. ... The British Orthodox Church is a small Oriental Orthodox jurisdiction, canonically part of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aquinas redirects here. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Denominationalism is the division of a religion into separate religious denominations. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clan MacCulloch crest There are three known main ancient Scottish families by the name of MacCulloch. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Chronological order of publication (oldest first)

  • Gunton, Colin E. (1997). The Cambridge companion to Christian doctrine. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47695-X. 
  • Price, Matthew Arlen; Collins, Michael (1999). The story of Christianity. New York: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7513-0467-0. 
  • Gill, Robin (2001). The Cambridge companion to Christian ethics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521779189. 
  • McManners, John (2002). The Oxford history of Christianity. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192803360. 
  • Padgett, Alan G.; Sally Bruyneel (2003). Introducing Christianity. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books. ISBN 1570753954. 
  • Price, Matthew Arlen; Michael, Father Collins (2003). The Story of Christianity. New York: DK Publishing Inc. ISBN 0789496100. 
  • Miller, Michael Vincent; Ratzinger, Joseph; Pope Benedict XVI (2004). Introduction To Christianity (Communio Books). San Francisco: Ignatius Press. ISBN 1586170295. 
  • Wagner, Richard (2004). Christianity for Dummies. For Dummies. ISBN 0764544829. 
  • Webb, Jeffrey B. (2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Christianity. Indianapolis, Ind: Alpha Books. ISBN 159257176X. 
  • Woodhead, Linda (2004). Christianity: a very short introduction. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192803220. 
  • MacMullen, Ramsay (2006). Voting About God in Early Church Councils. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300115962. 
  • Tucker, Karen; Wainwright, Geoffrey (2006). The Oxford history of Christian worship. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513886-4. 

External links

Find more about Christianity on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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  • BBC - Religion & Ethics - Christianity (English). British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-01-03. A number of introductory articles on Christianity.
  • CBC Montreal - Religion - Christianity (English). Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-01-03. An overview of Christianity.
  • Christianity magazine. The UK's premier Christian interest publication.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For the biological phenomenon of female-only reproduction, see Parthenogenesis. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry, which may be categorized into cures, exorcisms, dominion over nature, three instances of raising the dead, and various others. ... Bronzinos Deposition of Christ For more details on this topic, see Passion (Christianity). ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). ... Image File history File links Christian_cross. ... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... Kingdom of Heaven redirects here. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The purpose... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... Christian doctrine redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      // In... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Church historian redirects here. ... List of Christian denominations (or Denominations self-identified as Christian) ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... // Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... The Baruch Hashem Messianic Synagogue in Dallas, Texas Theology and Practice Messiah · Yeshua · Dance · Seal Religious Texts Messianic Bible translations Movement leaders & Orgs. ... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration The term Restorationism is used to describe both the late middle ages (15-16th century) movement that preceded the protestant reformation, and recent religious movements. ... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A liturgy is a... For Dom Guérangers series of books, see The Liturgical Year. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A... Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... Christian music (sometimes marketed as Inspirational music, Praise music, Worship music, or Contemporary Christian Music/CCM) is music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life, as well as (in terms of the varying music styles) to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Parallels between Christianity and Buddhism have been noted across the ages by scholars but are now being more widely appreciated as individuals search accessible Buddhist scriptures in ancient and modern languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... Early Christianity developed in Roman Judea and in the milieu of Hellenistic Judaism, in the 2nd and 3rd centuries leading an underground existence as an illicit mystery religion, in the 4th century undergoing syncretism with Roman imperial cult and Hellenistic philosophy, a process completed by AD 391 with the ban... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Since the... Christianity and astrology are seen as incompatible by modern orthodox Christian teachings (Christian doctrine). ... -1... Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... Ayyavazhi (IPA: )(Tamil:அய்யாவழி [1] -Path of the father) is a dharmic belief system[2] which originated in South India in the 19th century. ... Buddhism, a Dharmic faith, is usually considered one of the worlds major religions, with between 230 to 500 million followers. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Yarsan or Ahl-i Haqq (Kurdish:Yarsan/Yaresan or Kakeyi, Arabic,Persian:اهل حق, Ahl-e Haqq, derived from an Arabic phrase translatable as People of the Truth and as Men of God[1]) is a religious sect, and its followers are primarily found in western Iran. ... Mazdak was a proto-socialist Persian philosopher who gained influence under the reign of the Sassanian king Kavadh I. He was hanged and his followers were massacred by Khosrau I, Kavadhs son. ... Religions Yazdânism (Yazidism) Scriptures Kitêba Cilwe (Book of Illumination) Languages Kurmanji, Arabic The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: Êzidîtî or Êzidî, Arabic: يزيدي or ايزيدي) are adherents of the smallest of the three branches of Yazdânism, a Middle Eastern religion with ancient Indo-European roots. ... A traditional representation of The Vinegar Tasters, an allegorical image representing Buddhists, Confucianists and Taoists. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... Cao Dais Holy See, called the Tay Ninh Holy See, is located in Tay Ninh, Viet Nam Caodaism (Vietnamese:  ) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ... This article is about Kardecist spiritism. ... Tenrikyo Headquarters, Tenri Tenrikyo (天理教; Tenrikyō, lit. ... The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... Ethnic religions may include officially sanctioned and organized civil religions with an organized clergy, but they are characterized in that adherents generally are defined by their ethnicity, and conversion essentially equates to cultural assimilation to the people in question. ... Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and rituals transmitted from generation to generation of a specific culture. ... African traditional women and male priests, Togo, West Africa, 2006. ... Afro-American religions are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas among African slaves and their descendants in various countries of the Caribbean Islands and Latin America, as well as parts of the southern United States. ... For the academic study of religion in general, see Religious studies. ... Prehistoric religion is a general term for the hypothetical religious belief system of prehistoric peoples. ... The Religions of the Ancient Near East were mostly polytheistic, with some early examples of emerging Henotheism (Akhenaton, early Judaism). ... Ancient Semitic religion spans the polytheistic religions of the Semitic speaking peoples of the Ancient Near East. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... Hellenistic religion refers to any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the Eurasian peoples who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (ca. ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect god, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Roman polytheism was the religion of the Etruscans, Romans, and most of their subjects. ... Slavic mythology and Slavic religion evolved over more than 3,000 years. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... Religious belief refers to a faith or creed concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Religion and mythology differ, but have overlapping aspects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... See also: List of deities Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who are thought to have special religious authority or function. ... For other senses of this word, see denomination. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... Religious disaffiliation means leaving a faith, or a religious group or community. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Truth. ... Religious studies is the designation commonly used in the English-speaking world for a multi-disciplinary, secular study of religion that dates to the late 19th century in Europe (and the influential early work of such scholars as Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the... The anthropology of religion involves the study of religious institutions in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures. ... There are a number of models regarding the ways in which religions come into being and develop. ... For the academic study of religion in general, see Religious studies. ... The Major religious groups of the world. ... Psychology of religion is psychologys theory of religious experiences and beliefs. ... // The sociology of religion is primarily the study of the practices, social structures, historical backgrounds, development, universal themes, and roles of religion in society. ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article covers various areas of the interaction between religion and politics. ... Religious demographics and Religions by country. ... Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ... There are several different religions claimed to be the “fastest growing religion”. Such claims vary due to different definitions of “fastest growing”, and whether the claim is worldwide or regional. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... The term national church is usually a reference to a church organization in Christianity that claims pastoral jurisdiction over a nation. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Theocracy (disambiguation). ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Christian Left or Religious Left are terms used to describe those who hold a strong Christian belief and share left-wing, liberal, or socialist ideals. ... Minority religion is the religion held by a minority of the population of a country, state, or region. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Religious violence Throughout history, religious beliefs have provoked some believers into violence. ... For other uses of the term, see Holy War. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ... Look up fundamentalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fascist (epithet). ... This article is about secularism. ... An atheist sign criticizing religion by the Connecticut Valley Atheists in Rockvilles Central Park, Vernon in December 2007. ... Science and Religion are portrayed to be in harmony in the Tiffany window Education (1890). ... Atheist redirects here. ... Nontheism is a term that covers a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of—or the rejection of—theism or any belief in a personal god or gods. ... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about secularization. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Jacques Derrida Deconstruction-and-religion -- also known as weak theology and religion without religion -- is a nontheistic mode of thought that proceeds from a theological and deconstructive framework. ... The field of secular theology, a subfield of liberal theology advocated by Anglican bishop John A. T. Robinson somewhat paradoxically combines secularism and theology. ... Many Wikipedia articles on religious topics are not yet listed on this page. ... For a more comprehensive list, see List of religious topics Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that (generally) involve a faith in a spiritual nature and a study of inherited ancestral traditions, knowledge and wisdom related to understanding human life. ... This list of deities aims to give information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... The list of people considered to be deities consists of those notable human beings who were considered deities by themselves or others. ... The following is a list of religions and spiritual traditions, however it excludes modern religions, which can be found in list of new religious movements. ... This List of new religious movements (NRMs), lists groups founded after 1800 that either identify themselves as religious, ethical or spiritual organizations or are generally seen as such by religious scholars, which are independent of older denominations, churches, or religious bodies. ... This list contains groups referred to as cults or sects by reliable sources. ... The following figures are believed to have founded or inspired religions or religious philosophies, or to have been the founders of specific churches or denominations or first codifiers or best-known proponents of older known religious tradition. ... The following is a list of religion scholars. ... This is a list of the largest historic gatherings of people for a single event. ... The following is a list of religions and spiritual traditions, however it excludes modern religions, which can be found in list of new religious movements. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION (1065 words)
There are probably thousands of different definitions of the word "Christian." We have chosen the same inclusive definition as is used by public opinion pollsters and government census offices: A "Christian" includes any group or individual who seriously, devoutly, prayerfully describes themselves as Christian.
Many Christians are aware of their own denomination's current beliefs, but are unfamiliar with the history of those beliefs, or of the teachings of other denominations.
Christians will become a minority in in Canada about 2023 and in the U.S. about the year 2042.
Christianity. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1098 words)
Christian ethics derive to a large extent from the Jewish tradition as presented in the Old Testament, particularly the Ten Commandments, but with some difference of interpretation based on the practice and teachings of Jesus.
Christianity may be further generally defined in terms of its practice of corporate worship and rites that usually include the use of sacraments and that are usually conducted by trained clergy within organized churches.
Christianity is in a direct sense an offshoot of Judaism, because Jesus and his immediate followers were Jews living in Palestine and Jesus was believed by his followers to have fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies of the Messiah.
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