FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Christian views on contraception
Christian views on contraception have often been conflicted by the story of Onan in Genesis 38:1-10. Onan did coitus interruptus while consummating his Levirate marriage (Yibbum) and was slain by God.

Prior to the 20th century, contraception was generally condemned by all the major branches of Christianity, including the major reformers like Martin Luther and John Calvin. This unified front no longer exists, however. Among Christian denominations today there are a large variety of positions towards contraception. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Onan (disambiguation). ... Coitus interruptus, also known as withdrawal or the pull out method, is a method of contraception in which, during sexual intercourse, the penis is removed from the vagina prior to ejaculation, primarily to avoid introducing semen into the vagina. ... Yibbum (pronounced yee-boom) or Levirate marriage, in Judaism, is commonly translated as levirate marriage, one of the most complex types of marital unions mandated by Torah law, and which is not presently practiced in its full application. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ...

Contents

Roman Catholic Church

See also: Theology of the Body and Catholic teachings on sexual morality

Theology of the Body refers to a series of 129 lectures given by Pope John Paul II during his Wednesday audiences in the Pope Paul VI Hall between September, 1979, and November. ... Further information: Roman Catholic views on contraception Further information: Homosexuality and Catholicism Sexual morality evaluates the goodness of sexual behavior, and often provides general principles by which one is able to evaluate the morality of specific actions. ...

Background

The Roman Catholic Church has been morally opposed to contraception for as far back as one can historically trace. The Catechism of the Catholic Church specifies that all sex acts must be both unitive and open to the possibility of procreation.[1] In addition to condemning use of birth control, non-procreative sex acts such as mutual masturbation and oral sex are ruled out as ways to avoid pregnancy.[2] “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Unnatural act is the term, once common in legal parlance, for certain sex acts, including anal sex, oral sex, other non-procreative sexual practices, incest, or procreative sexual acts in the wrong position or without procreative intent. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ...


For much of its existence, the Church heavily emphasized procreation as the primary purpose of sex—a few Catholic couples even believed that intercourse at times where pregnancy was not a possible result (such as current pregnancy and menopause) was sinful.[3] Pope Pius XI's 1930 encyclical entitled Casti Connubii was written in response to the Anglican Communion's Seventh Lambeth Conference, which approved contraceptive use in limited circumstances. Casti Connubii confirmed the Church's position opposing birth control: Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Casti Connubii was a papal encyclical promulgated by Pope Pius XI in 1930. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Lambeth Conferences was the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury. ...

Since, therefore, openly departing from the uninterrupted Christian tradition some recently have judged it possible solemnly to declare another doctrine regarding this question, the Catholic Church, ... in order that she may preserve the chastity of the nuptial union from being defiled by this foul stain, ... proclaims anew: any use whatsoever of matrimony exercised in such a way that the act is deliberately frustrated in its natural power to generate life is an offense against the law of God and of nature, and those who indulge in such are branded with the guilt of a grave sin.[4]

However, this encyclical acknowledged for the first time a secondary, unitive, purpose of intercourse.[5] Because of this secondary purpose, married couples have a right to engage in intercourse even when pregnancy is not a possible result:

Nor are those considered as acting against nature who in the married state use their right in the proper manner although on account of natural reasons either of time or of certain defects, new life cannot be brought forth. For in matrimony as well as in the use of the matrimonial rights there are also secondary ends, such as mutual aid, the cultivating of mutual love, and the quieting of concupiscence which husband and wife are not forbidden to consider so long as they are subordinated to the primary end and so long as the intrinsic nature of the act is preserved.[4]

Some interpreted this statement as not only permitting sex between married couples during pregnancy and menopause, but also during the infertile times of the menstrual cycle.[6] The mathematical formula for the Rhythm Method had been formalized in 1930,[7] and in 1932 a Catholic physician published a book titled The Rhythm of Sterility and Fertility in Women promoting the method to Catholics.[5] The 1930s also saw the first U.S. Rhythm Clinic (founded by John Rock) to teach the method to Catholic couples.[8] However, use of the Rhythm Method in certain circumstances was not formally accepted until 1951, in two speeches by Pope Pius XII.[5][9] Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiological changes that occurs in the females of several mammals, including human beings and apes. ... Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death. ...


Current view

The Roman Catholic Church's modern position on contraception was first expressed in Humanae Vitae, the 1968 encyclical by Pope Paul VI. Artificial contraception is considered a grave sin, but methods of natural family planning, including modern forms that are highly effective, are morally permissible in some circumstances. These methods are known as periodic abstinence and are argued to be morally different from positively modifying the couple's fertility. This stance is explained further in a series of lectures given by Pope John Paul II, later entitled Theology of the Body. From Humanae Vitae: Humanae Vitae (Latin Of Human Life) is an encyclical written by Pope Paul VI and promulgated on July 25, 1968. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Natural family planning (NFP) is a term referring to the family planning methods approved by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Theology of the Body refers to a series of 129 lectures given by Pope John Paul II during his Wednesday audiences in the Pope Paul VI Hall between September, 1979, and November. ...

The Church, nevertheless, in urging men to the observance of the precepts of the natural law, which it interprets by its constant doctrine, teaches that each and every marital act must of necessity retain its intrinsic relationship to the procreation of human life.[10]

In further justification of this position, Pope Paul VI claimed,

Responsible men can become more deeply convinced of the truth of the doctrine laid down by the Church on this issue if they reflect on the consequences of methods and plans for artificial birth control. Let them first consider how easily this course of action could open wide the way for marital infidelity and a general lowering of moral standards. Not much experience is needed to be fully aware of human weakness and to understand that human beings—and especially the young, who are so exposed to temptation—need incentives to keep the moral law, and it is an evil thing to make it easy for them to break that law. Another effect that gives cause for alarm is that a man who grows accustomed to the use of contraceptive methods may forget the reverence due to a woman, and, disregarding her physical and emotional equilibrium, reduce her to being a mere instrument for the satisfaction of his own desires, no longer considering her as his partner whom he should surround with care and affection.[10]

Pope John Paul II clarified Catholic teachings on contraception.

On July 17, 1994, John Paul II clarified the Church's position during a meditation said prior an angelus recitation. Image File history File links JohannesPaulII.jpg Description: en: Pope John Paul II on 12 August 1993 in Denver (Colorado), shortcut of Image:Johannes Paul II - Bill Clinton. ... Image File history File links JohannesPaulII.jpg Description: en: Pope John Paul II on 12 August 1993 in Denver (Colorado), shortcut of Image:Johannes Paul II - Bill Clinton. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Angelus is a devotion in memory of the Incarnation. ...

Unfortunately, Catholic thought is often misunderstood ... as if the Church supported an ideology of fertility at all costs, urging married couples to procreate indiscriminately and without thought for the future. But one need only study the pronouncements of the Magisterium to know that this is not so.


Truly, in begetting life the spouses fulfill one of the highest dimensions of their calling: they are God's co-workers. Precisely for this reason they must have an extremely responsible attitude. In deciding whether or not to have a child, they must not be motivated by selfishness or carelessness, but by a prudent, conscious generosity that weighs the possibilities and circumstances, and especially gives priority to the welfare of the unborn child.


Therefore, when there is a reason not to procreate, this choice is permissible and may even be necessary. However, there remains the duty of carrying it out with criteria and methods that respect the total truth of the marital act in its unitive and procreative dimension, as wisely regulated by nature itself in its biological rhythms. One can comply with them and use them to advantage, but they cannot be "violated" by artificial interference.[11]

Dissent

Many Catholics have voiced significant disagreement with the Church's stance on contraception.[12] The Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops issued probably the most heavily dissenting document, the Winnipeg Statement. In it, the bishops argued that many Catholics found it very difficult, if not sometimes impossible, to obey Humanae Vitae.[13] Additionally, they reasserted—too strongly, conservatives say[14]—the Catholic principle of primacy of conscience.[13] Theologians such as Charles Curran have also criticized the stance of Vitae on artificial birth control.[15] In the Roman Catholic Church, an Episcopal Conference, Conference of Bishops, or National Conference of Bishops is a conference consisting of all the bishops within a given territory. ... The Winnipeg Statement is the Canadian Bishops Statement on the Encyclical Humanae Vitae from a Plenary Assembly held at Saint Boniface in Winnipeg, Manitoba. ... François Chifflart (1825-1901), La Conscience (daprès Victor Hugo) Conscience is an ability or faculty or sense that leads to feelings of remorse when we do things that go against our moral values, or which informs our moral judgment before performing such an action. ... Rev. ...


Catholics for a Free Choice claimed in 1998 that 96% of Catholic women had used contraceptives at some point in their lives and that 72% of Catholics believed that one could be a good Catholic without obeying the Church's teaching on birth control.[16] According to a September 2005 nationwide poll of 2,242 U.S. adults surveyed online by Harris Interactive, 90% of Catholics supported the use of birth control/contraceptives.[17] Use of natural family planning methods among Catholics is low. In 2002, 24% of the U.S. population identified as Catholic.[18] But of sexually active Americans avoiding pregnancy, only 1.5% were using NFP.[19] Catholics for a Free Choice (CFFC) is a pro-choice organization for Catholics who disagree with the teachings of the church on matters such as abortion, contraception, divorce and homosexuality. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harris Interactive is a company. ...

Condoms and STIs

Use of condoms for the primary purpose of preventing pregnancy is condemned, along with all other forms of artificial birth control. However, the use of condoms to combat sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is not specifically addressed by Catholic doctrine, and is currently a topic of debate among high-ranking Catholic authorities. A few, such as Belgian Cardinal Godfried Danneels, believe the Catholic Church should actively support condoms used to prevent disease, especially serious diseases such as AIDS.[20] A sexually transmitted disease (STD) is an illness caused by an infectious pathogen that has a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ... Godfried Cardinal Danneels (born June 4, 1933) is the archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels and the chairman of the Belgian episcopal conference. ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ...


To date, statements from the Vatican have argued not that use of condoms to prevent disease is immoral, but rather that condom-promotion programs are simply bad policy. The Vatican's current position is that such programs encourage promiscuity, thereby actually increasing STI transmission.[20] Papal study of the issue is ongoing, and in 2006 a study on the use of condoms to combat AIDS was prepared for review by Pope Benedict XVI.[21] This article is becoming very long. ...


Protestant Christianity

Unlike Catholics who have a central ecclesiastical authority, the Pope, Protestants do not have (and indeed reject having) such an authority. Protestant views of contraception are thus much more diverse than Catholic views. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin...


Background

Before the Protestant Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church viewed the purpose of sexual intercourse as almost exclusively for purposes of procreation. As part of the Reformation, Reformers began to more strongly emphasize the unitive pleasures of marriage.[22] Still, all major early Protestant Reformers, and indeed Protestants in general until the twentieth century, condemned birth control as a contravention of God's procreative purpose for marriage.[23][24] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see Reformation (disambiguation). ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ... The Protestant Reformation, begun 1517 with the nailing of Martin Luthers 95 theses to a church door in Wittenberg, divided the Roman Catholic Church and created the Protestant branch of churches. ...


As scientists advanced birth control methods during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the tradition of Protestant rejection of birth control continued alongside growing dissent from Protestant Nonconformists.[23][25][26] As an example of the dissent, the editor of a Nonconformist weekly journal in the United States wrote in 1893, A nonconformist is an English or Welsh Protestant of any non-Anglican denomination, chiefly advocating religious liberty. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

There was a time when any idea of voluntary limitation was regarded by pious people as interfering with Providence. We are beyond that now and have become capable of recognizing that Providence works through the commonsense of individual brains. We limit population just as much by deferring marriage for prudential reasons as by any action that may be taken after it.[27][23]

Protestant denominations were slow to officially go along with such a view, although followers were not as reluctant. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination, in the...


Then in 1930, at the Seventh Lambeth Conference, the Anglican Communion, after years of considerable internal debate, issued the first Protestant statement permitting birth control "when there is a clearly felt moral obligation to limit or avoid parenthood and where there is a morally sound reason for avoiding complete abstinence."[28] During the 30 years afterward, Protestant acceptance of birth control steadily increased.[23] By 2005 acceptance had increased such that a Harris Interactive poll conducted online among 2,242 U.S. adults found that 88% of non-Catholic Christians who identified as either "very religious" or Evangelical supported the use of birth control/contraceptives.[17] The Lambeth Conferences was the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Harris Interactive is a company. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to...


Official positions of Churches

Some Protestant denominations and movements have made official statements about modern contraceptives. For examaple, the Church of England has stated it "does not regard contraception as a sin or a contravention of God's purpose".[29] The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...


Lutheranism

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America has stated, The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ...

When a woman and man join their bodies sexually, both should be prepared to provide for a child, should conception occur. When that is not their intention, the responsible use of safe, effective contraceptives is expected of the male and the female. Respect and sensitivity should also be shown toward couples who do not feel called to conceive and/or rear children, or who are unable to do so.[30]

Other major Lutheran and Presbyterian associations, as well as other Protestant groups in general, may take other positions. For example, in 1989 the Lutheran Churches of the Reformation adopted a statement consistent with Quiverfull teachings.[31] Presbyterianism is a form of church government which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Lutheran Churches of the Reformation, LCR, is an association of Lutheran congregations. ... Quiverfull is a movement among conservative evangelical Protestant Christian couples chiefly in the United States, but with some adherents in Canada,[1] and with claims of adherent also in Australia, New Zealand, England, and elsewhere. ...


Methodism

The United Methodist Church, holds that "each couple has the right and the duty prayerfully and responsibly to control conception according to their circumstances." Its Resolution on Responsible Parenthood states that in order to "support the sacred dimensions of personhood, all possible efforts should be made by parents and the community to ensure that each child enters the world with a healthy body, and is born into an environment conducive to realization of his or her potential." To this end, the United Methodist Church supports "adequate public funding and increased participation in family planning services by public and private agencies."[32][33] The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination. ...


Presbyterianism

The Presbyterian Church (USA) supports “full and equal access to contraceptive methods.” In a recent resolution endorsing insurance coverage for contraceptives, the church affirmed that “contraceptive services are part of basic health care” and cautioned that “unintended pregnancies lead to higher rates of infant mortality, low birth weight, and maternal morbidity, and threaten the economic viability of families.”[34] Emblem of the PC(USA) The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) or PC(USA) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. ...


Other

Along with these general acceptances, many Protestant movements view contraception use outside of marriage as encouragement to promiscuity. For example, Focus on the Family states, “Promiscuous” redirects here. ... The graphic identity of Focus on the Family is intended to recall old time traditional values. ...

Sex is a powerful drive, and for most of human history it was firmly linked to marriage and childbearing. Only relatively recently has the act of sex commonly been divorced from marriage and procreation. Modern contraceptive inventions have given many an exaggerated sense of safety and prompted more people than ever before to move sexual expression outside the marriage boundary.[35]

Current views

Author and FamilyLife Today radio host Dennis Rainey suggests four categories as useful in understanding current Protestant views concerning birth control.[36] Christopher G. Ellison and Patricia Goodson use very similar categories in their 1997 study of Protestant seminarians' attitudes on the matter.[37] // Each March, U.S. college students spend Spring Break participating in “Big Break,” a Campus Crusade outreach to Panama City Beach vacationers. ...


"Children in abundance" group

Main article: Quiverfull

The first is the "children in abundance" group. Protestants within this group believe that birth control is a contravention of God’s purpose for marriage and that all children conceived during routine sexual intercourse (without regard to time of the month during the ovulation cycle or other matters) should be welcomed as blessings.[36] The Quiverfull movement and its authors such as Mary Pride, Rick and Jan Hess, Charles D. Provan, Nancy Leigh DeMoss, Rachel Giove Scott, and others, predominate this group. Based upon Bible verses that describe God acting to "open and close the womb" (see Genesis 20:18, 29:31, 30:22; 1 Samuel 1:5-6; Isaiah 66:9), Quiverfull adherents believe that Divine Providence alone should control how many and how often children are conceived and born.[38] Quiverfull is a movement among conservative evangelical Protestant Christian couples chiefly in the United States, but with some adherents in Canada,[1] and with claims of adherent also in Australia, New Zealand, England, and elsewhere. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Ovulation is the process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum (also known as an oocyte, female gamete, or casually, an egg) that participates in reproduction. ... Quiverfull is a movement among conservative evangelical Protestant Christian couples chiefly in the United States, but with some adherents in Canada,[1] and with claims of adherent also in Australia, New Zealand, England, and elsewhere. ... Mary Pride (born 1955) is an American author and magazine producer on homeschooling and Christian topics. ... Charles D. Provan is an author of books and articles on Christian topics and holocaust revisionism. ... History of chapter and verse divisions of the Bible Although some portions of the original texts were divided into parts following the Hebrew alphabet, the original manuscripts did not contain the chapter and verse divisions that modern readers are familiar with. ... In theology, Divine Providence, or simply Providence, is the sovereignty, superintendence, or agency of God over events in peoples lives and throughout history. ...


Protestants in this group often connect birth control use with modern feminism, an "anti-child mentality", "worldliness",[39][40][41][42] and abortion because birth control is used for "the same reasons why a woman aborts her child".[43] Feminists redirects here. ...


"Children in managed abundance" group

The second is the "children in managed abundance" group. According to Rainey, Protestants within this group are open to however many children they may conceive during their fertile years yet believe that only Natural Family Planning is acceptable and may use it.[36] Sam and Bethany Torode advocated for this view in their 2002 book,[44] although they later accepted barrier contraception such as diaphragms and condoms.[45] Denny Kenaston of Charity Christian Fellowship also advocates for this position,[46] as does Presbyterian seminary professor Daniel Doriani.[47] Natural family planning (NFP) is a term referring to the family planning methods approved by the Roman Catholic Church. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... The diaphragm is a cervical barrier type of birth control. ... A standard latex condom still rolled up This article is about the contraceptive device. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ...


"Children in moderation" group

The third is the "children in moderation" group. In Rainey’s view, these Protestants are very pro-child but feel free to use artificial birth control to prudently plan their families. Those within this group see Divine Providence and Biblically required responsibility as working complimentarily. They thus may feel freedom to use non-"natural" birth control in making personal choices in consultation with God about the number and spacing of children.[36] Free Will in Theology is an important part of the debate on free will in general. ... Mary Magdalene in prayer. ...


"No children" group

See also: Childfree

The fourth group is the "no children" group. Rainey sees couples in this group as believing they are within their Biblical rights to define their lives around non-natal concerns.[36] While not their main emphasis on the subject, Protestant authors such as Samuel Owen and James B. Jordan support this as an acceptable option, but only when a higher ethical principle intervenes to make child bearing imprudent, such as health concerns or a calling to serve orphans or as missionaries in a dangerous location, etc. The Cyber-Church of Jesus Christ Childfree argues their position, "Jesus loved children but chose to never have any, so that he could devote his life to telling the Good News."[48] Jordan also maintains that modern birth control methods, as well as Natural Family Planning, are acceptable tools of prudent family planning. Jordan also strongly supports the option for couples to have very large families, while Owen believes that non-use of birth control in any form should be normative.[49][50][51] Rainey sees infertile couples as falling into this group apart from their choice in the matter.[36] Sterilized couples may as well. According to Southern Baptist R. Albert Mohler, Jr., "Couples are not given the option of chosen childlessness in the biblical revelation".[52] Childfree is a term used to describe people who neither have, nor desire children. ... Childfree is a term used to describe people who neither have, nor desire children. ... Natalism is the belief that human reproduction is the basis for individual existence. ... James B. Jordan is a Calvinist theologian and author. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is subordinate to a single other element. ... Alternative uses: see orphan (typesetting), and orphan process in computing. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Sterilization is a surgical technique leaving a male or female unable to procreate. ... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States cooperative ministry agency serving missionary Baptist churches around the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Sterilization reversals

Main article: Sterilization reversal

Stemming from ideas from the Quiverfull movement, some Protestants such as Bill Gothard advocate for couples to undergo sterilization reversal surgery. Brad and Dawn Irons run Blessed Arrows Sterilization Reversal Ministry. The couple advocates for Quiverfull ideas while providing funding, physician referrals, and support to Protestants wishing to undergo reversal surgery.[53] Quiverfull is a movement among conservative evangelical Protestant Christian couples chiefly in the United States, but with some adherents in Canada,[1] and with claims of adherent also in Australia, New Zealand, England, and elsewhere. ... Bill Gothard in a mural image from his ministry, the Institute for Basic Life Principles. ... Sterilization is a surgical technique leaving a male or female unable to procreate. ...


Ongoing debates

There are numerous ongoing debates at core of Protestant differences concerning contraceptives. These include whether contraceptive use or non-use is a matter of individual conscience or binding Biblical commands, what types of birth control are permissible if any, and the amount of weight modern Protestants should give early Protestant Reformers' views on contraception.


Individual conscience or commandment?

The majority of Protestants, irrespective of denomination, maintain that use or non-use of birth control in its various methods is a matter of conscience for individual Christians before God, and that individual couples should be convinced in their own minds of what is and is not permissible for them particularly (see Romans 14). In this view, God has a personal relationship with individual Christians and, because he has given no explicit Biblical commandment against birth control and uses and has even caused and overseen modern technological advancements (see Daniel 12:4), he guides particular couples' birth control practices in accordance with his particular will for their lives. Conservative evangelical leader John F. MacArthur states the view, A majority is a subset of a group that is more than half of the entire group. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination, in the... François Chifflart (1825-1901), La Conscience (daprès Victor Hugo) Conscience is an ability or faculty or sense that leads to feelings of remorse when we do things that go against our moral values, or which informs our moral judgment before performing such an action. ... The priesthood of all believers is a Christian doctrine based on several passages of the New Testament. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Common Grace is a theological concept in Protestant Christianity, primarily in Reformed and Calvinistic circles, referring to the grace of God that is common to all humankind. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... John MacArthur John F. MacArthur, Jr. ...

Nothing in Scripture prohibits married couples from practicing birth control, either for a limited time to delay childbearing, or permanently when they have borne children and determine that their family is complete ... In our viewpoint, birth control is biblically permissible. At the same time, couples should not practice birth control if it violates their consciences (Romans 14:23)—not because birth control is inherently sinful, but because it is always wrong to violate the conscience. The answer to a wrongly informed conscience is not to violate it, but rather to correct and rightly inform one's conscience with biblical truth.[54]

R. Albert Mohler, Jr., the ninth president of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky states, This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Louisville” redirects here. ...

Evangelical couples may, at times, choose to use contraceptives in order to plan their families and enjoy the pleasures of the marital bed. The couple must consider all these issues with care, and must be truly open to the gift of children. The moral justification for using contraceptives must be clear in the couple's mind, and fully consistent with the couple's Christian commitments.[49]

Additional adherents of this view include Rainey, James Dobson,[55] Jordan, Mohler, and evangelical ethicists Franklin E. Payne[56][57] and John and Paul Feinberg.[58] Although most Protestants adhere to this view, some such as Rainey may nonetheless advocate for one of the categories he describes, depending upon which Christian values they deem most important. James Clayton Jim Dobson, Ph. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Christian values usually refers to values the speaker feels represent those found in the teachings of Christ as described in parts of the United States. ...


Some Protestants, however, reject the position that contraceptive use is a matter of conscience. Although some Quiverfull adherents accept that birth control use is a matter of individual conscience, other such adherents may argue that the Bible commands their position for all Christians. For example, David Crank, publisher of Unless The Lord Magazine, states, "The 'Quiverfull' approach is universal in the sense that it is not something unusual that only a few are called to. Rather it is God's basic design and plan for mankind, and it was the way most of mankind lived most of the time, until the 20th century."[59] Charles D. Provan additionally argues,: Quiverfull is a movement among conservative evangelical Protestant Christian couples chiefly in the United States, but with some adherents in Canada,[1] and with claims of adherent also in Australia, New Zealand, England, and elsewhere. ... Charles D. Provan is an author of books and articles on Christian topics and holocaust revisionism. ...

"Be fruitful and multiply" ... is a command of God, indeed the first command to a married couple. Birth control obviously involves disobedience to this command, for birth control attempts to prevent being fruitful and multiplying. Therefore birth control is wrong, because it involves disobedience to the Word of God. Nowhere is this command done away with in the entire Bible; therefore it still remains valid for us today.[40]

Jeremy R. Pierce states that such a view

Is held by those who are weak of conscience and can't get around an extremely simplistic reading of some biblical statements. For them, it is wrong to use birth control pills and condoms, because it would be doing something that they believe to be wrong. It isn't wrong in principle, however, and those who have thought through the various moral principles that apply will realize that sometimes it's wrong to use such methods and sometimes not, depending on the circumstances.

Pierce further notes that when more mature Christians impose one "correct" view of contraceptive use or non-use upon less mature Christians, "It becomes legalism much like that of the Pharisees",[60] a view that Protestant leaders such as Rainey, Dobson, Jordan, Mohler, Payne, and the Feinbergs maintain as described above. Legalism, in Christian theology, is a term referring to an improper fixation on law or codes of conduct, or legal ideas, usually implying an allegation of pride and the neglect of mercy, and ignorance of the grace of God. ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ...


Quiverfull authors such as Hess and Hess disagree and say the matter is simply one of clear obedience or disobedience to God's words in the Bible.

"Behold, children are a gift of the Lord" (Psa. 127:3). Do we really believe that? If children are a gift from God, let’s for the sake of argument ask ourselves what other gift or blessing from God we would reject. Money? Would we reject great wealth if God gave it? Not likely! How about good health? Many would say that a man’s health is his most treasured possession. But children? Even children given by God? "That’s different!" some will plead! All right, is it different? God states right here in no-nonsense language that children are gifts. Do we believe His Word to be true?[41]

To such statements, Protestants such as Jordan point out that Christians will, in fact, choose against the blessing of money and great wealth. Jordan also maintains that, while children are indeed blessings, they are only one among a wide range of blessings God offers, and prayerfully choosing foci among them is part of prudent Christian stewardship.[51] John Piper's Desiring God ministry further explains, Stewardship is a concept in theology. ... John Piper (artist), a prominent artist John Piper (politician), 19th-century lieutenant-governor of the Norfolk Island John Piper (theologian), a Reformed theologian and pastor This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Scriptures also say that a wife is a gift from the Lord (Proverbs 18:22), but that doesn't mean that it is wrong to stay single (1 Corinthians 7:8). Just because something is a gift from the Lord does not mean that it is wrong to be a steward of when or whether you will come into possession of it. It is wrong to reason that since A is good and a gift from the Lord, then we must pursue as much of A as possible. God has made this a world in which tradeoffs have to be made and we cannot do everything to the fullest extent. For kingdom purposes, it might be wise not to get married. And for kingdom purposes, it might be wise to regulate the size of one's family and to regulate when the new additions to the family will likely arrive. As Wayne Grudem has said, "it is okay to place less emphasis on some good activities in order to focus on other good activities."[61]

“Be fruitful and multiply”—command or blessing?

Protestants, including Quiverfull adherents, also disagree over whether the Biblical statement "be fruitful and multiply" in Genesis 1:28 and 9:7 is a command or simply a blessing God spoke over its recipients. Mary Pride and Charles E. Provan see it as a binding command upon married Christians, while Dobson, MacArthur, Jordan, and Raymond C. Van Leeuwen do not see the statement as prohibiting family planning by contraceptive use.[62] A standing order is a general order of indefinite duration. ... Look up blessing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mary Pride (born 1955) is an American author and magazine producer on homeschooling and Christian topics. ...


The Sin of Onan—condemnation of contraceptive use?
Main article: Onan

As part of this debate, Protestants (as well as some Catholics) disagree over the Sin of Onan as found in the Bible verses of Genesis 38:1-10. Protestants within the "children in abundance" group often see Onan's act of coitus interruptus as condemning contraceptive use, while most see Onan's real sin as failure to fulfill the terms of his Levirate marriage (Yibbum), even though the Bible says failure to fulfill this term is humiliation not death, according to Deuteronomy 25:5-10.[51] For other uses, see Onan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Onan (disambiguation). ... Coitus interruptus, also known as withdrawal or the pull out method, is a method of contraception in which, during sexual intercourse, the penis is removed from the vagina prior to ejaculation, primarily to avoid introducing semen into the vagina. ... Yibbum (pronounced yee-boom) or Levirate marriage, in Judaism, is commonly translated as levirate marriage, one of the most complex types of marital unions mandated by Torah law, and which is not presently practiced in its full application. ...


Which methods are permissible?

Also see: Natural Family Planning, Barrier contraception and Hormonal contraception

Protestants who accept that birth control is permissible may disagree over which methods are impermissible. Natural family planning (NFP) is a term referring to the family planning methods approved by the Roman Catholic Church. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ...


Natural Family Planning only or "artificial" methods too?

In Sam and Bethany Torode's 2002 book, Open Embrace: A Protestant Couple Rethinks Contraception, the young couple argued that only Natural Family Planning was permissible, citing their views borrowed from Catholicism including the Theology of the Body.[44] The couple later accepted barrier methods and stated, Also see: 2002 (number). ... Natural family planning (NFP) is a term referring to the family planning methods approved by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Theology of the Body refers to a series of 129 lectures given by Pope John Paul II during his Wednesday audiences in the Pope Paul VI Hall between September, 1979, and November. ...

Strict NFP reaches a point where it is more harmful for a marriage than good. We think that Jesus' words in Luke 11:46 apply: "And you experts in the law, woe to you, because you load people down with burdens they can hardly carry." How is it that spouses are saying "yes" to the gift of each other when they end up abstaining for much of their married lives? ... We also see honest congruity with the language of the body by saying "no" to conception with our bodies (via barrier methods or sensual massage) when our minds and hearts are also saying "no" to conception. We don’t believe this angers God, nor that it leads to the slippery slope of relativism or divorce. We strongly disagree with the idea that this is a mortal sin.[45] Natural Family Planning (NFP) set of pregnancy avoidance methods permitted by the Catholic Church. ...

John Piper's Desiring God ministry states of NFP, John Piper (artist), a prominent artist John Piper (politician), 19th-century lieutenant-governor of the Norfolk Island John Piper (theologian), a Reformed theologian and pastor This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Natural Family Planning (NFP) set of pregnancy avoidance methods permitted by the Catholic Church. ...

Some conclude that "natural family planning" is acceptable but "artificial" means are not. But this seems to overlook something significant: in both cases, you are still seeking to regulate when you have children. And so if one concludes that it is wrong to seek to regulate the timing and size of a family, then it would have to be concluded that natural family planning is just as wrong as "artificial" means. But if one concludes that it is appropriate to steward the timing and size of one's family, then what makes "artificial" means wrong but natural family planning right? Surely it is not because God is "more free" to overrule our plans with natural family planning! Perhaps some have concluded that artificial forms are wrong because they allow one more fully to separate intercourse from the possibility of procreation. But if it is wrong to have intercourse without a significant possibility of procreation, then it would also be wrong to have intercourse during pregnancy or after a woman is past her childbearing years. There is no reason to conclude that natural family planning is appropriate but that "artificial" means are not.[61]

Hormonal contraceptives

Based upon a view that life begins at conception, Protestant author Randy Alcorn rejects all forms of hormonal contraceptives, while James Dobson and obstetrician and minister William R. Cutrer reject only certain forms of them. Dobson and Cutrer view progesterone-only birth control pills as potentially problematic, since they may be potentially abortive contraceptives because of the theoretical possibility that they may have a slight secondary action of preventing a fertilized embryo from implanting within the uterine wall, while Alcorn implicates all hormonal contraceptives as problematic in these regards.[55][63][64] Dobson's Focus on the Family states, Controversy over the beginning of pregnancy usually occurs in the context of the abortion debate. ... Randy Alcorn is an American Christian author, teacher, and pro-life activist. ... Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ... James Clayton Jim Dobson, Ph. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Progestogen Only Pills or Progestin Only Pills (POP) are contraceptive pills that only contain synthetic progestogens (progestins) and do not contain oestrogen. ... Controversy over the beginning of pregnancy usually occurs in the context of the abortion debate. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... The graphic identity of Focus on the Family is intended to recall old time traditional values. ...

Dr. Dobson would emphasize as foundational his strict concurrence with the biblical teaching that every child is a blessing from God ... While affirming that human life begins with fertilization (the union of sperm and egg), his interpretation of Scripture leads him to believe that the prevention of fertilization is not morally wrong. However, he would oppose any method of birth control that acts after fertilization and terminates a conceived human life by preventing its implantation in the womb ... there is enough of a possibility for an abortifacient effect [with the progesterine-only pill], however remote, to warrant informing women about it?[55]

The American Association of Pro-Life Obstetricians & Gynecologists, however, argues that it is inappropriate to implicate certain hormonal contraceptives as abortifacient based upon theory only, and points out that no empirical evidence exists to prove any abortifacient action. The organization states, The American Association of Pro-Life Obstetricians and Gynecologists or AAPLOG was originally put together in 1957 by a group of Gynecologists in Pittsburgh lead by Dr. William Hartherford. ...

Is it appropriate to implicate a medication as an abortive agent without the data to support such a claim? To do so creates needless hostility and division among physicians and patients who genuinely respect life from the moment of conception. Where do we draw the line in informed consent for responsible disclosure of known medical risks vs. a theoretical risk which is not substantiated by current scientific knowledge? Is it accurate to implicate all hormonal contraceptive methods as one regarding their method of action, rather than evaluating each one individually?[65]

Protestants Reformers’ views vs. modern Protestant views

Protestants such as Pride, Provan, Hess and Hess, and Scott, argue that Protestants should not have moved away from traditional Protestant views of contraception such as given by Martin Luther and John Calvin. Such modern authors contrast the views of early Reformers who rejected contraception with modern Christians who accept it, and point to primarily feminist, secular, or Satanic influences as causative to the change.[39][40][41][42] Mary Pride (born 1955) is an American author and magazine producer on homeschooling and Christian topics. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ...

Charles D. Provan's The Bible and Birth Control is frequently cited by Quiverfull adherents, who eschew all forms of birth control.

Provan in his The Bible and Birth Control extensively quotes early Protestant views of birth control, which Provan uses to conclude, Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Charles D. Provan is an author of books and articles on Christian topics and holocaust revisionism. ... Quiverfull is a movement among conservative evangelical Protestant Christian couples chiefly in the United States, but with some adherents in Canada,[1] and with claims of adherent also in Australia, New Zealand, England, and elsewhere. ...

If Martin Luther were alive today, would he not disapprove of many Christians who view children as a bad thing, and so practice birth control to prevent God from sending more blessings to them? ... Truly Scriptural principles do not change at all: therefore Christians should willingly receive the blessings which God has for us, and not try to prevent them.[40]

Protestant scholars such as Jordan, however, maintain that Provan's view has the effect of adding a law to the Bible it does not contain. Jordan states,

James B. Jordan is a Reformed theologian, pastor, author of many books and articles, and President of Biblical Horizons.

Jesus repeatedly denounced the Pharisees for their additions to the Law of God. Thus, we must be extremely careful about what laws we lay down for people. Does the Bible clearly state that contraception is sinful, or that people are obligated to have as many children as possible? If the Bible does not say these things, we need to fear God and be frightened of adding to His Word.[51] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (953 × 643 pixel, file size: 55 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike License v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (953 × 643 pixel, file size: 55 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike License v. ... James B. Jordan is a Calvinist theologian and author. ... -1... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ...

Jordan argues also that the views of early Protestant Reformers on contraception are unreliable because they were heavily influenced by not just the Bible but Neo-Platonic mysticism (otherworldliness) and Aristolean teleologism (measuring all things only by their result), philosophies they inherited from their Catholic predecessors such as Thomas Aquinas and Augustine of Hippo. Bart Garrett describes it, "They operated in a time and context that unhealthily looked at sex as a base, physical pleasure that carried with it spiritual detriments."[66] Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Teleology is the philosophical study of purpose (from the Greek teleos, perfect, complete, which in turn comes from telos, end, result). ... Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ...


Jordan further points to the Reformers' unreliability based upon their rejection of Song of Solomon as a description of passionate sexual expression within marriage. He also cites technophobia among Protestants, as evident by their rejection of things ranging from buttons to airplanes ("if God meant for man to fly he would have given him wings"). As well, Jordan points to the Reformers' own mantra, "reformed and always reforming" (ecclesia reformata est semper reformanda), as evidence that Protestants should not cystalize their position on the matter at some point in the past, and says that rejecting contraceptives based upon their correlative rise alongside feminism exhibits the genetic fallacy.[51] For other uses, see Song of Solomon (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It also fails to assess ideas on their merits. ...


Eastern Orthodoxy

Background

Until about 1970, the Eastern Orthodox Church generally opposed the use of contraception. Since that time a "new consensus" has emerged. Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith...


Current view

This new view holds that contraception is acceptable within a Christian marriage if 1), the means of contraception is not abortifacient, 2) it is used with the blessing of one's spiritual father and 3), children are not completely excluded from the marriage.[67][68][69]


Dissent

Many people, on all sides, believe that the Orthodox change in thinking on contraception has not received adequate examination, and that any examination has too often become tied up in identity politics, with various groups accusing the other of western influence. Still, the "new consensus" has not gone unchallenged.[70][71]


Many Orthodox hierarchs and theologians from around the world lauded Humanae Vitae when it was issued. Among these Orthodox leaders, some teach that marital intercourse should be for procreation only, while others do not go as far and hold a view similar to the Roman Catholic position, which allows Natural Family Planning on principle while at the same time opposing artificial contraception.[70][71] Humanae Vitae (Latin Of Human Life) is an encyclical written by Pope Paul VI and promulgated on July 25, 1968. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ...


More lenient Orthodox leaders maintain that the new consensus position is too conservative, and thusly allow more freedom for contraceptive use.[70][71]


Roman Catholic views of the Orthodox position

Roman Catholics are sometimes bewildered by how the Orthodox Church could allow such a change in teaching. The dynamics of the Orthodox tradition function much differently than Rome's. Orthodoxy maintains that magisterial decree is not an appropriate way to work through their position on contraception.[70][71]


Anabaptists

Mennonites

The Mennonite Church USA, the General Conference Mennonite Church, and the Conservative Mennonite Conference have adopted statements indicating approval of modern methods of contraception. For example, while also teaching and encouraging love and acceptance of children, the Conservative Mennonite Conference maintains, "The prevention of pregnancy when feasible by birth control with pre-fertilization methods is acceptable."[72] A study published in 1975 found that only 11% of Mennonites believed use of birth control was "always wrong".[73] Old Colony Mennonites, like the Amish, do not officially allow birth control practices. Mennonite Church USA logo. ... The General Conference Mennonite Church was an association of Mennonite congregations based in North America from 1860 to 2002. ... The Conservative Mennonite Conference (CMC) is a Christian body of conservative evangelical Mennonite churches. ...


Amish

All types of birth control, including forms of natural family planning such as the Rhythm Method, are forbidden in Old Order Amish communities.[74] [73] However, especially in recent years, more Amish women have begun using contraception. This trend is more pronounced in communities where few of the men earn their living through farming.[75] Natural family planning (NFP) is a term referring to the family planning methods approved by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ... The Amish (Amisch or Amische) (IPA: ) are an Anabaptist Christian denomination in the United States and Canada (Ontario and Manitoba) known for their plain dress and avoidance of modern conveniences such as cars and electricity. ...


Hutterites

The Hutterite Brethren use contraception only if it is recommended by a physician.[76] Hutterite women at work Hutterites are a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ...


References

  1. ^ #2351, 2352, 2363, 2366, 2369, 2370. Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition Article 6: The Sixth Commandment. United States Catholic Conference (2000). Retrieved on 2006-06-15.
  2. ^ Douglas J. Schuurman (2001). Is Procreation the Primary Purpose of Sex? Feminist Reconsiderations of the Catholic Natural Law Tradition (html). Seminars in Christian Scholarship. Calvin College. Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
  3. ^ Marilyn Yalom (2001). A history of the wife. London: HarperCollins, pp. 297-8. ISBN 0-06-019338-7. 
  4. ^ a b Casti Connubii: Encyclical of Pope Pious XI on Christian Marriage, December 31, 1930 (html). The Vatican. Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  5. ^ a b c Yalom, p.307
  6. ^ Kippley, John; Sheila Kippley (1996). The Art of Natural Family Planning, 4th Edition, Cincinnati, OH: The Couple to Couple League, 231. ISBN 0-926412-13-2. 
  7. ^ Singer, Katie (2004). The Garden of Fertility. New York: Avery, a member of Penguin Group (USA), pp. 226-7. ISBN 1-58333-182-4. 
  8. ^ Gladwell, Malcolm (2000-03-10). "John Rock's Error". The New Yorker. 
  9. ^ Moral Questions Affecting Married Life: Addresses given October 29, 1951 to the Italian Catholic Union of midwives and November 26, 1951 to the National Congress of the Family Front and the Association of Large Families, National Catholic Welfare Conference, Washington, DC.
  10. ^ a b Humanae Vitae: Encyclical of Pope Paul VI on the Regulation of Birth, July 25, 1968 (html). The Vatican. Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  11. ^ John Paul II (1994). and http://ccli.org/nfp/morality/churchteaching.php July 17, 1994, Meditation (html). Retrieved on 2006-10-23.
  12. ^ A summary and restatement of the debate is available in Roderick Hindery. "The Evolution of Freedom as Catholicity in Catholic Ethics." Anxiety, Guilt, and Freedom. Eds. Benjamin Hubbard and Brad Starr, UPA, 1990.
  13. ^ a b Canadian Bishops' Statement on the Encyclical "Humanae Vitae". Retrieved on 2006-10-02.
  14. ^ 1968 Winnipeg Statement to blame for “gay” agenda?. Catholic Insight (2004-04-23). Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
    Danylak, Roman (1998). Canadian bishops and conscience. Reflections on the 30th anniversary of Humanae vitae. HeartOfJesus.ca. Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
  15. ^ Charles E. Curran,. Loyal Dissent: Memoir of a Catholic Theologian (Moral Traditions). Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 1-58901-087-6. 
  16. ^ Catholics for a Choice (1998). A Matter of Conscience: Catholics on Contraception (pdf). Catholics for a Choice. Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  17. ^ a b Harris Interactive (2005). The Harris Poll® #78 (html). Harris Interactive. Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  18. ^ Largest Religious Groups in the USA. Accessed November 13, 2005.
  19. ^ Chandra, A; Martinez GM, Mosher WD, Abma JC, Jones J. (2005). "Fertility, Family Planning, and Reproductive Health of U.S. Women: Data From the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth" (PDF). Vital Health Stat 23 (25). Retrieved on 2007-05-20.  See Table 56.
  20. ^ a b Alsan, Marcella (April 2006). "The Church & AIDS in Africa: Condoms & the Culture of Life". Commonweal: A Review of Religion, Politics, and Culture 133 (8). Retrieved on 2006-11-28. 
  21. ^ Associated Press. "Vatican cardinal who prepared study on condoms says main weapon in AIDS fight is chastity", International Herald Tribune (Europe), 2006-12-20. Retrieved on 2007-08-05. 
  22. ^ Rich Vincent (2005). Responsible Family Planning: The Legitimacy of Contraceptive Use for Christian Couples (html). TheoCenTric. Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  23. ^ a b c d Campbell, Flann (Nov., 1960). "Birth Control and the Christian Churches". Population Studies Vol. 14 (No. 2). 
  24. ^ Carlson, Allan (May 2007). "Children of the Reformation". Touchstone Vol. 20 (No. 4). 
  25. ^ (June 1885) "Untitled". The Malthusian. 
  26. ^ Conway, Moncure D. (1878). Liberty and Morality: A Discourse given at the South Place Chapel, Finsbury. Freethought Publishing Co.. 
  27. ^ (1893) "Editorial entitled 'A Marriage Problem'". The Christian World Weekly June 15. 
  28. ^ No Room For Contraception Lambeth Conferences of the Anglican Church
  29. ^ Statements on Science, Medicine, Technology & Environment (html). The Church of England (2005). Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  30. ^ Journey Together Faithfully: ELCA Studies on Sexuality, Part One. Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (2002). Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  31. ^ Procreation (html). Lutheran Churches of the Reformation (1989). Retrieved on 2006-10-23.
  32. ^ Responsible Parenthood. The United Methodist General Board of Church and Society. Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  33. ^ Perspectives: Pharmacy Refusals - A New Threat to Women's Health. Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice. Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  34. ^ Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice. 2006. Religious Support For Family Planning (retrieved 16 May 2007).
  35. ^ Abstinence Policy (html). Focus on the Family (2005). Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  36. ^ a b c d e f Dennis Rainey (2002). The Value of Children (11 July 2002 FamilyLife Today Radio Broadcast) (Transcript of radio broadcast). FamilyLife Today. Retrieved on 2006-09-30.
  37. ^ Christopher G. Ellison and Patricia Goodson (1997). "Conservative Protestantism and Attitudes toward Family Planning in a Sample of Seminarians". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 36 (4). 
  38. ^ Kathryn Joyce (09 November 2006). 'Arrows for the War' (html). The Nation. The Nation. Retrieved on 2006-11-09.
  39. ^ a b Pride, Mary (1985). The Way Home: Beyond Feminism, Back to Reality. Wheaton, IL: Good News Publishers. ISBN 0-89107-345-0. 
  40. ^ a b c d Provan, Charles D. (1989). The Bible and Birth Control. Monongahela, PA: Zimmer Printing. ISBN 99917-998-3-4.  A chapter excerpt of Provan's book is available at http://www.jesus-passion.com/contraception.htm
  41. ^ a b c Hess, Rick and Jan (1990). A Full Quiver: Family Planning and the Lordship of Christ. Brentwood, TN: Hyatt Publishers. ISBN 0-943497-83-3. 
  42. ^ a b Scott, Rachel (2004). Birthing God's Mighty Warriors. Longwood, FL: Xulon Press. ISBN 1-59467-465-5. 
  43. ^ Nikki Keith. My contraceptive convictions (html). Quiverfull Digest. Quiverfull.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-20.
  44. ^ a b Torode, Sam and Bethany; et al (2002). Open Embrace: A Protestant Couple Rethinks Contraception. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-3973-8. 
  45. ^ a b Udates. Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  46. ^ Kenaston, Denny (2003). The Pursuit of Godly Seed. Home Fires Publishers. ISBN 0-9742751-1-5. 
  47. ^ Doriani, Daniel (1993). ""Birth Dearth or Bring on the Babies?: Biblical Perspectives on Family Planning". Journal of Biblical Counseling 12 (1). 
  48. ^ The Cyber-Church of Jesus Christ Childfree (html). The Cyber-Church of Jesus Christ Childfree. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  49. ^ a b Mohler, R. Albert (2004). Can Christians Use Birth Control?. Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  50. ^ Owen, Jr., Samuel A. (1990). Letting God Plan Your Family. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books. ISBN 0-89107-585-2. 
  51. ^ a b c d e James B. Jordan (1993). "The Bible and Family Planning: An Answer to Charles Provan's "The Bible and Birth Control"" (pdf). Contra Mundum (Fall 1993, no. 9). ISSN 1070-9495. 
  52. ^ Albert Mohler (2006). Deliberate Childlessness: Moral Rebellion With a New Face (html). www.albertmohler.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-23.
  53. ^ Brad and Dawn Irons. Blessed Arrows: A Sterilization Reversal Ministry (html). Brad and Dawn Irons. Retrieved on 2006-10-14.
  54. ^ John F. MacArthur (2005). What does the Bible teach about birth control? (html). Issues & Answers. Grace to You. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  55. ^ a b c Focus on the Family (2005). Position Statement: Birth Control Pills and Other Hormonal Contraception (PDF). Focus on the Family. Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  56. ^ Payne, Franklin E. (1985). Biblical/Medical Ethics: The Christian and the Practice of Medicine. Milford, MI: Mott Media. ISBN 0-8010-7099-6. 
  57. ^ Payne, Franklin E. (1989). Making Biblical Decisions: Birth Control, Artificial Reproduction and Genetic Engineering. Escondido, CA: Hosanna House. 
  58. ^ Feinberg, John and Paul. Ethics for a Brave New World. Wheaton, IL: Crossway. ISBN 0-89107-736-7. 
  59. ^ David Crank (2006). "Quiverfull: universal or specific?". Quiverfull Digest (#3380). 
  60. ^ Jeremy R. Pierce (http://web.syr.edu/~jrpierce). On Quiverfull "Theology". Evangelical Outpost. Retrieved on 2006-10-20.
  61. ^ a b Desiring God Staff (2006). Does the Bible permit birth control? (html). Questions and Answers. Desiring God. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  62. ^ Raymond C. Van Leeuwen (2005). "Be Fruitful and Multiply": Is this a Command, or a Blessing? (html). Christianity Today. Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  63. ^ Cutrer, William R.; Glahn, Sandra L. (2005). The Contraception Guidebook: Options, Risks, and Answers for Christian Couples. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. ISBN 0-310-25407-8. 
  64. ^ Alcorn, Randy (2000). Does the Birth Control Pill Cause Abortions?. Sandy, OR: Eternal Perspective Ministries. ISBN 0-9700016-0-6. 
  65. ^ Hormone Contraceptives Controversies and Clarifications (html). American Association of Pro-Life Obstetricians & Gynecologists (1999). Retrieved on 2006-10-23.
  66. ^ Bart Garrett (2001). "Christians and Contraception: Convenience or Kingdon Thinking?". IIIM Magazine 3 (25). 
  67. ^ Evdokimov, Paul (1985). The Sacrament of Love: The Nuptial Mystery in the Light of the Orthodox Tradition. Crestwood: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 174-180. 
  68. ^ Meyendorff, John (1975). Marriage: An Orthodox Perspective. Crestwood: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, Ch. 13. 
  69. ^ On Marriage, Family, Sexuality, and the Sanctity of Life (HTML). Official Documents. Orthodox Church in America (2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-20.
  70. ^ a b c d Chrysostomos Zaphiris (1974). "The Morality of Contraception: An Eastern Orthodox Opinion". The Journal of Ecumenical Studies 11 (4). 
  71. ^ a b c d Zion, William Basil (1992). Eros and Transformation: Sexuality and Marriage: An Eastern Orthodox Perspective. Lanham: University Press of America, Ch. 7. 
  72. ^ What We Believe (html). Conservative Mennonite Conference (1997). Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  73. ^ a b Hershberger, Anne K (1989). Birth Control. Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved on 2006-08-17.
  74. ^ Adams C, Leverland M (1986). "The effects of religious beliefs on the health care practices of the Amish". Nurse Pract 11 (3): 58, 63, 67. PMID 3446212. 
  75. ^ Donnermeyer, Joseph F; and Lora Friedrich (Fall 2002). "Amish society: An overview reconsidered". Journal of Multicultural Nursing & Health. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.  (see p.10 in online version)
  76. ^ Kotva Jr., Joseph J. (2002). The Anabatist Tradition: Religious Beliefs and Healthcare Decisions (pdf). Religious Traditions and Healthcare Decisions. Park Ridge Center for the Study of Health, Faith, and Ethics. Retrieved on 2006-10-01.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Association of Pro-Life Obstetricians and Gynecologists or AAPLOG was originally put together in 1957 by a group of Gynecologists in Pittsburgh lead by Dr. William Hartherford. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Roman Catholic

  • "God, Sex, & Babies: What the Church Really Teaches about Responsible Parenthood" by Christopher West
  • "Contraception: Why Not?" by Janet E. Smith
  • Website for Catholics Against Contraception
  • Document from the United States Catholic Council of Bishop's November 2006 on the married life and contraception.
  • Church Teaching on Contraception by Fr. William Saunders
  • Catholic Answers article on contraception including commentary by the Early Church Fathers

Protestant

  • "A Biblical Approach To Family Planning" by Dennis Rainey - 8 part series from FamilyLife Today radio broadcast. Audio and transcripts available at link.
  • "Birth Control & God's Will" by Gregory Koukl
  • "Christians and Contraception: Convenience or Kingdom Thinking?" by Bart Garrett
  • "Contraception: the Tragic Deception" by Royce Dunn
  • "Does the Bible permit birth control?" by John Piper
  • "Responsible Family Planning" by Rich Vincent
  • "The Bible and Family Planning" by James B. Jordan - Article begins on page 4 of source

It has been suggested that Christian Hedonism be merged into this article or section. ...

Eastern Orthodox

  • The Orthodox Natural Family Planning Association

Critique of Christian view on Contraception

  • The religious agenda to BAN contraception
  • Catholic Contraception

  Results from FactBites:
 
Contraception - Conservapedia (325 words)
Contraception (or birth control) refers to techniques, drugs, or devices that prevent conception.
The Church does not teach that in engaging in intercourse one has to be acting with a view to procreating, an objective one could realistically have in mind only when one was fertile.
However, by the Lambeth Conference of 1958, contraceptive use among most Anglicans was widespread and a resolution that year stated that the responsibility for deciding upon the number and frequency of children was laid by God upon the consciences of parents in such ways as are acceptable to husband and wife.
Christian views on contraception - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (930 words)
Prior to the 20th century, contraception was generally condemned by all the major branches of Christianity, including by major reformers like Luther and Calvin.
Pope John Paul II argued that contraception is contrary to the interpersonal union that sexual intercourse should cement.
The condemnation of contraception was first relaxed by the Anglican Communion at the 1930 Lambeth Conference, and most Protestant groups followed suit over the course of the 20th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m