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Encyclopedia > Christian views of Jesus
A series of articles on
Jesus

Jesus Christ and Christianity
Chronology • Virgin Birth
MinistryMiraclesParables
Death and resurrection
Second ComingChristology
Names and titlesRelics • Active obedience Image File history File links JesusYeshua. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). ... For the biological phenomenon of female-only reproduction, see Parthenogenesis. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry, which may be categorized into cures, exorcisms, dominion over nature, three instances of raising the dead, and various others. ... The parables of Jesus, found in the synoptic gospels, embody much of Jesus teaching. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... A large variety of names and titles are used in the New Testament to describe Jesus. ... There are many relics attributed to Jesus that people believe or believed to be authentic relics of the Gospel accounts. ...

Cultural and historical background
AramaicRace
Genealogy of Jesus This article — a part of the Jesus and history series — describes the period within which Jesus, the central figure of Christianity, is said to have lived. ... Most scholars believe that Jesus primarily spoke Aramaic, with some Hebrew and Greek, although there is some debate in academia as to what degree. ... Black Jesus redirects here. ... Lukes genealogy of Jesus, from the Book of Kells transcribed by Celtic monks circa 800 The genealogy of Jesus through either one or both of his earthly parents (Mary and Joseph) is given by two passages from the Gospels, Matthew 1:2–16 and Luke 3:23–38. ...

Perspectives on Jesus
Biblical JesusReligious
ChristianJewishIslamic
Historicity • In myth
Research: historical • mythic
Yuz Asaf This article presents a description of Jesus life, as based on the four gospels. ... Religious perspectives on Jesus is the specific significance some religions place on Jesus. ... Judaism has no special or particular view of Jesus, and very few texts in Judaism directly refer to or take note of Jesus. ... Isa redirects here. ... This article is about the veracity of Jesus existence. ... The study of Jesus from a mythographical perspective is the examination of the narrative of Jesus, the Christ (the Anointed) of the gospels, Christian theology and folk Christianity as a central part of Christian mythology. ... The quest for the historical Jesus is the attempt to use historical rather than religious methods to construct a verifiable biography of Jesus. ... This article is about Jesus the man, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ... The Jesus myth hypothesis, also referred to as the Jesus myth theory, the Jesus myth[1][2][3] refers to the idea that the mythological aspects of the narrative of Jesus in the gospels indicate that the figure of Jesus is an ahistorical construct of various forms of ancient mythology... Yuz Asaf (Kashmiri: युझ असफ, یوذسف), Judasaf, Yus Asaph, or Shahzada Nabi Hazrat Yura Asaf is a prophet revered among the Sabians. ...

Jesus in culture
Depiction • Sexuality
Jesus has inspired artistic and cultural works for nearly two millennia. ... The Shroud of Turin. ... The subject of Jesuss sexuality is much debated. ...

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Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. As indicated by the name "Christianity," the focus of a Christian's life is a firm belief in Jesus as the Son of God and the Messiah or Christ. The title "Messiah" comes from the Hebrew word מָשִׁיחַ (māšiáħ) meaning anointed one. The Greek translation Χριστός (Christos) is the source of the English word Christ. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... This page is about the title. ...


Christians believe that, as the Messiah, Jesus was anointed as ruler and savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus' coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept.[1] The core Christian belief is that, through the death and resurrection of Jesus, sinful humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.[2] The Messianic Prophecies of Jesus are the passages in the Old Testament which Christians believe are prophecies of the coming of Jesus, whom Christians call the Christ (or the Messiah). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... Original Sin redirects here. ... The Fountain of Eternal Life in Cleveland, Ohio Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of living in physical or spiritual form for an infinite length of time, or in a state of timelessness. ...


While there have been theological disputes over the nature of Jesus, Christians generally believe that Jesus is God incarnate and "true God and true man" (or both fully divine and fully human). Jesus, having become fully human in all respects, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, yet he did not sin. As fully God, he defeated death and rose to life again. According to the Bible, "God raised him from the dead,"[3] he ascended to heaven, to the "right hand of God,"[4] and he will return again[5] to fulfil the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment and establishment of the physical Kingdom of God. Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... The hypostatic union (also known as the mystical union), in Christian theology, refers to the dual nature of Jesus Christ as being simultaneously God and Man. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Also refers to the process of gaining Enlightenment and several meditation techniques. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... In Abrahamic religions, messianic prophecies describe the coming, acts, authority, personality, nature, etc. ... Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all variously describe a resurrection of the dead, usually a resurrection of all people to face God on Judgment Day. ... Judgment Day redirects here. ... Kingdom of Heaven redirects here. ...


According to the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born from the Virgin Mary. Little of Jesus' childhood is recorded in the canonical Gospels, however infancy Gospels were popular in antiquity. In comparison, his adulthood, especially the week before his death, are well documented in the Gospels contained within the New Testament. The Biblical accounts of Jesus' ministry include: his baptism, miracles, preaching, teaching, and deeds. Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. ... Virgin Mary redirects here. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... Several surviving infancy gospels give an idea of the miracle literature that was created in the early Christian church to satisfy the hunger of early Christians for more detail about the early life of their Savior. ... In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry, which may be categorized into cures, exorcisms, dominion over nature, three instances of raising the dead, and various others. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years. ...

Contents

Overview

This section presents a brief overview of different views held by certain Christians concerning Jesus. Each point is detailed in subsequent sections. Because groups describing themselves as Christian hold differing views about Jesus, the predominant, traditional view is presented first, followed by variants.


Predominant view

Christians predominantly profess that Jesus is the Christ (Matthew 16:16–17; 1 Corinthians 2:8), the only Son of the Living God, the Lord,[6] and the eternal Word.[7] They profess Jesus to be the second of three divine persons, or hypostases, of the Holy Trinity: Jesus the Son constitutes, together with God the Father and the Holy Spirit, the single substance of the One God.[8] Furthermore, Jesus is defined to be one person with a fully human and a fully divine nature, a doctrine known as the Hypostatic union.[9] This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of... Lordship redirects here. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... In Christianity, the Greek word hypostasis [1] is usually translated into Latin as natura and then into English as nature, although the specific Greek word for nature and substance is physis. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The hypostatic union (also known as the mystical union), in Christian theology, refers to the dual nature of Jesus Christ as being simultaneously God and Man. ...

The Incredulity of Saint Thomas, by Caravaggio (1601–02) — "Reach out your hand and put it into my side. Stop doubting and believe." John 20:27
The Incredulity of Saint Thomas, by Caravaggio (1601–02) — "Reach out your hand and put it into my side. Stop doubting and believe." John 20:27

Christians predominantly profess that Jesus became man in the incarnation,[10] so that those who believe in him might have eternal life.[11] They further hold that he was born of the Virgin Mary by the power of the Holy Spirit in an event described as the miraculous virgin birth.[12] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1070x776, 96 KB) The Incredulity of Saint Thomas by Caravaggio (1601-02; Oil on canvas, 42 1/8 x 57 1/2 in; Neues Palais, Potsdam) Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1070x776, 96 KB) The Incredulity of Saint Thomas by Caravaggio (1601-02; Oil on canvas, 42 1/8 x 57 1/2 in; Neues Palais, Potsdam) Source: http://www. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... For the U.S. hockey teams victory in the 1980 Winter Olympics, see Miracle on Ice, or Miracle (movie) According to many religions, a miracle is an intervention by God in the universe. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Christians predominantly profess that Jesus is the Messiah (Greek: Christos; English: Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.[13] In his life Jesus proclaimed the "good news" (Middle English: gospel; Greek: euangelion, ευαγγελιον) that the coming Kingdom of Heaven was at hand,[14] and established the Christian Church, which is the seed of the kingdom, into which Christ calls the poor in spirit.[15] Jesus' actions at the Last Supper, where he instituted the Eucharist, are understood as central to worship and communion with God.[16] They profess that Jesus suffered death by crucifixion,[17] descended into hell (hades),[18] and rose bodily from the dead in the definitive miracle that foreshadows the resurrection of mankind at the end of time,[19] when Christ will come again to judge the living and the dead, resulting in election to Heaven or damnation to Hell.[20] In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... The Kingdom of Heaven (or the Kingdom of God, Hebrew מלכות השמים, malkhut hashamayim, Greek basileia tou theou) is a key concept detailed in all the three major monotheistic religions of the world — Islam, Judaism and Christianity. ... For the painting by Leonardo da Vinci, see The Last Supper (Leonardo). ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... The Harrowing of Hell is a doctrine in Christian theology referenced in the Apostles Creed and the Athanasian Creed (Quicumque vult), which states that Jesus descended into Hell. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all variously describe a resurrection of the dead, usually a resurrection of all people to face God on Judgment Day. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... Judgment Day redirects here. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ...


Christians predominantly profess that, through his life, death, and resurrection, Jesus restored man's communion with God in the blood of the New Covenant. His death on a cross is understood as the redemptive sacrifice: the source of mankind's salvation and the atonement for sin,[21] which had entered human history through the sin of Adam.[22] Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... Original Sin redirects here. ...


Other views

Other groups hold different views concerning Jesus' divinity and humanity. Nestorianism teaches that Jesus was two persons,[23] rather than one, rejecting the unity of Jesus' natures, whereas Monophysitism teaches that Jesus had one nature, rather than two.[24] Neither of these views differ concerning the other points. Docetism,[25] conversely, teaches that Jesus' humanity was merely an illusion, and instead he is understood as purely divine. This view does not teach the incarnation or the mortal death of Jesus by crucifixion, and understands the resurrection in significantly different terms. Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... In Christianity, Docetism (from the Greek [dokeō], to seem) is the belief that Jesus physical body was an illusion, as was his crucifixion; that is, Jesus only seemed to have a physical body and to physically die, but in reality he was incorporeal, a pure spirit, and hence could not...


Non-trinitarianism does not define God in terms of three divine persons. Some of these groups teach that Jesus is not, or at least was not always, God. Others see Jesus as God, but not distinct from the Father or Spirit, often describing those as merely changes in appearance, or modes of existence. Mormons consider Jesus to be a separate being, united as one with the Father and Spirit only in purpose. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Nontrinitarianism refers to Christian... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ...


Some Liberal Christians generally consider Jesus to have been an ordinary mortal only. They generally believe that miraculous and prophetic events in Jesus' life were not historical. They sometimes find a metaphorical meaning in what they consider fictitious accounts of his life. Jesus' relationship with God is described in widely diverse views within this group.[26] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called...


Sources used

Illuminated manuscript of the Gospels c. 1220
Illuminated manuscript of the Gospels c. 1220

Christian views of Jesus are derived from various sources, but especially from the canonical Gospels. Christians predominantly hold that these works are historically true.[27] The specifically Catholic view is expressed in the Second Vatican council document, Dei Verbum: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1336x1824, 2306 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Christian views of Jesus Vesica piscis Merkabah ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1336x1824, 2306 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Christian views of Jesus Vesica piscis Merkabah ...

Holy Mother Church has firmly and with absolute constancy held, and continues to hold, that the four Gospels just named, whose historical character the Church unhesitatingly asserts, faithfully hand on what Jesus Christ, while living among men, really did and taught... The sacred authors wrote the four Gospels, selecting some things from the many which had been handed on by word of mouth or in writing, reducing some of them to a synthesis, explaining some things in view of the situation of their churches and preserving the form of proclamation but always in such fashion that they told us the honest truth about Jesus.[28]

Christians do not limit themselves to merely historical methods, but, because they believe the Bible is inspired by God, employ religious methods as well, such as typology and other forms of exegesis. Similarly, they follow the theological insights, concerning Jesus, of the New Testament epistles. The Ascension from a Speculum Humanae Salvationis ca 1430, see below Typology is a theological doctrine of theory of types and their antitypes found in Scripture. ... Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of an authoritative text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ...


Furthermore, Catholic and Orthodox Christians develop their views of Jesus from Sacred Tradition, which includes the decrees of Ecumenical Councils, and material from the writings of the Church Fathers. Additionally, a prominent place is given for the teachings of certain theologians, called "Doctors of the Church," known for their orthodoxy, eminent learning, and sanctity. Most Protestant Christians also consider these sources valuable in developing their views of Jesus. The Catholic Church bases all of its teachings on Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture (The Bible). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church is a theologian from whose teachings the whole Christian church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of the Pope or of an ecumenical council. ...


Some ancient texts, known as apocrypha or "secret writing," filled in the silence of the New Testament writings and the Apostolic Fathers on certain matters with often fantastic and picturesque accounts. Other texts had more doctrinal aims, some of which presented teachings condemned by the early Church. Concerning Christian use of these texts for developing views of Jesus, in antiquity Origen expressed the position still predominantly held by Christians today: Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ...

We are not unaware that many of these secret writings were produced by wicked men, famous for their iniquity.... We must therefore use caution in accepting all these secret writings that circulate under the name of saints... because some of them were written to destroy the truth of our Scripture and to impose a false teaching. On the other hand, we should not totally reject writings that might be useful in shedding light on the Scripture. It is a sign of a great man to hear and carry out the advice of Scripture: "Test everything; retain what is good."[29]

Some of these texts were didactic works expressing the theology of unorthodox groups, and obviously these groups held a converse view of their writings than that of Origen and orthodoxy. Thus, in antiquity, variant groups at times employed these apocryphal works in developing their view of Jesus, and though they vanished at a given historical point, modern reconstructionist movements often reemploy these texts in developing their views of Jesus. Notable groups include Gnosticism, and that of the Ebionites. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Ebionites (Greek: Ebionaioi from Hebrew; , , the Poor Ones) were an early Jewish Christian sect that lived in and around the land of Israel in the 1st to the 5th century CE.[1] Without authenticated archaeological evidence for the existence of the Ebionites, their views and practices can only be...


Christology

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Christianity Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


Christian cross Image File history File links Christian_cross. ...

Jesus Christ
Virgin birth · Resurrection This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For the biological phenomenon of female-only reproduction, see Parthenogenesis. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ...


Foundations
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For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ...


Christian theology
Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
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Christian doctrine redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the...


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Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Church... Christian traditions are traditions of practice or belief associated with Christianity. ... // Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Reformation redirects here. ...

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Main article: Christology

Christology is the part of theology that deals with the person and natures of Jesus Christ. This includes doctrinal articulation of his divine and human natures, especially insofar as it relates to God's communion with man. Technically, any group that believes in the messianic quality of Jesus (such as Islam) has a Christology, but in this article only Christian Christology will be discussed. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study...


Hypostatic Union

Main article: Hypostatic union

Hypostatic union is a theological term that expresses the doctrine that Christ is one person (prosopon) who subsists in two natures (φύσεις physeis) human and divine; this is therefore related to the doctrine of the Incarnation. The term "hypostasis" (ὑπόστασις) means literally "that which lies beneath," and is also referred to as the mystical union. More simply, the doctrine states that Jesus is both fully human and fully divine. Included in this is the doctrine of Dythelitism, i.e., that Christ has two wills, which always act in union. These doctrines were pronounced by the Ecumenical Councils of Ephesus, Chalcedon, and Constantinople. The hypostatic union (also known as the mystical union), in Christian theology, refers to the dual nature of Jesus Christ as being simultaneously God and Man. ...


The term "hypostasis" was used by some Greek philosophers to distinguish reality from appearances,[30] and, before its theological employment by the Council of Nicaea, it was synonymous with "substance" or "being" (ousia). The subtle theological distinction was fully expressed by the Council of Chalcedon, which declared that the one substance and one person of Christ was in two natures, each perfectly united yet with each retaining its own properties (eis en prosopon kai mian hpostasin).[31]


Groups that reject either the divinity or humanity of Jesus obviously do not hold the doctrine of hypostatic union. However, some groups hold that Jesus is both man and God, but employ different teachings to explain this relationship. Nestorianism holds that Christ not only has two natures, but that he is two physical persons united morally, but not physically, by means of grace. Monophysitism holds that Jesus has only one nature: either his human nature is wholly absorbed by the divine, or the converse, or that the two are mixed such that a third nature results, which supersedes its constituent human and divine components. Monothelitism holds that, though Christ has two natures, he only has one will. Many of these views found renewed forms in Western Christianity at the time of the Reformation, especially among Adoptionists, Socinians, and Ubiquitarians.


Trinity

Main article: Trinity

The Trinity is the doctrine that, in the unity of the One God, there are three divine persons: the Father, Son, and Spirit, distinct from one another yet of one substance. The three persons are co-eternal and uncreated: "the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God, and yet there are not three Gods but one God."[32] Jesus is understood by Trinitarian Christians to be the person of the Son, eternally begotten by the Father, who came upon earth to deliver to the world. This article is about the Christian Trinity. ...


Such language appears in Matthew 28:19, "Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit." This was incorporated into baptismal formulae, which also invoked a renunciation of Satan, contrasting the initiate's belief in the One God with the idolatry of polytheistic paganism.[33] This language also appears in early doxologies (Galatians 5:25; Romans 8:9; Hebrews 13:15)[34] The doctrine found full articulation with the Council of Nicaea.


Only Son of God

According to the predominant Christian interpretation, the title "Son of God" is understood as an expression of Jesus' divinity and, specifically, his unique divine sonship as the Second Person of the Trinity.


The title is applied often in the Gospels, notably at the Baptism and the Transfiguration (Matthew 3:17, Matthew 17:5). Also significant is the confession of Peter: "You are the Christ, the Son of the Living God" (Matthew 16:16). Jesus applies the title "the only Son of God" to himself in John 3:16 and 10:36. John's gospel uses the title as a short formula for expressing his divinity: "We have beheld his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth" (John 1:14). For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ...


This view is held by virtually all Christians, even most non-Trinitarians, though obviously not by those groups which do not believe that Jesus was divine. These groups, especially Liberal Christians, generally do not accept the theology of the canonical epistles, and reject the historicity of the specific events in the Gospels. Thus, because in the Old Testament the title "a son of God" was given to various creatures (e.g., angels, the children of Israel, Jewish kings, and specifically the promised Messiah),[35] they understand it as nothing more than belief in Jesus' Messiahship, if that.


Non-Trinitarians

Main article: Nontrinitarianism

In antiquity, sporadically in the Middle Ages, and again following the Reformation until today, differing views existed concerning the Godhead from those of Trinitarians and the related traditional[neutrality disputed] Christology. Though diverse, these views may be generally classified into those which hold Christ to be only divine and not differing from the Father hypostatically, and those which hold Christ to be less fully God than the Father, in the most extreme form being a mere human prophet.[citation needed] Ancient examples include the Gnostics (syncretistic religious movement), most of whom were for the divine and not human redeemer, generally disbelieving the reality of Christ's human flesh.[36] An example of the opposite view, the Arians considered Jesus a creature and thus substantially different from the Father.[37] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Nontrinitarianism refers to Christian... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian usage, the... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box...


Present day views that Jesus is a created being include those of Jehovah's Witnesses.[38] Unitarians, descendants of Reformation era Socinians, view Jesus as never more than human.[39] Latter-day Saints accept the divinity of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, as separate and distinct divine personages and believe that they have the common purpose of salvation and eternal life for mankind.[40] Modalists, such as Oneness Pentecostals, regard God as a single person, with the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit considered modes or roles by which the unipersonal God expresses himself.[41] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Unitarianism is the belief... Socinianism is a form of Antitrinitarianism, named for Laelius Socinus (died 1562 in Zürich) and of his nephew Faustus Socinus (died 1604 in Poland). ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... In Christianity, Sabellianism (also known as modalism) is the second-century belief that the three persons of the Trinity are merely different modes or aspects of God, rather than three distinct persons. ... Oneness Pentecostalism is a movement of Pentecostal Christianity that teaches the atoning death of Jesus Christ, His resurrection, His soon return, and the inerrancy of the word of God. ...


Humanity

Christians predominantly profess that Jesus assumed his humanity with the Incarnation and thus, as fully human, possessed a human soul, with its operations of intellect and will, and a human body. In his human nature, Jesus had limited human knowledge, exercised in the historical conditions of his existence, and increased through from experience. Yet this human wisdom is understood as perfectly united with his divine omnipotence, thus Jesus enjoyed in his human knowledge the fullness of understanding of the eternal plans he had come to reveal.[42] The Council of Constantinople professed that Jesus possesses two wills and two natural operations, divine and human, and his human will submits to his divine will.[43]


Life

This article presents a description of Jesus life, as based on the four gospels. ...

The ministry and message of Jesus

Jesus taught love for God as the foremost responsibility of man and that this love would be demonstrated by obedience to the words of Jesus John 14:15. Some Christians believe his message to have been that universal love is a direct fulfilling of God's will, rather than observing the laws which were contained in the Hebrew Bible, see also Law and Gospel. Others believe that the Gospel message was not revealed to the disciples until after Jesus' resurrection from the dead and that people may obtain salvation through the substitutionary atonement of Jesus Christ; these Christians believe that this salvation can be obtained through faith in the atoning sacrifice of resurrection of Jesus from the dead. Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck Charity is a term that refers to giving. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... The relationship between Gods Law and the Gospel is a major topic in Lutheran and Reformed theology. ... Substitutionary atonement is the act of restoring balances by substitution. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ...


Very often, Jesus hid the specificity of his messages through the use of parables. When asked privately by his disciples Matthew 13:10 why he spoke in parables, Jesus told them in Matthew 13:11–16 that it was so those who were not his disciples would not understand. Some Christians believe that this was an act of mercy, because they believe sin and judgment increase with knowledge; by hiding this knowledge in parables, the ignorant remain less sinful.[citation needed] // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ...


The early fathers of the church further expanded on his message, and much of the rest of the New Testament is concerned with the meaning of Jesus' death and resurrection with the associated responsibilities of Christian life, along with prophetic revelations that show future circumstances and the final outcome of the current age (i.e., 1 Timothy 4 and The Revelation of John). One idea that has remained constant throughout Christian theology is the idea that humanity was redeemed, saved, or given an opportunity to come to salvation through faith in Jesus' death and bodily resurrection. "Jesus died for our sins" is a common Christian aphorism. An aphorism (literally distinction or definition, from Greek αφοριζειν to define) expresses a general truth in a pithy sentence. ...


While faith in Jesus' sacrificial death and resurrection is sufficient for salvation within the Christian doctrine (John 3:16), good works are certainly expected as evidence of the convert's salvation (Titus 1:16). James 2:18 says Christians are expected to show their faith by their works. Revelations 3:2 asks the reader to "strengthen the things which remain, that are ready to die," implying that failure to produce good works might lead to a loss of rewards at the believers' judgment. John 13:15 claims that Jesus' life is an example or role model for followers. In John 14:12 Jesus states that followers who believe in him can do the works that he does and even "greater works." This last scripture has provoked much debate on the role of miracles and healing in current times. See also Antinomianism. John 3:16 (chapter 3, verse 16 of the Gospel of John) is one of the most widely quoted verses from the Christian Bible. ... Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια,[1] which is unlawful), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ...


However, the idea of "salvation" has been interpreted in many ways, and a wide spectrum of Christian viewpoints exist and have existed throughout history up to the present day.


Some especially notable events in the ministry of Jesus, recounted in the Gospels, include:

  • When Jesus was asked what is the most important commandment in the Mosaic Law, Jesus answered: "The most important one... is this:... 'Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.'" Mark 12:29–30, echoing Deut. 6:5, the Shema), and then he said, "The second is this: 'Love your neighbor as yourself'" (Lev. 19:18).
  • Jesus asked his disciples: "Who do you say I am?" Simon Peter answered, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God." Jesus replied, "Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by man, but by my Father in heaven. And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven" (Matthew 16:15–19).
  • Seeing merchants doing money-changing at the Temple in Jerusalem, he used a whip to drive out all the animals being bought and sold by the merchants, released the doves, and overturned the tables to scatter the money-changers' coins, saying to those who sold the doves, "Get these out of here! How dare you turn my Father's house into a market!" (John 2:16).
  • On the day before Passover started, now referred to as Good Friday, Jesus shared a Passover meal with his disciples — the Last Supper. During the meal, he gave bread to his disciples, saying, "Take it and eat. This is my body," and then gave them a cup of wine, saying, "Drink from this, all of you, for this is my blood, the blood of the covenant, poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins" (Matthew 26:26–29). Many Christian denominations take this as the institution of the sacrament of Communion or the Eucharist.

Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... Shema Yisrael (שמע ישראל) are the first two words of a section of the Hebrew Bible that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... St Peter redirects here. ... The narrative of Jesus and the Money Changers occurs in both the Synoptic Gospels and in the Gospel of John, although it occurs close to the end of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 11:15-19, 11:27-33, Matthew 21:12-17, 21:23-27 and Luke 19:45... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... Table set for the Passover Seder The Passover Seder (Hebrew: סֵדֶר, , order, arrangement) is a Jewish ritual feast held on the first night of the Jewish holiday of Passover (the 15th day of Hebrew month of Nisan). ... For the painting by Leonardo da Vinci, see The Last Supper (Leonardo). ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...

Crucifixion interpretations

While hanging on the cross, the Gospel of Mark has Jesus asking, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" Many readers find this theologically perplexing, believing that God left him to die on the cross. According to a common interpretation of the scriptures, God the Father was turning away from Jesus at this time because he was suffering in the place of sinners. Others recognise this as an exact quotation of the first verse of Psalm 22, a common way at the time to refer to an entire Psalm. That Psalm begins with cries of despair, but ends on a note of hope and trust in God's triumph and deliverance. It also contains several details that have been taken to apply to Jesus' crucifixion, such as the soldiers casting lots for Jesus' garments and leaving his bones unbroken. Still, others of a long-held tradition see Jesus' words as the ultimate climax of Jesus' entering into the human condition; his exclamation here evinces his full experience and solidarity with humanity, even the experience of alienation from God.[citation needed] Yet, others consider "why hast thou forsaken me" to be a mistranslation of the original Aramaic: they argue that a better translation is "for this I was kept" or "why hast thou let me to live?."[citation needed] Jesus' final words as recorded in Luke 23:46 were "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit." The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Most scholars believe that Jesus primarily spoke Aramaic, with some Hebrew and Greek, although there is some debate in academia as to what degree. ...


John 19:30 describes Jesus' final words as "It is finished" upon his death. Also, the account in John does not mention Jesus asking for the "bitter cup" to be taken away from him while praying in the Garden of Gethsemane the night before (eventually ending his prayer with the words, "nevertheless not my will, but thine be done"), but rather skips this and proceeds directly to Jesus' acceptance of God's will, expounding upon his attitude of surrender (John 18:11). Although, it does include his praying to God to watch over his followers.


Resurrection, Ascension, and Second Coming

Main articles: Resurrection and Ascension of Jesus Christ

According to the New Testament, he was raised from the dead by God on the third day following his crucifixion and appeared to his disciples; the Acts of the Apostles reports that forty days later he ascended bodily into Heaven and retains since then both of his natures, divine and human. Paul's letters to the Romans, Ephesians and Colossians, as well as the letter to the Hebrews (traditionally attributed to Paul) claim that Jesus presently exercises all authority in heaven and on earth for the sake of the Church, until all of the earth is made subject to his rule through the preaching of the Gospel, see also the Great Commission. Based on the New Testament, Christians believe that Jesus will return from heaven at the end of the age, to judge the living and the dead, and fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy. Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Also refers to the process of gaining Enlightenment and several meditation techniques. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... The hypostatic union (also known as the mystical union), in Christian theology, refers to the dual nature of Jesus Christ as being simultaneously God and Man. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... Described by William Barclay as the Queen of the Epistles, the Epistle to the Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... Judgment Day redirects here. ... In Abrahamic religions, messianic prophecies describe the coming, acts, authority, personality, nature, etc. ...


In many sects of the Latter Day Saint movement (Mormonism), it is believed that Jesus appeared in the Western Hemisphere after his resurrection and taught some early Americans, whom The Book of Mormon says were of Israelite descent. The New Testament (John 10:16) states: "And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice" and Jesus also states that he was "sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel" (Matthew 15:24). It is also believed by some Mormons that, because the Book of Mormon also refers to "other lost sheep," when Christ left America he may have visited other civilizations in different parts of the world, although it is not mentioned where. The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... For more general information about religious denominations that follow the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... // The Book of Mormon [1] is one of the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement. ...


Miracles performed

Main article: Miracles of Jesus According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ...


Miracles performed by Jesus, according to the Gospels, include:

  • Turning water into wine for a wedding feast.
  • Curing a sick child who was near death.
  • Curing a lame man, a man with a virulent skin disease, a paralyzed man.
  • Feeding a crowd of five thousand using only fives loaves of bread and two fish.
  • Walking on water to reach his disciples who were in a boat (and enabling Peter to walk on water, also).
  • Giving sight to a man born blind.
  • Resurrecting a man (Lazarus) who had been dead for four days.
  • Appearing to Peter, James, and John in a transfigured state, with unearthly, brilliant white clothes, and with Elijah and Moses.
  • Resurrect three days after he died.

Resurrection of Lazarus by Juan de Flandes, around 1500 For other uses, see Lazarus (disambiguation). ... St Peter redirects here. ... Saint James the Great (d. ... John the Apostle (Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ... The word Transfiguration means a changing of appearance or form. ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...

Quotes

Well-known quotations attributed to Jesus in the Gospels include:

  • "I am the Way; I am Truth and Life. No one can come to the Father except through me." or "I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life; no one comes to the Father except through me." (John 14:6) This is the most frequently referenced verse attributed to Jesus. [44]
  • The Beatitudes (Matthew 5:3–12)
  • The Lord's Prayer (Matthew 6:9–13)
  • "No one can be the slave of two masters... You cannot be the slave of both God and mammon [i.e., material possessions, wealth, money]." (Matthew 6:24) (Discourse on ostentation)
  • "Do not judge, and you will not be judged." (Matthew 7:1)
  • "Do not give dogs what is holy; and do not throw your pearls in front of pigs..." (Matthew 7:6)
  • "Ask, and it will be given to you; search, and you will find." (Matthew 7:7)
  • "Enter by the narrow gate, since the road that leads to destruction is wide and spacious, and many take it." (Matthew 7:13)
  • "Do not suppose that I have come to bring peace to the earth: it is not peace I have come to bring, but a sword... A person's enemies will be the members of his own household." (Matthew 10:34)
  • "Come to me all you who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest." (the Sole SatisfierMatthew 11:28)
  • "It is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for someone rich to enter the kingdom of Heaven." (Matthew 19:24)
  • "Render unto Caesar what belongs to Caesar, and to God what belongs to God." (Matthew 22:21)
  • "The spirit is willing enough, but human nature is weak." (Matthew 26:41)
  • "Love your enemies, do good to those who treat you badly. To anyone who slaps you on one cheek, present the other cheek as well." (Luke 6:27)
  • "Why do you observe the splinter in your brother's eye and never notice the great log in your own?" (Luke 6:41)
  • "I am the light of the world; anyone who follows me will not be walking in the dark, but will have the light of life." (John 8:12)
  • "Peace I bequeath to you, my own peace I give to you, a peace the world cannot give, this is my gift to you." (John 14:27)

The Beatitudes (from Latin, beatitudo, happiness) is the beginning portion of the Sermon on the Mount of the Gospel of Matthew. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The discourse on ostentation, Matthew 6, is a section of the Sermon on the Mount, occurring after the antithesis of the Law, but before the discourse on judgementalism, according to the Gospel of Matthew. ... The discourse on judgementalism, Matthew 7:1-6, follows the discourse on ostentation in the sermon on the mount. ... Sole Satisfier is a terminology of Christian theology which refers to God as the only one who can satisfy human beings. ... Christ and the tribute by Masaccio “Render unto Caesar…” is a phrase attributed to Jesus in the synoptic gospels. ...

Legacy

According to most Christian interpretations of the Bible, the theme of Jesus' preaching was that of repentance, faith and love, as demonstrated in Matthew 22:36-40, Luke 10:27, and Mark 12:28-31. (See also Shema Yisrael). During his public ministry, Jesus extensively trained twelve Apostles to continue after his departure his leadership of the many who had begun to follow him, mainly in the towns and villages throughout Galilee, Samaria, Tiberias and the Decapolis. Most Christians who hold that Jesus' miracles were literally true, not allegory, think the Apostles gained the power to perform miracles and heal both Jews and Gentiles alike after they had been empowered by the Holy Spirit of Truth (to pneuma tēs alētheias, το πνευμα τες αλεθειας John 14:17, John 26; Luke 24:49, Acts 1:8, Acts 2:4). Some Christians, citing Mark 16:17, believe that these supernatural powers are given to all believers. According to Acts 2:4, these claims were fulfilled at Pentecost, poignantly the Jewish feast that, in addition to other Scriptural events, commemorates also the giving of the Law to Moses. For Christians the legacy Jesus left was one of sacrifice and redemption; they believe that Jesus was sent by God to die as a sacrifice in place of all humanity. Christians hold that this sacrifice had to take place because all humans sin (they claim God's penalty for sin is death and separation from God), so God sent his son to die in their place and take his judgment on us upon himself. Jesus is held as an important person, a great teacher or a prophet by many other religions (who deny him as being God in the flesh).[citation needed] For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... “Shomron” redirects here. ... Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... The oval forum and cardo of Gerasa (Jerash) The Decapolis (Greek: deka, ten; polis, city) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in Syria and Judea (renamed Palestine in 135 AD). ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... … The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the word, see Redemption Redemption is a religious concept referring to forgiveness or absolution for past sins and protection from eternal damnation. ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ...


References

  1. ^ Oxford Companion to the Bible p.513
  2. ^ Oxford Companion to the Bible p.649
  3. ^ Acts 2:24, Romans 10:9, 1 Cor 15:15, Acts 2:31-32, 3:15, 3:26, 4:10, 5:30, 10:40-41, 13:30, 13:34, 13:37, 17:30-31, 1 Cor 6:14, 2 Cor 4:14, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:20, Col 2:12, 1 Thess 1:10, Heb 13:20, 1 Pet 1:3, 1:21
  4. ^ Mark 16:19, Luke 22:69, Acts 2:33, 5:31, 7:55-56, Romans 8:34, Eph 1:20, Col 3:1, Hebrews 1:3, 1:13, 10:12, 12:2, 1 Peter 3:22
  5. ^ Acts 1:9-11
  6. ^ Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §441–451; Augsburg Confession, article 3; Luther, Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed
  7. ^ Augsburg Confession, article 3; John 1:1
  8. ^ Nicene Creed; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 1; Augsburg Confession, article 1; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 3; Council of Nicaea I (325) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §126; Council of Constantinople II (553) in ibid. §424 and 424; Council of Ephesus in ibid. §255; John 1:1; John 8:58; John 10:30
  9. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §464–469; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 2 and 3 Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9; Council of Ephesus (431) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §250; Council of Ephesus in ibid. §251; Council of Chalcedon (451) in ibid. §301 and 302; Hebrews 4:15
  10. ^ Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §461–463;Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 2; Luther, Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed; John 1:14–16; Hebrews 10:5–7
  11. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §456–460; Gregory of Nyssa, Orat. catech. 15 in Patrologia Graeca ed. J. P. Migne(Paris, 1857–1866) 45, 48B; St. Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses 3.19.1 in ibid. 7/1, 939; St. Athanasius, De inc., 54.3 in ibid. 25, 192B. St. Thomas Aquinas, Opusc. in ibid. 57: 1–4; Galatians 4:4–5
  12. ^ Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §484–489, 494–507; Luther, Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed
  13. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §436–40; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 2; Irenaeus Adversus Haereses in Patrologia Graeca ed. J. P. Migne (Paris, 1857–1866) 7/1, 93; Luke 2:1; Matthew 16:16
  14. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §541–546
  15. ^ Apostle's Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §551–553; Augsburg Confession, article 8; Luther, Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9; Leo the Great, Sermo 4.3 in Patrologia Latina ed. J. P. Migne (Paris, 1841–1855); Matthew 16:18
  16. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §1322–1419; Luther, Augsburg Confession, article 10; Small Catechism: the Sacrament of the Altar
  17. ^ Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed; Luther, Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9
  18. ^ Apostle's Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §632–635; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 3; Augsburg Confession, article 3; Council of Rome (745) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §587; Benedict XII, Cum dudum (1341) in ibid. §1011; Clement VI, Super quibusdam (1351) in ibid. §1077; Council of Toledo IV (625) in ibid. §485; Matthew 27:52–53
  19. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §638–655; Byzantine Liturgy, Troparion of Easter; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 4 and 17; Augsburg Confession, article 3; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9; See also, apologetics.com and worldinvisible.com.
  20. ^ Apostle's Creed; Nicene Creed Catechism of the Catholic Church §668–675, 678–679; Luther, Small Catechism commentary on Apostle's Creed; Matthew 25:32–46
  21. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §606–618; Council of Trent (1547) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §1529; John 14:2–3
  22. ^ Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 9; Augsburg Confession, article 2; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 8; Romans 5:12–21; 1Corinthians 15:21–22.
  23. ^ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10755a.htm Nestorius and Nestorianism
  24. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Monophys.html from The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2007
  25. ^ www.britannica.com/eb/article-9030754/Docetism.
  26. ^ http://www.beliefnet.com/story/80/story_8028_1.html What Liberal Protestants Believe
  27. ^ Second Vatican Council, Dei Verbum (V.19); Thomas Aquinas, [http://www.newadvent.org/summa/100110.htm Whether in Holy Scripture a word may have several senses?; c.f. Catechism of the Catholic Church, §116; R.C. Sproul, Knowing Scripture pp. 45–61; Greg Bahnsen, A Reformed Confession Regarding Hermeneutics (art. 6); Scott Foutz, Martin Luther and Scripture
  28. ^ Second Vatican Council, Dei Verbum (V.19)
  29. ^ Origen, In Matthew 28; Patrologiae cursus completus, Series Graeca (Paris: Migne, 1857–1866) 13, 1637; scriptural quote is 1 Thessalonians 5:21.
  30. ^ Aristotle, "Mund.," IV, 21
  31. ^ Denzinger, ed. Bannwart, 148
  32. ^ Athanasian Creed
  33. ^ cf. Tertullian, De spect. iv; Justin Martyr, Apologia I, iv; Hippolytus, Serm. in Theoph n. 10
  34. ^ cf 1 Clement 58, 59; Justin Martyr, Apologia I, lxvii
  35. ^ c.f. Deut 14:1; (LXX) 32:8; Job 1:6; Ex 4:22; Hos 2:1; 11:1; Jer 3:19; Sir 36:11; Wis 18:13; 2 Sam 7:14; Ps 82:6.
  36. ^ Chadwick, East and West p. 5; earlychristianwritings.com, Gnostics, Gnostic Gospels, & Gnosticism; J.N.D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines pp. 22–28.
  37. ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines pp. 226–231; other similar ancient views include Adoptionists, ibid. pp. 115–119
  38. ^ Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, accessdate What Does the Bible Say About God and Jesus?
  39. ^ On Unitarians, see: UUA.org, Unitarian Views of Jesus; on connection with Socinianism, see: sullivan-county.com, Socinianism: Unitarianism in 16th-17th century Poland and Its Influence (Note that the icon at the top of the page expresses Trinitarian theology with a symbolic hand gesture); on this matter they parallel the ancient Ebionites, see: J.N.D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines pp. 139
  40. ^ Hinckley, Gordon (March, 1998). First Presidency Message: The Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Ensign. Retrieved on September 8, 2006.
  41. ^ William Arnold, Is Jesus God the Father?; in this way they parallel ancient Sabellians, see: J.N.D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines pp. 119–123; Robert Letham, The Holy Trinity: In Scripture, History, Theology, and Worship pp. 97–98
  42. ^ CCC 474 cf. Mk 8:31; 9:31; 10:33–34; 14:18–20, 26–30
  43. ^ Council of Constantinople III (681): DS 556–559
  44. ^ http://www.topverses.com/?find=jesus

The Patrologia Graeca is an edited collection of writings by the Christian Church Fathers in the Greek language in 161 volumes, produced in 1857–1866 by J.P. Migne It includes both the Eastern Fathers and those Western authors who wrote before Latin became predominant the West in the 3rd... Jacques Paul Migne (25 October 1800 - 25 October 1875) was a French priest who published inexpensive and widely-distributed editions of theological works, encyclopedias and the texts of the Church Fathers. ... On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ... Adoptionism is a minority Christian belief that Jesus was born merely human and that he became divine later in his life. ... The Ebionites (Greek: Ebionaioi from Hebrew; , , the Poor Ones) were an early Jewish Christian sect that lived in and around the land of Israel in the 1st to the 5th century CE.[1] Without authenticated archaeological evidence for the existence of the Ebionites, their views and practices can only be... In Christianity, Sabellianism (also known as modalism, modalistic monarchianism, or modal monarchism) is the nontrinitarian belief that the Heavenly Father, Resurrected Son and Holy Spirit are different modes or aspects of one God (for us only), rather than three distinct persons (in Himself). ...

See also

Islam holds Jesus (Arabic: `Īsā) to have been a messenger and a prophet of God. ... Judaism has no special or particular view of Jesus, and very few texts in Judaism directly refer to or take note of Jesus. ... A list of articles related to Christian views of Jesus: // Images of Jesus | Christian views of Jesus | Cultural and historical background of Jesus Jesus Christ Superstar | Jesus Movement | Jesus-Only doctrine | Jesus and John the Baptist | Jesus of Nazareth | Historicity of Jesus | The Passion of the Christ | Dramatic portrayals of... This article presents a description of Jesus life, as based on the four gospels. ... Religious perspectives on Jesus is the specific significance some religions place on Jesus. ...

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Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson (born January 3, 1956) is an American-born actor, director and producer. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For the biological phenomenon of female-only reproduction, see Parthenogenesis. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... Image File history File links Christian_cross. ... 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The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... 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The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Reformation redirects here. ... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration The term Restorationism is used to describe both the late middle ages (15-16th century) movement that preceded the protestant reformation, and recent religious movements. ... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... 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Encyclopedia: Christian views of Jesus (1471 words)
Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus the Nazarene (circa 4 BC/BCE – 30 AD/CE), is the central figure of Christianity, in which context he is known as Jesus Christ (from Greek Ιησούς Χριστός) with Christ being a title meaning Anointed One or Messiah.
Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination.
Christian views of Jesus vary somewhat between different Christian denominations, but almost all Christians base their beliefs around what they hold to be Jesus' teachings, and believe that Jesus is the Christ (Messiah), the saviour of mankind foretold in the Old Testament.
Christian views of Jesus - definition of Christian views of Jesus in Encyclopedia (3007 words)
Jesus is the central focus of attention and worship in Christianity and is held by most Christians to be the Messiah foretold in the Hebrew Bible; they believe him to be the saviour of mankind, the son of God the Father, and God himself.
Christology is that part of Christian theology that studies and defines who Jesus Christ is. It is generally less concerned with the minor details of his life; rather it deals with who he was, the incarnation, and the major events of his life (his birth, death, and resurrection), and the nature of miracles.
Jesus of Nazareth came to be seen as a possible Messiah (or Greek Khristos, thus the appellation "Jesus the Christ") to the Jews, some believed and followed him.
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