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Encyclopedia > Christian persecution
Religious persecution
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Christians have at times persecuted non-Christians on the basis of conflicts in their religious beliefs. Christians have also persecuted each other when conflicts arose between different Christian denominations. Such persecutions have extended to a wide variety of religious and social minorities within predominantly Christian countries. It has been suggested that Historical persecution by Christians#Theological debate of persecution be merged into this article or section. ... The Dechristianisation of France during the French Revolution is a conventional description of the results of half-a-dozen separate policies, conducted by various governments of France during the dozen years between 1789 and 1801, the French Revolution and the beginning of the Napoleonic Era. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The struggle between church and state in Mexico broke out in armed conflict during the Cristero War (also known as the Cristiada) of 1926 to 1929. ... A forced conversion occurs when someone adopts a religion or philosophy under the threat that a refusal would result in negative consequences not just in the afterlife but in this life too, ranging from job loss, social isolation to incarceration, torture, or death. ... A religious war is a war justified by religious differences. ... Religious discrimination is valuing a person or group lower because of their religion, or treating someone differently because of what they do or dont believe. ... Religion and neo-fascism refers to the relationship between neo-fascism and religion. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... The Mutaween (مطوعين in Arabic) (variant English spellings: mutawwain, muttawa, mutawallees, mutawa’ah, mutawi’) are the government-authorized or -recognized religious police (or clerical police or public order police) within Islamist theocracies which adhere to varied interpretations of Sharia Law in which governments are either directly controlled by or significantly under... Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ... Religious violence Throughout history, religious beliefs have provoked some believers into violence. ... The term Spiritual abuse was coined in the late twentieth century to refer to abusive or aberrational practices identified in the behavior and teachings of some churches, spiritual and religious organizations and groups. ... Contrary to popular belief, the Africans enslaved to build the economic foundation of America were not Christians. ... Many followers of Ancient Greek religion have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians. ... Many adherents of the Ancient Roman religion were persecuted by Christians during the period after the death of Constantine and the reign of Julian, only to enjoy a respite for a number of years before the persecution resumed once again under Gratian and Theodosius I. Persecution in this sense may... Many atheists have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians and Muslims. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... Many Buddhists have experienced persecution from non-Buddhists during the history of Buddhism. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... First Christians in Kiev by Vasily Perov; Christians worshipping secretly in fear of persecution Christians have experienced persecution from both non-Christians and from other Christians during the history of Christianity. ... Many adherents of Germanic paganism have been persecuted, mainly by Christians. ... Persecution of Hindus refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Hindus. ... An anti-Mormon political cartoon from the late nineteenth century. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... Persecution of Pagans includes the loss of human rights under the law or through individual hate crimes for people who practise or who might be thought to practise paganism. ... Persecution of members of the Rastafari movement, a group founded in Jamaica in the early 1930s and who worship Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia as Almighty God, has been fairly continuous since the movement began but nowadays is particularly concerning their spiritual use of cannabis, an illegal drug almost... Many adherents of Roman religion have been persecuted, mainly by Christians. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The persecution of Zoroastrians has been common since the fall of the Sassanid Empire and the rule of Umayyad Arab empire that replaced it. ... Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ...


Such persecution has included both religiously-motivated discrimination, such as unwarranted arrest and inquisition, and various forms of violence, such as war, torture, and ethnic cleansing[citation needed]. This persecution has also included confiscation or destruction of property and incitement to hate non-Christians. In some cases such persecution has been visited upon those who consider themselves Christian, but are regarded as non-Christians/heretics by members of another Christian denomination. Template:More soruces For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... Armenian civilians, being cleansed from their homeland during the Armenian Genocide. ...

Contents

Theological debate of persecution

Christian theology derives its sources from the teachings and actions of Jesus as codified in the New Testament, as well as the Old Testament and several other sources depending on the Christian denomination. This makes the Bible, especially the canonical Gospels, the primary source in order to classify persecution by Christians as either religiously motivated persecution or ethnic persecution. Some churches, such as the Roman Catholic Church, give weight to oral tradition. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that Historical persecution by Christians#Theological debate of persecution be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... The Bible is the collection of Religious text or books of Judaism and Christianity. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ...


The Old Testament has been the main source for Christian theologians advocating religious persecution. An example of this would be John Jewel. In defending the the demand for religious uniformity by Elizabeth I of England, he declared: "Queen Elizabeth doth as did Moses, Josua, David, Salomon, Josias, Jesophat, ..." [1] John Jewel (sometimes spelled Jewell) (May 24, 1522 - September 23, 1571), bishop of Salisbury, son of John Jewel of Buden, Devon, was educated under his uncle John Bellamy, rector of Hampton, and other private tutors until his matriculation at Merton College, Oxford, in July 1535. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... King Solomon Latin name (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה, (Shelomo) (Shlomo pronounced with Yiddish accent)Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: سليمان, Sulayman; all essentially meaning peace) is a figure described in Middle Eastern scriptures as a wise ruler of an empire centred on the united Kingdom of Israel. ... Josiah or Yoshiyahu (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; supported of the Lord) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. ...


Cited by persecutors

  • Christian anti-Semites blame Jews in general for the death of Jesus (whom Christians believe to be God made man). This belief has been cited by many Anti-semites as justification for their animosity towards the Jews. St Matthew's Gospel (Matthew 27:25) quotes a Jewish mob crying, shortly before the Crucifixion, "His blood be on us and on our children;" this quotation is taken by some to refer to all Jews. This view held sway in many parts of Christian Europe throughout the Middle Ages. Similarly Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger (aka Jacob Sprenger) in the Malleus Maleficarum (1486):

And again, the Jews sin more greatly than the Pagans; for they received the prophecy of the Christian Faith in the Old Law, which they corrupt through badly interpreting it, which is not the case with the Pagans. Therefore their infidelity is a greater sin than that of the Gentiles, who never received the Faith of the Gospel. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Heinrich Kramer (also known under latinised name Heinrich Institor, 1430?-1505) was a churchman and inquisitor. ... James Sprenger was born in Basel between 1436 and 1438. ... James Sprenger was born in Basel between 1436 and 1438. ... Cover of the seventh Cologne edition of the Malleus Maleficarum, 1520 (from the University of Sydney Library). ...


The same biblical quote from the Gospel of Matthew in modern times is held by only a scarce minority of Christians.[citation needed] This excuse for antisemitism also ignores the fact that Jesus himself was a Jew, as were the early church leaders.

  • Christian persecutors considered the persecution of others as "necessary" in order to "protect the souls" of Christians against damnation by heretic teachings. See also: Inquisition. The Peace churches believe that Jesus rejected violence. For instance Paul of Tarsus ordered heretics to be admonished in the church or to be expelled from the church, not to be persecuted. See First Corinthians, chapter 5.
  • In the Old Testament, God commands that the temples, idols, and sacred groves of the pagan non-believers be destroyed, and that those that follow other gods in the territory of God's people should be killed. According to mainstream Christianity, this, however, contrasts with the teaching of Jesus which regards love towards God and other people as the supreme law. I John 4 : 7 and 8 "Love is from God, (..) and who don't love don't know God, for God is love" Romans 13 : 9 and 10 " [All God's] Commandments are summed up in this one : Love the other as yourself (...) Love doesn't cause harm to the others; so to love the others fulfill all the Law of God"
  • Leviticus 20:27 ("A man or a woman who is a medium or a wizard shall be put to death; they shall be stoned with stones, their blood shall be upon them.") and Exodus 22:18 ("You shall not permit a sorceress to live.") have been interpreted as Christians should kill people who supposedly use magic. However the translation is debated and one interpretation is that it doesn't refer to the practices used by various occult groups modernly thought of as "Witchcraft", such as found in the Wiccan Faith, but rather curses intended to harm, or indeed only with necromancy (Peake's Commentary) - the Hebrew people coexisted with Pagans who not only believed in many gods, but often practiced "sorcery."[citation needed] Also see Christian views on witchcraft.
  • Leviticus 20:13 ("If a man lies with a male as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination; they shall be put to death, their blood is upon them.") has been used to legitimise persecution of homosexuals, although this law is considered by many Christians to contradict essential teachings of Jesus.

Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... See also: Second Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... For the book series Wicca see Sweep (book series) and Circle Of Three. ... Necromancy (Greek νεκρομαντία, nekromantía) is a form of divination in which the practitioner seeks to summon operative spirits or spirits of divination, for multiple reasons, from spiritual protection to wisdom. ... Christian views on witchcraft arise from scriptural, theological, and historical considerations. ...

Cited against persecutors

  • According to the canonical Gospel of Matthew (in the Antithesis of the Law), Gospel of Luke (Luke 10:27) and the Gospel of Mark (Mark 12:31), Jesus commanded to love one's neighbour as one's self and love God more than anyone, and called this the summary of the Mosaic Law. He further taught his followers to love their enemies. Representing persecution as an act of love is considered irreconcilable to these teachings by many. However, some have interpreted "neighbour" to only include Christians. Others believe that anyone who doesn't believe in Jesus is doomed to spend eternity in Hell; therefore, doing anything possible to save them from that fate (by forcing them to convert to Christianity by any means necessary) is an act of love.
  • According to the Christian Gospels, Jesus commanded people to withstand evil with good. Most Christians consider persecution to be an evil act.[citation needed]
  • According to the Christian Gospels, Jesus forbade to hate (cf. Luke 14:26, Revelation 2:6). Persecution implies hate.[original research?] According to the canonical gospels and Acts of the apostles Paul of Tarsus, as well as Jesus himself, considered the commandment to love the supreme law.
  • According to the Christian Gospels, Jesus did not fight back when he was harassed, arrested, and crucified, nor did his disciples, except Saint Peter, who was rebuked by Jesus.
  • In the canonical Gospels, the Acts and the Letters, there is no description of any case of religiously condoned physical violence by Christians against non-Christians which could be used as a precedent for Christian persecution of other groups, apart from Jesus overturning the tables at Herod's Temple, (John 2:13-17, Matthew 25:31–46).

The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... The Antithesis of the Law (Matthew 5:17-48) is a less well known but highly structured (you have heard . ... The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... The Gospel of Mark (anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Saint Peter, also known as Simon ben Jonah/BarJonah, Simon Peter, Cephas and Kepha — original name Simon or Simeon (Acts 15:14) — was one of the Twelve Apostles whom Jesus chose as his original disciples. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... This article is about letter, a written message from one party to another. ... Herods Temple in Jerusalem was a massive expansion of the Second Temple along with renovations of the entire Temple Mount. ...

Roman Empire

When Constantine became the sole Roman Emperor in 323, Christianity became legal by the Edict of Milan. After the death of Constantine in 337, two of his sons, Constantius II and Constans took over the leadership of the empire. Constans, ruler of the western provinces, was, like his father, a Christian. Many adherents of Roman religion have been persecuted, mainly by Christians. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Edict of Milan (313) was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Flavius Julius Constans (320 - 350), was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 337 to 350. ...


Constans was killed in 350, and soon after his brother became the sole emperor of the entire empire three years later. Constantius, also a Christian, decreed that all pagan temples in the empire be immediately closed. He warned that anyone who dared still offer sacrifices of worship to the once-revered gods and goddesses in these temples were to be put to death. Similarly, any governor to refused to enforce this decree was also to be punished.


But it wasn't just the emperors who persecuted the pagans. Lay Christians took advantage of these new anti-pagan laws by destroying and plundering the temples. Theologians and prominent ecclesiastics soon followed. One such example is St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan. When Gratian became Roman emperor in 375, Ambrose, who was one of his closest educators, persuaded him to further suppress paganism. The emperor, at Ambrose's advice, confiscated the properties of the pagan temples; seized the properties of the vestal virgins and pagan priests, and removed the statue of the Goddess of Victory from the Roman Senate. In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Saint Ambrose, Latin Sanctus Ambrosius, Italian SantAmbrogio (circa 340 - April 4, 397), bishop of Milan, was one of the most eminent fathers of the Christian church in the 4th century. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... A coin of Gratian. ... Victoria on the reverse of this coin by Constantine II. In Roman mythology, Victoria was the goddess of victory. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


When Gratian delegated the government of the eastern half of the Roman Empire to Theodosius the Great in 379, the situation became worse for the pagans. Theodosius prohibited all forms of pagan worship and allowed the temples to be robbed, plundered, and ruthlessly destroyed by monks and other enterprising Christians. A coin of Gratian. ... Flavius Theodosius (Cauca [Coca-Segovia], Spain, January 11, 347 - Milan, January 17, 395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was a Roman emperor. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ...


A prominent example of this persecution is the case of the philosopher Hypathia of Alexandria. Hypathia was the daughter of the mathematician Theon. She was one of the most learned individuals of her time. She taught and elucidated Greek mathematics and philosophy. She lectured widely in Athens and Alexandria. But her widespread popularity and intelligence, coupled with her complete lack of interest in Christianity, so irritated the Patriarch of Alexandria, Cyril, that his attacks on her inflamed a mob to murder her in the year 415. The cruelty of the method of her murder can be seen by the description of it by the historian Edward Gibbon: Hypatia of Alexandria Hypatia of Alexandria (in Greek: Υπατία) (?370–415) was a neo-Platonic philosopher, mathematician, and teacher who lived in Alexandria, then a Greek settlement. ... Theon (c. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... It has been suggested that Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church be merged into this article or section. ... St. ... Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ...

"On a fatal day, in the holy season of Lent, Hypathia was torn from her chariot, stripped naked, dragged to the church, and inhumanly butchered by the hands of Peter the Reader and a troop of savage and merciless fanatics; her flesh was scraped from her bones with sharp oyster shells, and her quivering limbs were delivered to the flames. The just progress of inquiry and punishment was stopped by seasonable gifts; but the murder of Hypathia has imprinted an indelible strain on the character and religion of Cyril of Alexandria."

Under Theodosius the Nicene or Orthodox version of Christianity became the official religion, engendering conditions for conflict with the mostly Germanic tribes who had converted to the "heretical" Arian form of Christianity. In the year 416, under Theodosius II, a law was passed to bar pagans from public employment. All this was done to coerce pagans to convert to Christianity. Theodosius also persecuted Judaism, destroying a number of synagogues. Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... Events Krakatoa undergoes a massive explosion. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ...


Greece

During the christianization of Greece, there was much persecution of Ancient Greek religion. Followers were the subject of a great deal of religious intolerance from Christians. The priests were killed, the followers persecuted and killed, and the temples torn down to be made into limestone quarries, Christian Churches, or civic buildings. Many followers of the Hellenistic gods were punished and slain by Christians, and those caught worshipping or making sacrifices to their gods were often imprisoned, tortured, and killed. Many myths and accusations were issued against the Pagans of Greece. Christians used false accusations that the pagan Greeks killed Christians at their temples during ritualistic sacrifices to justify much religious persecution and blood shed. Many of these accusations were in part caused by a mistaken association with Greek pagans and the pagans of Thrace, who unlike the Greeks did commit human blood sacrifices. Many followers of Ancient Greek religion have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... . ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Heathen redirects here. ...


Other Examples of Persecution

The conflict between the Orthodox and Arian versions of Christianity was one of the causes of conflict between Christian peoples, in particular the Vatican supported assaults on the kingdoms of the Arian Vandals and Goths. The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ...


Muscovy and Imperial Russia government forcibly baptized Muslim Volga Tatars and pagan Chuvash, Mordva and Mari after the conquest of the Kazan Khanate and Astrakhan Khanate in the 1550s. Mosques were prohibited. This persecution ended only during the reign of Catherine II of Russia. Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар) is a collective name applied to the Turkic people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ... The Mordvins (Mordva) are a people who speak languages of the Finno-Permic branch of the Finno-Ugric language family. ... The Mari (also known as Cheremis in Russian and Çirmeş in Tatar) are a Volga-Finnic people in the Volga area, the natives of Mari El, Russia. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Former countries | Tatars | Tatarstan history | History of Mongolia ... The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar feudal state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde. ... Events and Trends Categories: 1550s ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ...


In the case of the Martyrs of Córdoba (9th century), a group of Christians, led by Eulogius, publicly attacked Islam wishing to dissuade their fellows from the allure of Islam. The hagiography of the forty-eight Martyrs of Córdoba was developed in Christian Spain, describing in detail their executions for capital violations of Muslim law in al-Andalus. ... Eulogius can refer to: St. ...


Medieval Christendom

Northern Europe

In Northern Europe, Norse pagans were the subject of much religious intolerance from Christians. The priests were killed, temples torn down and the followers persecuted and killed. However, it is not clear whether one can actually speak of religious persecution here, since the atrocities took place in the power struggles between Christian and Pagan fractions, and would thus probably better be explained by political reasons. [2] Many adherents of Germanic paganism have been persecuted, mainly by Christians. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... . ... The word temple has different meanings in the fields of architecture, religion, geography, anatomy, and education. ...


In 1087 king Inge I of Sweden, who earlier had been forced away, traveled with his housecarls through Småland and Östergötland, riding both day and night, until he arrived in Sweden. Having arrived at Old Uppsala, he surrounded the hall of Blot-Sweyn, and set the hall on fire. When the king ran out, he was immediately slain. This is probably the date of the destruction of the Temple at Uppsala. ... Housecarls were household troops, personal warriors and equivalent to a royal bodyguard to Scandinavian kings. ... is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden. ... (help· info) is a historical Province (landskap) in the south of Sweden. ... Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Temple at Uppsala was a temple in Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), near modern Uppsala, Sweden, that was created to worship the Norse gods of ancient times. ...


The tradition seem to have remained even after the christianization and in early Swedish law books there is listed a fine for the crime of blóting. The Blót was the pagan Germanic sacrifice to Norse gods and Elves. ...



In fully Christian Europe there were a number of persecutions directed against Jews and Christian heretics. The Crusades, launched against the Muslim middle-east to "liberate" Jerusalem, have also been interpreted by some as an example of religious persecution. Certainly there were massacres of Muslims and Jews when Jerusalem was taken by Crusaders in 1099. Raymond d'Aguiliers, chaplain to Raymond de Saint-Gilles, Count of Toulouse, wrote: Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... The traditional Middle East and the G8s Greater Middle East Political & transportation map of the traditional Middle East today The Middle East is a historical and political region of Africa-Eurasia with no clear definition. ...

Piles of heads, hands, and feet were to be seen in the streets of the city. It was necessary to pick one's way over the bodies of men and horses. But these were small matters compared to what happened at the Temple of Solomon, a place where religious ceremonies were ordinarily chanted. What happened there? If I tell the truth, it will exceed your powers of belief. So let it suffice to say this much, at least, that in the Temple and porch of Solomon, men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle-reins. Indeed, it was a just and splendid judgment of God that this place should be filled with the blood of unbelievers, since it had suffered so long from their blasphemies. The city was filled with corpses and blood. (Edward Peters, The First Crusade: The chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and other source materials, p. 214)

Jews were also persecuted in Visigothic Spain and later elsewhere in Europe, especially after the emergence of the blood libel. Jews were eventually expelled from England by King Edward I. In Spain after the Reconquista, Jews were forced to either convert or be exiled. Many were killed. Although the Spanish had agreed to allow Muslims the freedom of religion in 1492, this was often ignored. In 1501, Muslims were offered the choice of conversion or exile. In 1556, Arab or Muslim dress was forbidden, and in 1566 Arabic language as a whole was prohibited in Spain.[3] Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Conquista redirects here. ...


Some neo-Pagans believe that persecutions of witches were attacks on surviving Pagans, but this view is not widely accepted (see Burning times). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ... A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. ...


The attempts to suppress the neo-Manichean Cathar (or "Albigensian") faith took the form of the Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229) – a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the ascetic religion practiced by the Cathars of Languedoc, which the Roman Catholic hierarchy considered heretical. It is historically significant for a number of reasons: the violence inflicted was extreme even by medieval standards; the church offered legally sanctioned dominion over conquered lands to northern French nobles and the King of France, acting as essentially Catholic mercenaries, who then nearly doubled the size of France, acquiring regions which at the time had closer cultural and language ties to Catalonia. This led to the creation of the Medieval Inquisition which was charged to suppress heresies. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... Events Albigensian Crusade against Cathars (1209-1218) the Franciscans are founded. ... Events February 18 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy. ... Ascetic redirects here. ... Pedro Berruguete. ...


The Waldensians, a group which can be considered a precursor to Protestant and Evangelical Christianity was likewise persecuted by the Inquisition. It has been suggested that Vaudoir be merged into this article or section. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ...


Individuals whose views were considered deviant could be convicted and executed, as happened with Jerome of Prague, John Badby, and Jan Hus. Jerome of Prague (1379-May 30, 1416) was one of the chief followers and most devoted friends of John Huss; He was born at Prague of a wealthy family; after taking his bachelors degree at the University of Prague in 1398, he secured in 1399 permission to travel. ... John Badby (d. ... Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ...


Reformation, Counter-Reformation and Colonialism

Conflict between Christian factions reached its height following the Reformation, as Protestants and Catholics struggled for control of territories in Western Europe. Catholic authorities persecuted Protestants in a number of jurisdictions, the most notorious being the 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, when the French king ordered the murder of all Protestants in France. Outbreaks against Catholics also occurred in Protestant countries, leading to endemic conflicts in some areas, such as Ireland, where the British government imported Protestants and expelled Catholic landowners following a long period of conflict over control of the island. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... 19th century painting by François Dubois The St. ...


European colonization and imperialism was also fueled by Christian evangelism and sometimes by persecution of "pagan" communities. Spanish conquests in central and South America were accompanied by attempts to suppress native religions. Portuguese expansion in India was accompanied by persecutions of Hindus and Buddhists. By the 18th century, persecutions of unsanctioned beliefs had been reduced in most Europeans countries to legal restrictions on those who did not accept the official faith. This often included being barred from higher education, or from participation in the national legislature. In colonized nations, attempts to convert native peoples to Christianity became more encouraging and less forceful. In British India during the Victorian era, Christian converts were given preferential treatment for governmental appointments. This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ...


Execution of Mennonites in the Netherlands

In the Netherlands, David van der Leyen and Levina Ghyselins, described variously as Dutch Anabaptists or Mennonites, were executed by Catholic authorities in Ghent in 1554. Strangled and burned, van der Leyen was finally dispatched with an iron fork. Thieleman J. van Braght's Martyrs Mirror is considered by modern Mennonites as second only in importance to the Bible in perpetuating their faith. Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after and influenced by the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons (1496-1561). ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province East Flanders Arrondissement Ghent Coordinates Area 156. ... The Martyrs Mirror or The Bloody Theater, first published in 1660 in Dutch by Thieleman J. van Braght, documented the stories and testimonies of Christian martyrs, especially Anabaptists. ... The Bible is the collection of Religious text or books of Judaism and Christianity. ...


Jesuit persecution in Great Britain

Jesuits like John Ogilvie were under constant surveillance and threat from the Protestant governments of England and Scotland. Ogilvie was sentenced to death by a Glasgow court and hanged on March 10, 1615. The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... John Ogilvie (1579 - 1615) was born near Keith in Banffshire, Scotland, and was educated and converted to Roman Catholicism by the Jesuits in Germany. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime... Glaswegian redirects here. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ...


Brian Cansfield, a Jesuit priest, was seized while at prayer by English Protestant authorities in Yorkshire. Cansfield was beaten and imprisoned under harsh conditions. He died on August 3, 1643, from the effects of his ordeal. Another Jesuit priest, Ralph Corbington, was hanged by the English government in London, September 17, 1644, for professing his faith. Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ...


Expulsion of the Salzburgers from Austria

On October 31, 1731, the Catholic ruler of Salzburg, Austria, Archbishop Leopold von Firmian, issued an edict expelling as many as 20,000 Lutherans from his principality. Many Lutherans, given only eight days to leave their homes, froze to death as they wandered throughout the winter seeking shelter. The wealthier ones who were allowed three months to dispose of their property fared better. Some of these Salzburgers reached London, from whence they sailed to the Province of Georgia. Others found new homes in the Netherlands and East Prussia. October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... This page is for the city of Salzburg. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Georgia Colony, as specified in the 1732 grant The Georgia Colony was one of the Southern colonies in British North America. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...


Persecution of Huguenots by Catholics

The slaughter of Huguenots (French Protestants) by Catholics at Sens, Burgundy, in 1562 occurred at the beginning of more than thirty years of religious strife between French Protestants and Catholics. These wars produced numerous atrocities. The worst was the notorious St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in Paris on August 24, 1572. Thousands of Huguenots were butchered by Roman Catholic mobs. Although an accommodation between the two sides was sealed in 1598 by the Edict of Nantes, religious privileges of Huguenots eroded during the seventeenth century and were extinguished in 1685 by the revocation of the edict. Perhaps as many as 400,000 French Protestants emigrated to various parts of the world, including the British North American colonies. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... The St. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant French Calvinists (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. ... British colonization of the Americas began in the late 16th century. ...


Drowning of Protestants in Ireland

Approximately one hundred Protestants from Loughgall Parish, County Armagh, were executed by mobs at the bridge over the River Bann near Portadown, Ulster. This atrocity occurred at the beginning of the Irish Rebellion of 1641. Having held the Protestants as prisoners and tortured them, the Catholics drove them to the bridge, where they were stripped naked and forced into the water below at swordpoint. Survivors of the plunge were shot. Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Armagh Area: 1,254 km² Population (est. ... The River Bann is the largest river in Northern Ireland. ... The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup détat by Irish Catholic gentry, but rapidly degenerated into bloody intercommunal violence between native Irish Catholics and English and Scottish Protestant settlers. ...


Massacres of Catholics in Ireland

Thousands of Catholic residents were massacred by Oliver Cromwell's Protestant troops at Drogheda, Wexford, and Waterford, during the Irish campaign of autumn and winter 1649. All of the survivors of Drogheda and many from other places were sold as slaves to the West Indies. In 1652, all Catholic-owned estates east of the River Shannon were confiscated, and their residents were evicted en-masse amid plague and famine that killed an even greater number. The penal laws of 1690 caused still more destitution and emigration. Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599–September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... The River Shannon (Irish: Sionainn, altenatively Sionna), Irelands longest river, divides the West of Ireland (mostly the province of Connacht) from the east and south (Leinster and most of Munster). ... In the most general sense, penal is the body of laws that are enforced by the State in its own name and impose penalties for their violation, as opposed to civil law that seeks to redress private wrongs. ...


Contemporary

Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...

Canada

Under pressure from the Roman Catholic church, the government of Quebec withheld the vote from women until the mid 1940s. During 1995-1998 Newfoundland had only Christian schools (four of them, Pentecostal, Roman Catholic, Seventh Day Adventist, and inter-denominational (Anglican, Salvation Army and United Church)). The right to organize publicly supported religious schools was only given to certain Christian denominations, thus tax money used to support a selected group of Christian denominations. The denominational schools could also refuse admission of a student or the hiring of a qualified teacher on purely religious grounds. Quebec has used two school systems, one Protestant and the other Roman Catholic, but it seems this system will be replaced with two secular school systems: one French and the other English.[4] The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water...


Greece

In Greece since the independence from the Muslim Ottomans rule in the 1800s, the Greek Orthodox church has been given privileged status and only the Greek Orthodox church, Roman Catholic, some Protestant churches, Judaism and Islam are recognized religions. The Muslim minority alleges that Greece persistently and systematically discriminates against Muslims.[5][6] Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821. ... The Church of Greece is one of the fifteenth autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches which make up the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... St. ...


Mexico

According to a Human Rights Practices report by the U.S. State Department note that "some local officials infringe on religious freedom, especially in the south". There is conflict between Catholic/Mayan syncretists and Protestant evangelicals in the Chiapas region.[7][8][9] Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ...


United States

In some U.S. jurisdictions legal restrictions exist which require a religious test as a qualification for holding public office, for instance in Texas an official may be "excluded from holding office" if he/she does not "acknowledge the existence of a Supreme Being." (i.e. God)[10] thus atheists, agnostics, Buddhists, most Satanists, some Unitarian Universalists and New Age followers, who do not believe in a supreme being would be excluded from public office if the test were enforced. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...

  1. The Bill of Rights of the Texas Constitution (Article I, Section 4) last amended on September 13, 2003 states that an official may be "excluded from holding office" if he/she does not "acknowledge the existence of a Supreme Being."[11]
  2. North Carolina's Constitution, Article 6 Sec. 8 states "Disqualifications of office. The following persons shall be disqualified for office: First, any person who shall deny the being of Almighty God...."[12]
  3. South Carolina's Constitution, Article 4 Section 2: "Person denying existence of Supreme Being not to hold office. No person who denies the existence of the Supreme Being shall hold any office under this Constitution."[13]
  4. Tennessee's Bill of Rights: Article 9, Section 2: "No person who denies the being of God, or a future state of rewards and punishments, shall hold any office in the civil department of this state."[14]

Similarly, some state laws are framed with the intention of toleration of religious difference, but are criticized for coming short of withdrawing all mention of belief in God, or of Christianity. Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ...

  1. Massachusetts' Declaration of Rights: Article III (approved and ratified November 6, 1990): "make suitable provision, at their own expense, for the institution of the public worship of God, and for the support and maintenance of public Protestant teachers of piety, religion and morality, in all cases where such provision shall not be made voluntarily."", "...every denomination of Christians, demeaning themselves peaceably, and as good subjects of the commonwealth, shall be equally under the protection of the law."[15]

During the Cold War, the United States often characterized its opponents as "Godless Communists" as opposed to Christian Americans, which tended to reinforce the view that atheists were unreliable and unpatriotic. In the 1988 U.S. presidential campaign, Republican presidential candidate George H. W. Bush said, "I don't know that atheists should be regarded as citizens, nor should they be regarded as patriotic. This is one nation under God."[16] This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ...


The conservative Christian James Clement Taylor has commented on the subject of persecution of Wiccans that "these people of Wicca have been terribly slandered by us. They have lost jobs, and homes, and places of business because we have assured others that they worship Satan, which they do not. We have persecuted them..."[17] This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


In 1999 a group of conservative Christian groups was formed on the initiative of Bob Barr. The group asked US citizens not to enlist or re-enlist in the U.S. Army until the Army terminates the on-base freedoms of religion, speech and assembly for all Wiccan soldiers.[18][19] The boycott has since become inactive. George W. Bush stated "I don't think witchcraft is a religion. I would hope the military officials would take a second look at the decision they made.". [2] In September 1985 some conservative Christian legislators introduced three pieces of legislation designed to take away the rights of Wiccans. The first one was House Resolution (H.R.) 3389 introduced September 19 by congressman Robert S. Walker (R-Penn.) Robert L. (Bob) Barr, Jr. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Robert Smith Walker (born December 23, 1942) was an American politician who represented Pennsylvania in the United States House of Representatives as a Republican from 1977 to 1997. ...


Senator Jesse Helms (R, NC) made an amendment, Amendment 705, in the House Resolution 3036, The Treasury, Postal, and General Government Appropriations Bill for 1986. Jesse Alexander Helms, Jr. ...


After being ignored for a while it got attached to HR 3036 by an unanimous voice vote of the senators. Congressman Richard T. Schulze (R-Penn) introduced substantially the same amendment into the Tax Reform Bill of 1985. When the conference committee met on October 30, the Helms Amendment was thrown out since they considered it not to be a budget issue. Following this Schulze withdrew his amendment from the Tax Reform Bill. Leaving only HR 3389, the Walker Bill. It managed to attract Joe Barton (R-Tex) who became a co-sponsor November 14. The Ways and Means Committee set aside the bill and quietly ignored it and it died with the close of the 99th session of Congress in December 1986.[20][21] Congressman Richard T. Dick Schulze represented Pennsylvania in Washington from 1975 to 1993. ... Joseph Linus Joe Barton (born September 15, 1949) is a Republican politician, representing Texass 6th congressional district (map) in the U.S. House of Representatives since 1985. ... Members of the 99th United States Congress: States Alabama Senators Howell T. Heflin (D) Jeremiah A. Denton Jr. ...


See also

Blood libels are false accusations, usually made by Christians, that Jews use human blood in certain of their religious rituals and magical rites. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Japan Russia United Kingdom France United States Germany Italy Austria-Hungary Righteous Harmony Society Chinese Empire Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total Over 100,000 Casualties 230 foreigners, thousands of civilians Unknown The... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... Over the centuries, many people have offered criticisms of Christianity and the actions of its followers. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... A mission literally means something that is sent, from the Latin word missum, sent. Thus we may refer to space exploration expeditions as space missions, or to a diplomatic outpost in a foreign territory as a diplomatic mission. Christian missions are movements or outposts of Christian proselytism. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Missionaries in India The best known missionaries in India include William Carey Donald McGavran Roberto de Nobili St. ... The Public Worship Regulation Act 1874 was an English Act of Parliament, introduced as a Private Members Bill by Archbishop of Canterbury Archibald Campbell Tait, to limit what he perceived as the growing ritualism of Anglo-Catholicism and the Oxford Movement within the Church of England. ... Many followers of Ancient Greek religion have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Qing Empire Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor, Tongzhi Emperor, Empress Dowager Cixi, Charles George Gordon, Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan, Yang Xiuqing, Xiao Chaogui, Feng Yunshan, Wei Changhui, Shi Dakai, Li Xiucheng The Taiping Rebellion (or Rebellion of Great Peace) was a large-scale revolt against the authority... A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. ... By Germanic Christianity is that phase in the history of Northern Europe understood, when the Germanic peoples of the Migration period and Viking Age adopted Christianity. ... For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the... Christianization of Poland in 966 by Jan Matejko The Baptism of Poland (Polish: Chrzest Polski) was the event in 966 that signified the beginning of the Christianization of Poland, commencing with the baptism of Mieszko I, who was the first ruler of the Polish state. ... The ruins of Korsun: the place where the Russian and Ukrainian church was born. ... The Pagan reaction in Poland was a series of events in the Kingdom of Poland of the 1030s that culminated in a popular uprising. ... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... There have been incidents of persecution committed by the Jewish people throughout history. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... Many atheists have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians and Muslims. ... Many adherents of historical Germanic paganism and Germanic Neopaganism (Asatru, Odinism) have been persecuted, mainly by Christians. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Conquistador (Spanish: []) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement established in the modern-day Bahamas... “Lukumi” redirects here. ... Saint Dominic (1170 – August 6, 1221) Presiding over an Auto-da-fe, by Pedro Berruguete, (1450 - 1504). ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ... St. ... Pedro Berruguete. ... It has been suggested that Vaudoir be merged into this article or section. ... John Wyclif gives his Bible translation to Lollards Lollardy or Lollardry was the political and religious movement of the Lollards from the late 14th century to early in the time of the English Reformation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cathar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ John Coffey, Persecution and Toleration on Protestant England 1558-1689, 2000, p.31
  2. ^ Neither Die Christianisierung Europas im Mittelalter (v. Padberg, 1998) nor Europas Norden im Mittelalter (Kaufhold, 2001) use the term 'religious persecution' to describe the violence that occurred between Christian and Pagan fractions during that period.
  3. ^ Lapidus (1988), p. 389
  4. ^ The Constitution Since Patriation
  5. ^ Turkish Minority Rights Violated in Greece
  6. ^ The Turks of Western Thrace
  7. ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ U.S. Department of State Annual Report on International Religious Freedom for 1999: Mexico
  10. ^ Texas Legislature Online
  11. ^ The Texas Constitution
  12. ^ The Constitution of North Carolina
  13. ^ South Carolina Constitution
  14. ^ Tennessee's Bill of RightsPDF (94.6 KiB)
  15. ^ Massachusetts Constitution
  16. ^ Liberal News March 3, 2002
  17. ^ A Christian Speaks of Wicca and Witchcraft
  18. ^ Bob Barr, civil libertarian: the right wing of the ACLU - Interview
  19. ^ Bob Barr On a Literal Witch Hunt!
  20. ^ Witches, Pagans, and the Media
  21. ^ A Summary of Anti-Witchcraft Activity in the 99th Congress

Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

References

  • Lapidus, Ira M. (1988). A History of Islamic societes. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22552-3. 

External links


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