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Encyclopedia > Christian monasticism
The Order of Friars Minor is a major mendicant movement founded by Saint Francis of Assisi.

Monasticism in Christianity is a family of similar traditions that began to develop early in the history of the Christian Church, modeled upon scriptural examples and ideals, but not mandated as an institution by the Scriptures. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to devote ones life fully to spiritual work. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...


While most people in the West, think of Christian monastic life--especially that of Catholic monks or nuns--as having "something to do with living in a monastery", from the Church's point of view, the focus has nothing to do with living in a monastery or performing any specific activity; rather, the focus is on an ideal called the religious life, also called the state of perfection. This idea is expressed everywhere that the things of God are sought above all other things, as seen for example in the Philokalia, a book of monastic writings. In other words, a monk or nun is a person who has vowed to follow not only the commandments of the Church, but also the evangelical counsels (e.g., vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience). The words of Jesus which are the cornerstone for this ideal are "be ye perfect like your heavenly Father is perfect". St. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... The Philokalia (Gk. ... The evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection are poverty, chastity, and obedience. ...

Contents

Precursor models of the Christian monastic ideal

The ancient models of the modern Christian monastic ideal are the Nazirites, the Essene, the Therapeutae[1] and the prophets of Israel. A Nazirite was a person voluntarily separated to the Lord, under a special vow. A nazirite or nazarite, (in Hebrew: נזיר, nazir), refers to a Jew who took an ascetic vow described in Numbers 6:1-21. ... The Essenes (Issiim) were a Jewish religious sect of Zadokites that flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. The name Essene, itself, is either a version of the Greek word for Holy, or various Aramaic dialect words for pious, and is probably not what the... The Therapeutae (Worshipers in Greek) were an early pre-Christian monastic order established near Lake Mareotis close to Alexandria, the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous or the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ...

2 Speak to the Israelites and say to them: 'If a man or woman wants to make a special vow, a vow of separation to the LORD as a Nazirite, 3 he must abstain from wine and other fermented drink... 5 During the entire period of his vow of separation no razor may be used on his head. He must be holy until the period of his separation to the LORD is over; he must let the hair of his head grow long. 6 Throughout the period of his separation to the LORD he must not go near a dead body.... 8 Throughout the period of his separation he is consecrated to the LORD.' (Numbers 6, NIV)

The prophets of Israel were set apart to the Lord for the sake of a message of repentance. Some of them lived under extreme conditions, voluntarily separated or forced into seclusion because of the burden of their message. Other prophets were members of communities, schools mentioned occasionally in the Scriptures but about which there is much speculation and little known. The pre-Abrahamic prophets, Enoch and Melchizedek, and especially the Jewish prophets Elijah and his disciple Elisha are important to Christian monastic tradition. The most frequently cited "role-model" for the life of a hermit separated to the Lord, in whom the Nazarite and the prophet are believed to be combined in one person, is John the Baptist. John also had disciples who stayed with him and, as may be supposed, were taught by him and lived in a manner similar to his own. The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... Enoch (Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ; Tiberian: , Standard: ) is a name occurring twice in the generations of Adam. ... Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek — by Dieric Bouts the Elder, 1464–67 Melchizedek or Malki-tzédek (מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק / מַלְכִּי־צָדֶק, Standard Hebrew Malki-ẓédeq / Malki-ẓádeq, Tiberian Hebrew Malkî-ṣéḏeq / Malkî-ṣāḏeq), sometimes written Malchizedek, Melchisedec, Melchisedech, Melchisedek or Melkisedek, is a figure mentioned by various sects of both Christian and Judaic traditions. ... Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston Elijah (Hebrew: אליהו, ) was a prophet in Israel in the 9th century BCE. He appears in the Hebrew Bible, Talmud, Mishnah, Christian Bible, and the Quran. ... Elisha (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; My God is salvation) is a Biblical prophet. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ...

1 In those days John the Baptist came, preaching in the Desert of Judea… 4 John's clothes were made of camel's hair, and he had a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey. 5 People went out to him from Jerusalem and all Judea and the whole region of the Jordan. 6 Confessing their sins, they were baptized by him in the Jordan River. (Matthew 3, NIV)

The female role models for monasticism are Mary the mother of Jesus and the four virgin daughters of Philip the Evangelist: The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... Philip the Evangelist appears several times in the Acts of the Apostles but should not be confused with Philip the Apostle. ...

7 On finishing the voyage from Tyre, we arrived at Ptolemais, greeted the brothers, and stayed with them for one day. 8 The next day we left and came to Caesarea. We went to the home of Philip the evangelist, one of the seven, and stayed with him. 9 He had four unmarried daughters who could prophesy. (Acts 21, NIV)

The monastic ideal is also modeled upon the Apostle Paul, who is believed to have been celibate, and a tentmaker: The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

7 I wish that all men were as I am. But each man has his own gift from God; one has this gift, another has that. 8 Now to the unmarried and the widows I say: It is good for them to stay unmarried, as I am. (1 Corinthians 7, NIV)

But, the consummate prototype of all modern Christian monasticism, communal and solitary, is Jesus: (Redirected from 1 Corinthians) See also: Second Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

5 Your attitude should be the same as that of Christ Jesus: 6 Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped, 7 but made himself nothing, taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness. 8 And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself and became obedient to death—even death on a cross! (Philippians 2, NIV)

The first Christian communities lived in common, sharing everything, according to Acts of the Apostles. Philippians redirects here. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ...


Origins of Christian monasticism

Institutional Christian monasticism seems to have begun in the deserts in AD 4th century Egypt as a kind of living martyrdom. Scholars such as Lester K. Little attribute the rise of monasticism at this time to the immense changes in the church that had been brought about by Constantine's conversion and the acceptance of Christianity as the main Roman religion. This ended the position of Christians as a small group that believed itself to be the godly elite. In response a new more advanced form of dedication was developed to preserve a nucleus of the dedicated. The end of persecution also meant that martyrdom was no longer an option to prove one's piety. Instead the longterm "martyrdom" of the ascetic became common. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ...


Others point to historical evidence that individuals were living the life later known as monasticism before the legalization of Christianity. In fact it is believed by the Carmelites that they were started by the Jewish prophet Elias. Anthony the Great (251 - 356) and Pachomius were early monastic innovators in Egypt, although Paul the Hermit is the very first Christian historically known to have been living as a monk. Eastern Orthodoxy looks to Basil of Caesarea (ca. 330 - January 1, 379) as a founding monastic legislator, as well as the example of the Desert Fathers. Benedict of Nursia is often credited with being the 'father of Western monasticism'. The Order of Our Lady of Mt. ... Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston Elijah (Hebrew: אליהו, ) was a prophet in Israel in the 9th century BCE. He appears in the Hebrew Bible, Talmud, Mishnah, Christian Bible, and the Quran. ... Saint Anthony the Great (ca. ... Events July 1 – In the Battle of Abrittus, the Goths defeat the Romans; emperors Decius and Herennius Etruscus are killed. ... Events February 8 - Roman authorities make an attempt to arrest Athanasius on the accusation of supporting the usurper Magnentius. ... Coptic icon of St Pachomius Saint Pachomius (ca. ... Coptic icon of St. ... Basil (ca. ... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... The Desert Fathers were Christian Hermits who lived in the Sahara desert of Egypt, beginning in about the third century. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


From a very early time there were probably individuals who lived a life in isolation—hermits—in imitation of Jesus' 40 days in the desert. They have left no confirmed archaeological traces and only hints in the written record. Anthony of Egypt lived as a hermit and developed a following of other hermits who lived nearby but not in community with him. On the other hand, Paul the Hermit lived not very far from Anthony in absolute solitude, and was looked upon even by Anthony as a perfect monk. This variety of monasticism is called eremitical or "hermit-like". Pachomius, a follower of Anthony, also acquired a following; he chose to mould them into a community in which the monks lived in individual huts or rooms (cellula in Latin, "cell", which has a different connotation in modern English) but worked, ate, and worshipped in shared space. This method of monastic organization is called cenobitic or "community-based." All the familiar monastic orders are cenobitic in nature. In Catholic theology, this community based living is considered superior because of the obedience practiced and because one is less likely to err than one would be by oneself. The head of a monastery came to be known by the word for "Father" in Syriac, Abba, in English, "Abbot". Onuphrius lived as a hermit in the desert of Upper Egypt in the late 4th century A hermit (from the Greek erÄ“mos, signifying desert, uninhabited, hence desert-dweller) is a person who lives to some greater or lesser degree in seclusion and/or isolation from society. ... Coptic icon of St Pachomius Saint Pachomius (ca. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Abbots coat of arms The word abbot, meaning father, has been used as a Christian clerical title in various, mainly monastic, meanings. ...


Early History

The first efforts to create a proto-monastery were by Saint Macarius, who established individual cells, an example Kellia founded in 328, known as "larvae", the purpose of which was to bring together individual ascetics who, although pious, did not have the physical ability or skills to live a solitary existences in the desert like that of Saint Anthony. These cells were put together as a large single monastic community by Saint Pachomius around 323 in upper Egypt at Tabenna. Guidelines for daily life were created, and separate monasteries created for men and women. He was hailed as 'Abba' (v.s.). This one community was so successful he was called in to help organize others and by one count by the time he died in 346 there were thought to be 3000 such communities dotting Egypt, especially the Thebaid. Within the span of the next generation this number increased to 7000. From there monasticism quickly spread out first to Palestine and the Judean Desert, Syria, North Africa and eventually the rest of the Roman Empire where it became a central aspect of life during the Middle Ages. Monasteries were initially seen by the Church Bishops and imperial governments in Constantinople and Rome as operating outside the authority of the official Church governance, not to mention the Emperor. There existed a tension between the lay clergy and the monastic orders. Eventually over the course of the Early Middle Ages the influence of monastics came to play an important role in the Church. Some would date the golden age of Christian monasticism from about the eighth to the twelfth century. Saint Macarius of Jerusalem was bishop of Jerusalem from 311/312 to shortly before 335, according to Sozomen. ... Kellia, known as the Cells, and referred to as the innermost desert, was a 4th century Egyptian Christian monastic community located about 12 miles south of Nitria, with Wadi Natrun nearby. ... Events May 9: Athanasius is elected bishop of Alexandria Births Valens, Roman Emperor Wong Tai Sin Deaths April 17: Alexander I, Patriarch of Alexandria Categories: 328 ... Pachomius, who died around AD 345 in Tabennisi, Egypt, was one of the founders of Christian monasticism. ... Events July 3 - Battle of Adrianople: Constantine defeats Licinius, forcing Licinius to retreat to Byzantium. ... Tabenna (Tabennae, Tabennisi) is considered the first cenobitic monastery. ... Events Athanasius is restored as Patriarch of Alexandria. ... The Thebaid is the region of ancient Egypt containing the thirteen southernmost nomes of Upper Egypt, from Abydos to Aswan. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


Eastern Monasticism

See also Eastern Orthodox monks
Analavos worn by Eastern Orthodox Schema-Monks.

Orthodox monasticism does not have Religious Orders as in the West,[2] so there are no formal Monastic Rules (Regulae); rather, each monk and nun is encouraged to read all of the Holy Fathers, and apply them to his or her religious life. There is also no division between the "active" and "contemplative" life. Orthodox monastic life embraces both active and contemplative aspects. St. ... Download high resolution version (431x722, 42 KB)The Great Schema or Megaloschema - this is my own drawing of what one looks like File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (431x722, 42 KB)The Great Schema or Megaloschema - this is my own drawing of what one looks like File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... St. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ...


There exists in the East three types of monasticism: eremitic and coenobitic (as mentioned above), and a "third way" called the skete. The skete is a very small community, often of two or three (Matthew 18:20), under the direction of an Elder. They will pray privately for most of the week, then come together on Sundays and Feast Days for communal prayer, thus combining aspects of both eremitic and coenobitic monasticism. A skete is a group of hermits following a monastic rule, allowing them to worship in comparative solitude, although with a level of support present not available for a lone hermit. ... St Sergii Radonezhsky was one of the most famous of startsy. ...


Types of Monks

There are also three levels of monks: The Rassaphore, the Stavrophore, and the Schema-Monk (or Schema-Nun). Each of the three degrees represents an increased level of asceticism. In the early days of monasticism, there was only one level—the Great Schema—and even Saint Theodore the Studite argued against the establishment of intermediate grades, but nonetheless the consensus of the church has favored the development of three distinct levels. The Great Schema worn by Orthodox monks and nuns of the highest degree In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the process of becoming a monk or nun is intentionally slow, as the vows taken are considered to entail a life-long commitment to God, and are not to be entered into... Theodore the Studite ( ca. ...


When a candidate wishes to embrace the monastic life, he will enter the monastery of his choice as a guest and ask to be received by the Hegumen (Abbot). After a period of at least three days the Hegumen may at his discretion clothe the candidate as a novice. There is no formal ceremony for the clothing of a novice; he (or she) would simply be given the Podraznik, belt and Skoufos. Hegumen, hegumenos, or ihumen (Greek: ἡγούμενος , Russian: игумен) is the title for the head of a monastery of the Eastern Orthodox Church, similar to the one of abbot. ... // Main article: Buddhist Novitiate In many Buddhist orders, a man or woman who intends to take ordination must first become a novice, adopting part of the monastic code indicated in the vinaya and studying in preparation for full ordination. ... A Roman Catholic priest from Belgian Congo wearing the Roman cassock. ... A Skufia (also Skufiya or Skoufos) is an item of clerical clothing worn by worn by Orthodox Christian monastics (in which case it is black [1]) or awarded to clergy as a mark of honor (in which case it is usually red or purple). ...


After a period of about three years, the Hegumen may at his discretion Tonsure the novice as a Rassaphore monk, giving him the outer garment called the Rassa (Greek: Rason). A monk (or nun) may remain in this grade all the rest of his life, if he so chooses. But the Rite of Tonsure for the Rassaphore refers to the grade as that of the "Beginner," so it is intended that the monk will advance on to the next level. The Rassaphore is also given a klobuk which he wears in church and on formal occasions. In addition, Rassaphores will be given a prayer rope at their Tonsure. Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ... Eastern Orthodox Monks wearing klobuks. ... -1...


The next rank, Stavrophore, is the grade that most Russian monks remain all their lives. The name Stavrophore means "cross-bearer", because when Tonsured into this grade the monastic is given a cross to wear at all times. This cross is called a Paramand—a wooden cross attached by ribbons to a square cloth embroidered with the Instruments of the Passion and the words, "I bear upon my body the marks of the Lord Jesus" (Galatians 6:17). The Paramand is so called because it is worn under the Mantle (Greek: Mandyas; Slavonic: Mantya), which is a long cape, which completely covers the monk from neck to foot. Among the Russians, Stavrophores are also informally referred to as "mantle monks." At his Tonsure, a Stavrophore is given a wooden hand cross and a lit candle, as well as a prayer rope. The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require restructuring. ...

St. Anthony of Kiev wearing the Great Schema.

The highest rank of monasticism is the Great Schema (Greek: Megaloschemos; Slavonic: Schimnik). Attaining the level of Schemamonk is much more common among the Greeks than it is among the Russians, for whom it is normally reserved to hermits, or to very advanced monastics. The Schemamonk or Schemanun wears the same habit as the Rassaphore, but to it is added the Analavos (Slavonic: Analav) a garment shaped like a cross, covering the shoulders and coming down to the knees (or lower) in front and in back. This garment is roughly reminiscent of the scapular worn by some Roman Catholic orders, but it is finely embroidered with the Cross and instruments of the Passion (see illustration, above). The Klobuk worn by a Schemamonk is also embroidered with a red cross and other symbols. the Klobuk may be shaped differently, more rounded at the top, in which case it is referred to as a koukoulion. The skufia worn by a Schemamonk is also more intricately embroidered. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... St. ... The Brown Scapular of Mount Carmel promises salvation to its wearer. ...


The religious habit worn by Orthodox monastics is the same for both monks and nuns, except that the nuns wear an additional veil, called an apostolnik. St. ... Eastern Orthodox Nuns. ...


The central and unifying feature of Orthodox monasticism is Hesychasm, the practice of silence, and the concentrated saying of the Jesus Prayer. All ascetic practices and monastic humility is guided towards preparing the heart for theorea or the "divine vision" that comes from the union of the soul with God. It should be noted, however, that such union is not accomplished by any human activity. All an ascetic can do is prepare the ground; it is for God to cause the seed to grow and bear fruit. Hesychasm (Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, stillness, rest, quiet, silence) is an eremitic tradition of prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and some other Eastern Churches of the Byzantine Rite, practised (Gk: hesychazo: to keep stillness) by the Hesychast (Gr. ... Christogram with Jesus Prayer in Romanian: Doamne Iisuse Hristoase, Fiul lui Dumnezeu, miluieşte-mă pe mine păcătosul. ...


Historical Development

Even before Saint Anthony the Great (the "father of monasticism") went out into the desert, there were Christians who devoted their lives to ascetic discipline and striving to lead an evangelical life (i.e., in accordance with the teachings of the Gospel). Communities of virgins who had consecrated themselves to Christ are found at least as far back as the 2nd century. There were also individual ascetics, known as the "devout", who usually lived not in the deserts but on the edge of inhabited places, still remaining in the world, but practicing asceticism and striving for union with God. Saint Anthony was the first to specifically leave the world and live in the desert as a monk.[3] Saint Anthony the Great (ca. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


As monasticism spread in the East from the hermits living in the deserts of Egypt to Palestine, Syria, and on up into Asia Minor and beyond, the sayings (apophthegmata) and acts (praxeis) of the Desert Fathers came to be recorded and circulated, first among their fellow monastics and then among the laity as well. The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Desert Fathers were Christian Hermits who lived in the Sahara desert of Egypt, beginning in about the third century. ...


Among these earliest recorded accounts was the Paradise, by Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis (also known as the Lausaic History, after the prefect Lausus, to whom it was addressed). Saint Athanasius of Alexandria (whose Life of Saint Anthony the Great set the pattern for monastic hagiography), Saint Jerome, and other anonymous compilers were also responsible for setting down very influential accounts. Also of great importance are the writings surrounding the communities founded by Saint Pachomius, the father of coenobiticism, and his disciple Saint Theodore, the founder of the Skete form of monasticism. A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. ... Saint Anthony the Great, Father of all Monks Saint Anthony the Great ( 251 - 356), Christian saint, also known as Saint Anthony of Egypt, Saint Anthony of the Desert, Saint Anthony the Anchorite, and The Father of All Monks was a leader among the Desert Fathers, who were Christian monks in... Hagiography is the study of saints. ... “Saint Jerome” redirects here. ... Coptic icon of St Pachomius Saint Pachomius (ca. ...


Among the first to set forth precepts for the monastic life was Saint Basil the Great (d. 379), a man from a professional family who was educated in Caesarea, Constantinople, and Athens. Saint Basil visited colonies of hermits in Palestine and Egypt, but was most strongly impressed by the organized communities developed under the guidance of Saint Pachomius. Saint Basil's ascetical writings set forth standards for well-disciplined community life and offered lessons in what became the ideal monastic virtue: humility. Basil (ca. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Caesarea is the name of several Roman cities and towns, including: Caesarea Antiochia, properly Antioch in Pisidia, near modern Yalvaç, Turkey Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, modern Kayseri, Turkey Caesarea Palaestina: modern Caesarea, in Israel Caesarea Philippi in the Golan Heights Iol Caesarea: modern Cherchell, in Algeria Caesarea Magna or Caesara... Map of Constantinople. ... Athens (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and Αθήνα nowadays (IPA ); is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... Coptic icon of St Pachomius Saint Pachomius (ca. ...


Saint Basil wrote a series of guides for monastic life (the Lesser Asketikon the Greater Asketikon the Morals, etc.) which, while not "Rules" in the legalistic sense of later Western rules, provided firm indications of the importance of a single community of monks, living under the same roof, and under the guidance--and even discipline--of a strong abbot. His teachings set the model for Greek and Russian monasticism, but had less influence in the Latin West.


Of great importance to the development of monasticism is the Monastery of Saint Catherine on Mount Sinai. Here the Ladder of Divine Ascent was written by Saint John Climacus (c. 600), a work of such importance that many Orthodox monasteries to this day read it publicly either during the Divine Services or in Trapeza during Great Lent. Saint Catherines Monastery (Greek: ) on the Sinai Peninsula, at the mouth of an inaccessible gorge at the foot of Mount Sinai, in Egypt is one of the oldest continuously functioning Christian monasteries. ... View from the summit of Mount Sinai Sinai Peninsula, showing location of Jabal Musa Mount Sinai (Arabic: طور سيناء), also known as Mount Horeb, Mount Musa, Gebel Musa or Jabal Musa (Moses Mountain) by the Bedouins, is the name of a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula. ... The Ladder of Paradise icon (St. ... John Climacus ( ca. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... Canonical hours are ancient divisions of time, developed by the Christian Church, serving as increments between the prescribed prayers of the daily round. ... A refectory is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools and academic institutions. ... Great Lent is the greatest fasting period in the church year in Eastern Christianity, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Easter (or Holy Pascha). Although it is in many ways similar to Lent in Western Christianity, there are important differences in the timing of Lent...


At the height of the East Roman Empire, numerous great monasteries were established by the Emperors, including the twenty "sovereign monasteries" on the Holy Mountain[4], an actual "monastic republic" wherein the entire country is devoted to bringing souls closer to God. In this milieu, the Philokalia was compiled. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Capital Karyes Official languages Koine Greek and Church Slavonic (both liturgical); Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (civil use) Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 390 km²  150 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 2,250  Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). ... The Philokalia (Gk. ...


As the Great Schism between East and West grew larger and larger, conflict arose over misunderstandings about Hesychasm. Saint Gregory Palamas, bishop of Thessalonica, himself an experienced Athonite monk, defended Orthodox spirituality against the attacks of Barlaam of Calabria, and left a number of very important works on the spiritual life. The term Great Schism may refer to: The East-West Schism, in 1054 between Western Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. ... Hesychasm (Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, stillness, rest, quiet, silence) is an eremitic tradition of prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and some other Eastern Churches of the Byzantine Rite, practised (Gk: hesychazo: to keep stillness) by the Hesychast (Gr. ... Gregory Palamas Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς) (1296 - 1359) was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later Archbishop of Thessalonica known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Barlaam of Calabria (ca. ...


Monasticism Today

Monastic centers thrive to this day in Greece, Russia, Romania, the Holy Land, and elsewhere in the Orthodox world. Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, a great renaissance of monasticism has occurred, and many previously empty or destroyed monastic communities have been reopened. Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ...


Monasticism continues to be very influential in the Eastern Orthodox Church, even to this day. According to the Sacred Canons, all Bishops must be monks (not merely celibate), and feast days to Glorified monastic saints are an important part of the liturgical tradition of the church. Fasting, Hesychasm, and the pursuit of the spiritual life are strongly encouraged not only among monastics but also among the laity. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Icon of St. ...


Western Monasticism

Monasticism in Gaul

The earliest phases of monasticism in Western Europe involved figures like Martin of Tours (ca. 316 - 397) , who after serving in the Roman legions converted to Christianity and established a hermitage near Milan, then moved on to Poitiers where he gathered a community around his hermitage. He was called to become Bishop of Tours in 372, where he established a monastery at Marmoutiers on the opposite bank of the river Loire, a few miles upstream from the city. His monastery was laid out as a colony of hermits, rather than as a single integrated community. Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... Saint Martin of Tours (Latin: Martinus), (316/317 – November 11, 397 in Candes) was a bishop of Tours whose shrine became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela. ... Events Huns sack Changan, capital of the Chinese Western Jin Dynasty. ... Events Council of Carthage: Definitive declaration of the biblical canon Candida Casa founded by Saint Ninian. ... This is a list of the bishops and archbishops of Tours: 1 Gatianus ca 249-301 vacant 301-338 2 Lidorius 338-370 3 St. ... Events Emperor Fei is dethroned as emperor of China. ... Marmoutier is a commune of the Bas-Rhin département, in France. ...


John Cassian (ca. 360 - ca. 435) began his monastic career at a monasteries in Palestine and Egypt (ca. 385) to study monastic practice there. In Egypt he had been attracted to the isolated life of hermits, which he considered the highest form of monasticism, yet the monasteries he founded were all organized monastic communities. About 410 he established two monasteries near Marseilles, one for men, one for women. In time these attracted a total of 5000 monks and nuns. John Cassian (c. ... First invasions of the Saxons in Britain. ... Events August 3 - Nestorius is exiled by Imperial edict to a monastery in a Sahara oasis. ... Events February 11 - Oldest Pope elected: Siricius, bishop of Tarragona. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... Marseilles redirects here. ...


Most significant for the future development of monasticism were Cassian's Institutes, which provided a guide for monastic life and his Conferences, a collection of spiritual reflections. Although he founded monasteries at the request of bishops, he did not value their form of life. He urged monks to "flee women and bishops" and considered clerical office a "diabolical temptation" that monks must avoid.[citation needed]Honoratus of Marseilles (d. 429) was a wealthy Gallo-Roman aristocrat, who after a pilgrimage to Egypt, founded the Monastery of Lérins, on an island lying off the modern city of Cannes. The monastery combined a community with isolated hermitages where older, spiritually-proven monks could live in isolation. For the 7th century saint, see Honoratus of Amiens. ... I am an idiot Theodosius II starts the reform of Roman law. ... The abbey of Lérins on the ÃŽle Saint-Honorat. ...


One Roman reaction to monasticism was expressed in the description of Lérins by Rutilius Namatianus, who served as prefect of Rome in 414: Information quoted from [1] http://www. ... Events Ataulf, king of the Visigoths, marries Galla Placidia, the sister of Roman Emperor Honorius. ...

A filthy island filled by men who flee the light.
Monks they call themselves, using a Greek name.
Because they will to live alone, unseen by man.
Fortune's gifts they fear, dreading their harm:
Mad folly of a demented brain,
That cannot suffer good, for fear of ill.

Lérins became, in time, a center of monastic culture and learning and many later monks and bishops would pass through Lérins in the early stages of their career. Honoratus, himself, was called to be Bishop of Arles and was succeeded in that post by another monk from Lérins. Lérins was aristocratic in character, as was its founder, and was closely tied to urban bishoprics. The former Archbishopric of Arles had its episcopal see in the city of Arles, in southern France. ...


Monasticism in Italy

We know little about the origins of the first important monastic rule (Regula) in Western Europe, the anonymous Rule of the Master (Regula magistri), which was written somewhere south of Rome around the year 500. The rule adds legalistic elements not found in earlier rules, defining the activities of the monastery, its officers, and their responsibilities in great detail. The Rule of the Master is an anonymous sixth century collection of monastic precepts. ... Events Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon army that may have been led by the bretwalda Aelle of Sussex (approximate date; suggested dates range from 490 to 510) Note: This battle may have influenced the legend of King Arthur. ...


Benedict of Nursia (ca. 480 - 546 × 550) is the most influential of Western monks. He was educated in Rome, but soon sought the life of a hermit in a cave at Subiaco, outside the city. He then attracted followers with whom he founded the monastery of Monte Cassino (ca. 520), between Rome and Naples. His Rule is shorter than the Master's, somewhat less legalistic, but much more so than Eastern rules. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Events Odoacer defeats an attempt by Julius Nepos to recapture Italy, and has Julius killed; Odoacer also captured Dalmatia. ... Events The Ostrogoths under Totila retake Rome from the Byzantine Empire. ... Events By Place Byzantine Empire Silk reaches Constantinople (approximate date). ... Subiaco is a city in the Province of Rome, in Lazio, Italy, twenty-five miles from Tivoli alongside the river Aniene. ... The restored Abbey. ... Events February 20 - Epiphanius elected Patriarch of Constantinople. ... St. ...


His Rule:

  • specified a course of seven prayers during the day beginning hours before dawn and ending with evening prayer,
  • specified a diet which provided no meat except for the sick, but several different vegetables, bread, and wine for the main meal,
  • emphasized work as a valuable act in itself (some modern historians see this as the source of the Western work ethic),
  • required monks to engage in "spiritual reading," which required a library that was often extended to include a wide range of books on secular topics,
  • and emphasized the idea of submission to the Rule and to the jurisdiction of monastic superiors as an essential step on the ladder of humility.

In time, largely under the inspiration of the Emperor Charlemagne, Benedict's Rule would become the basic guide for Western monasticism, but this did not occur until the ninth century. Charlemagne and Pippin the Hunchback. ...


Irish Monasticism

The first non-Roman area to adopt monasticism was Ireland, which developed a unique form closely linked to traditional clan relations, a system that later spread to other parts of Europe, especially France.


The earliest Monastic settlements in Ireland that we know of emerged at the end of the fifth century. The first identifiable founder of a monastery (if she was a real historical figure) was Saint Brigit (d. ca. 525), a saint who ranked with Patrick as a major figure of the Irish church. The monastery at Kildare was a double monastery, with both men and women ruled by the Abbess, a pattern which we see in other monastic foundations. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Events Bernicia settled by the Angles Ethiopia conquers Yemen The Daisan river, a tributary of the Euphrates, floods Edessa and within a couple of hours fills the entire city except for the highest parts. ...


Commonly Irish monasteries were established by grants of land to an abbot or abbess, who came from a local noble family. The monastery became the spiritual focus of the tribe or kin group. Successive abbots and abbesses were members of the founder’s family, a policy which kept the monastic lands under the jurisdiction of the family (and corresponded to Irish legal tradition, which only allowed the transfer of land within a family).


Ireland was a rural society, of petty kings living in the countryside. There was no social place for urban leaders, such as bishops. In Irish monasteries the abbot (or abbess) was supreme, but in conformance to Christian tradition, bishops still had important sacramental roles to play (in the early Church the bishops were the ones who baptized new converts to bring them into the Church). In Ireland, the bishop frequently was subordinate to (or co-equal with) the abbot and sometimes resided in the monastery under the jurisdiction of the abbot.


Irish monasticism maintained the model of a monastic community, while, like John Cassian, marking the contemplative life of the hermit as the highest form of monasticism. Saints' lives frequently tell of monks (and abbots) departing some distance from the monastery to live in isolation from the community.


Irish monastic rules specify a stern life of prayer and discipline in which prayer, poverty, and obedience are the central themes. Yet Irish monks did not fear pagan learning. Irish monks needed to learn a foreign language, Latin, which was the language of the Church. Thus they read Latin texts, both spiritual and secular, with an enthusiasm that their contemporaries on the continent lacked. By the end of the seventh century, Irish monastic schools would be attracting students from England and even from the continent.


Irish monasticism spread widely, first to Scotland and Northern England, then to Gaul and Italy. Columba (521-597) and his followers established monasteries at Bangor, on the northeastern coast of Ireland, at Iona, an island northwest of Scotland, and at Lindisfarne, which was founded by Aidan, an Irish monk from Iona, at the request of King Oswald of Northumbria. Saint Columba (7 December 521 - 9 June 597) is sometimes referred to as Columba of Iona, or, in Old Irish, as Saint Colm Cille or Columcille (meaning Dove of the church). He was the outstanding figure among the Gaelic missionary monks who reintroduced Christianity to Scotland during the Dark Ages. ... Events Future Byzantine emperor Justinian becomes consul. ... Events Saint Augustine is created Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Established by Saint Comghall - Bangor was featured in the Mappa Mundi, the first map of the world. ... One of the oldest and most important religious centers in western Europe. ... Map of the UK showing the location of Lindisfarne at 55. ... Oswald (c. ...


Columbanus (ca. 530-615), an abbot, from a Leinster noble family traveled (ca. 590) to Gaul with twelve companions. Columbanus and his followers spread the Irish model of monastic institutions established by noble families to the continent. A whole series of new rural monastic foundations on great rural estates under Irish influence sprang up, starting with Columbanus's foundations of Fontaines and Luxeuil, sponsored by the Frankish King Childebert II (reigned 575-595). After Childebert's death Columbanus traveled east to Metz, where Theudebert II (reigned 595-613) allowed him to establish a new monastery among the semi-pagan Alemanni in what is now Switzerland. One of Columbanus's followers founded the monastery of St. Gall on the shores of Lake Constance, while Columbanus continued onward across the Alps to the Kingdom of the Lombards in Italy. There King Agilulf (reigned 590-616) and his wife Theodolinda granted Columbanus land in the mountains between Genoa and Milan, where he established the Monastery of Bobbio. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Battle of Daras: Belisarius and Hermogenes defeat the Persians in a major battle which blunts a Persian offensive into Roman Mesopotamia. ... Events The Edict of Paris grants extensive rights to the Frankish nobility. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Fontaine is a French word meaning fountain or natural spring. ... Luxeuil-les-Bains is a town and commune of eastern France, in the Haute-Saône département. ... Childebert II (570-595) was the king of Austrasia from 575 until his death in 595, the eldest and succeeding son of Sigebert I, and the king of Burgundy from 592 to his death, as the adopted and succeeding son of his uncle Guntram. ... Events June 2 - Benedict succeeds John III as Pope The Kingdom of East Anglia founded by the Angle groups North Folk and South Folk, naming the places of Norfolk and Suffolk, respectively. ... Events The first mention of the state of Karantania on monuments. ... Events The first mention of the state of Karantania on monuments. ... Events Clotaire II reunites the Frankish kingdoms by ordering the murder of Sigebert II. Saint Columbanus founds the monastery of Bobbio in northern Italy. ... The Alamanni, Allemanni or Alemanni, are a Germanic tribe, first mentioned by Dio Cassius, under the year 213. ... Agilulf was duke of Turin and Lombard king of Italy. ... Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards, (ca 570 - 628) was the daughter of duke Garibald I of Bavaria. ... Stone arch bridge over the Trebbia river Bobbio is a city in the Piacenza province of the Emilia-Romagna region in northern Italy. ...


Later Medieval Monasticism

This activity brought considerable wealth and power. Wealthy lords and nobles would give the monasteries estates in exchange for the conduction of a mass for a loved one. Though this was likely not the original intent of Benedict, the efficiency of his cenobitic Rule in addition to the stability of the monasteries made such estates very productive; the general monk was then raised to a level of nobility, for the serfs of the estate would tend to the labor, while the monk was free to study. The monasteries thus attracted many of the best people in society and during this period the monasteries were the central storehouses and producers of knowledge.


The system broke down in the eleventh and twelfth centuries as religion began to change. Religion became far less a preserve of the religious elite. This was closely linked to the rise of mendicant orders such as the Franciscan friars, who were dedicated to spreading the word in public, not in closed monasteries. Religious behavior changed as common people began to take communion and actively participate in religion. The growing pressure of the nation states and monarchies also threatened the wealth and power of the orders. The Mendicant (or Begging) Orders are religious orders which depend directly on the riches of the people for their livelihood. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Monasticism continued to play a role in Catholicism, but after the Protestant reformation many monasteries in Northern Europe were shut down and their assets seized. (see Dissolution of the Monasteries). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... dissolution see Dissolution. ...


The legacy of monasteries outside remains an important current in modern society. Max Weber compared the closeted and puritan societies of the English Dissenters, who sparked much of the industrial revolution, to monastic orders. Many Utopian thinkers (starting with Thomas More himself) felt inspired by the common life of monks to apply it to the whole society (an example is the falansterium). For the painter, see Max Weber (artist). ... English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ... The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into utopia. ... For the numerous educational institutions, see Thomas More College. ...


Modern universities have also attempted to ape Christian monasticism. Even in the new world universities are built in the gothic style of twelfth century monasteries. Communal meals, dormitory residences, elaborate rituals and dress all borrow heavily from the monastic tradition. Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ...

Orthodox monks farming potatoes in Russia, ca. 1910
Orthodox monks farming potatoes in Russia, ca. 1910

Today monasticism remains an important part of the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican faith. Vatican II saw major changes to Catholic monasticism including allowing nuns and monks to shed their habits. Image File history File links Prokudin-Gorskii-39. ... Image File history File links Prokudin-Gorskii-39. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ...


Nature of monasticism

Christian monasticism was and continued to be a lay condition—monks depended on a local parish church for the sacraments. However, if the monastery was isolated in the desert, as were many of the Egyptian examples, that inconvenience compelled monasteries either to take in priest members, to have their abbot ordained, or to have other members ordained. A priest-monk is sometimes called a hieromonk. In many cases in Eastern Orthodoxy, when a bishopric needed to be filled, they would look to nearby monasteries to find suitable candidates, being good sources of men who were spiritually mature and generally possessing the other qualities desired in a bishop. Eventually, among the Orthodox Churches it became established by canon law that all bishops must be monks. A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ... A hieromonk in Eastern Orthodoxy is a monk and the priest at the same time. ... ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ...


Secular influence

In traditional Catholic societies, monastic communities often took charge of social services such as education and healthcare; to the latter they were so closely linked that nurses are often called "sisters." Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ... // A nurse is a health care professional who is engaged in the practice of nursing. ...


In the Middle Ages, monasteries conserved and copied ancient manuscripts in their scriptoria, their pharmacies stored and studied medicaments and they aided the development of agricultural techniques. The requirement of wine for the Mass led to the development of wine culture, as shown in the discovery of the méthode champenoise by Dom Perignon. Several liquors like Bénédictine and the Trappist beers were also developed in monasteries. Even today many monasteries and convents are locally renowned for their cooking specialties. A Scriptorium was a room or building, usually within a Christian monastery where, during medieval times, manuscripts were written. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Oenology is the study of wines in general. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Champagne (beverage). ... Dom Perignon can refer to: Dom Perignon (person), a monk frequently credited with the invention of Champagne. ... Bénédictine is a brandy-based herbal liqueur beverage produced in France. ... Trappist logo A Trappist beer is a beer brewed by or under control of Trappist monks. ...


Christian monks cultivated the arts as a way of praising God. Gregorian chant and miniatures are examples. Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Look up miniature in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The status of monks as apart from secular life (at least theoretically) served a social function. Dethroned Visigothic kings were tonsured and sent to a monastery so that they could not claim the crown back. Around the change of millennium, monasteries became a place for second sons to live in celibacy so that the family inheritance went to the first son; in exchange the families donated to the monasteries. Some orders were favored by monarchs and rich families to keep and educate their maiden daughters before arranged marriage. This however did not bar seducers like the fictional Don Juan and the real Giacomo Casanova from assaulting convents and novices. Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A maiden may refer to: A female virgin. ... Marriage à-la-mode by William Hogarth: a satire on arranged marriages and prediction of ensuing disaster An arranged marriage is a marriage that is established before involving oneself in a lengthy courtship, and often involves the arrangement of someone other than the persons getting married. ... Don Juan with his sword in Don Giovanni, by Mozart Don Juan is a legendary fictional libertine, whose story has been told many times by different authors. ... Giacomo Casanova “Casanova” redirects here. ...


The monasteries also provided refuge to those sick of earthly life like Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor who retired to Yuste in his late years. Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and... Yuste (or Cuacos de Yuste) is a small village in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain. ...


Western monastic orders

A number of distinct monastic orders developed within Roman Catholicism and Anglicanism. Eastern Orthodoxy does not have a system of orders, per se. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ...


Roman Catholic

Detail of St. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Canons, Bruges A Canon of the Seminary, Sint Niklaas, Flanders. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... For other uses, see number 529. ... This article is about Saint Benedict of Nursia, for other uses of the name Benedict see Benedict (disambiguation) Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. ... The restored Abbey. ... The Bridgettine church in Naantali, Finland The Bridgettine or Briggittine order is a monastic religious order of Augustinian canonesses founded by Saint Birgitta (Saint Bridget) of Sweden approximately 1350, and approved by Pope Urban V in 1370. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Camaldolese Priory on Bielany in Kraków, Poland The Camaldolese are part of the Benedictine family of monastic communities which follow the way of life outlined in the Rule of St. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... The Order of Our Lady of Mt. ... Events Temujin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... Events Simon Apulia becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... A Carthusian Monastery in Jerez, Spain The Carthusians are a Christian religious order founded by St Bruno in 1084. ... Celestines, a branch of the great Benedictine monastic order. ... Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin: ), otherwise White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular or apron is sometimes worn) is a Roman Catholic order of enclosed monks. ... Events First Crusade: end of the siege of Antioch. ... A painting of the founders of Citeaux, showing saints Robert, Alberic, and Stephen Harding venerating the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... The Order of Friars Minor Conventual (OFM Conv), commonly known as the Conventual Franciscans, is a branch of the order of Roman Catholic Friars founded by Francis of Assisi in 1209. ... Cluniac Reform was the time of the purification and scourging of the Roman Catholic Church during the 11th century. ... Events World Population: 250 Million. ... Events February 13 - Innocent II is elected pope An antipope schism occurs when Roger II of Sicily supports Anacletus II as pope instead of Innocent II. Innocent flees to France and Anacletus crowns Roger King. ... The Discalced Carmelites, or Barefoot Carmelites, is a Roman Catholic mendicant order. ... A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... Events Albigensian Crusade against Cathars (1209-1218) the Franciscans are founded. ... Saint Francis of Assisi (born in Assisi, Italy, ca. ... The Melanesian Brotherhood was formed in 1925 by Ini Kopuria, a policeman from Maravovo, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. ... A monastic order, originally separate and distinct from the Benedictine order, the Olivetan order, known through its history as the Order of Our Lady of Mount Olivet, was a small and not well-known Catholic order, founded in 1313 by Giovanni Tolomei--who took the religious name of Bernardo--along... The Premonstratensians, also called Norbertines, and in England the White Canons (from the color of their habit) are a Christian religious order of Augustinian Canons founded at Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Saint Norbert, afterwards archbishop of Magdeburg. ... The Servite Friars or Servants of Mary are one of the five original mendicant orders. ... New Melleray Abbey, near Peosta, Iowa. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... The Vallumbrosan Order is a Roman Catholic religious order, or technically a Benedictine congregation, which derives its name from the motherhouse, Vallombrosa (Latin Vallis umbrosa, shady valley), situated 20 miles from Florence on the northwest slope of Monte Secchieta in the Pratomagno chain, 3140 feet above the sea. ...

Anglican Communion

Communities of monks and nuns represent a small but hugely influential aspect of Anglicanism. Shortly after the beginning of the revival of the Catholic Movement in the Church of England, there was felt to be a need for some Anglican Sisters of Charity. In 1848 Mother Priscilla Lydia Sellon became the first woman to take the vows of religion in communion with the See of Canterbury since the Reformation. In October 1850 the first building specifically built for the purpose of housing an Anglican Sisterhood was consecrated at Abbeymere in Plymouth. It housed several schools for the destitute, a laundry, printing press and soup kitchen. A series of letters were exchanged publicly between her and the Rev. James Spurrell, Vicar of Great Shelford, Cambs., who, along with others, criticized Miss Sellon's Sisters of Mercy. From the 1840s and throughout the next one hundred years, religious orders for both men and women proliferated in the UK and the United States, as well as in various countries of Africa, Asia, Canada, India and the Pacific. Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Spreulls were an ancient Celtic family and members of the McFarlane Clan. ...


Anglican religious life at one time boasted hundreds of orders and communities, and thousands of religious. An important aspect of Anglican religious life is that most communities of both men and women lived their lives consecrated to God under the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience (or in Benedictine communities, Stability, Conversion of Life, and Obedience) by practicing a mixed life of reciting the full eight services of the Breviary in choir, along with a daily Eucharist, plus service to the poor. The mixed life, combing aspects of the contemplative orders and the active orders remains to this day a hall mark of Anglican Religious Life.


Since the 1960's, there has been a sharp falling off in the numbers of religious in most parts of the Anglican Communion. Many once large and international communities have been reduced to a single convent or monastery comprised of elderly men or women. In the last few decades of the 20th century, novices have for most communities been few and far between. Some orders and communities have already become extinct.


There are however, still several thousand Anglican religious working today in approximately 200 communities around the world.


The most surprising growth has been in the Melanesian countries of Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. The Melanesian Brotherhood, based at Tabalia, Guadalcanal, in 1925, by Ini Kopuria, is now the largest Anglican Community in the world with over 450 Brothers in Solomons Islands, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea, Philippines and the United Kingdom. The Sisters of the Church, started by Mother Emily Ayckbowm in England in 1870, has more Sisters in the Solomons than all their other communities. The Community of the Sisters of Melanesia, started in 1980 by Sister Nesta Tiboe, is a growing community of women throughout the Solomon Islands. The Society of Saint Francis, founded as a union of various Franciscan orders in the 1920s, has experienced great growth in the Solomon Islands. Other communities of religious have been started by Anglicans in Papua New Guinea and in Vanuatu. Lydia Sellon herself traveled to the Sandwich Islands, better known now as Hawaii, in 1864 where she and her sisters founded a school. Most Melanesian Anglican religious are in their early to mid 20s, making the average age 40 to 50 years younger than their brothers and sisters in other countries. This growth is especially surprising because celibacy was not regarded as a Melanesian virtue. The Melanesian Brotherhood was formed in 1925 by Ini Kopuria, a policeman from Maravovo, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Protestant Monasticism

Monasticism in the Protestant tradition proceeds from John Wycliffe who organized the Lollard Preacher Order (the "Poor Priests") to promote his reformation views. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Lollardy or Lollardry was the political and religious movement of the Lollards in late 14th century and early 15th century England. ...


During the Reformation the teachings of Martin Luther led to the end the monasteries, but a few Protestants followed monastic lives. Since the 19th century there have been a renewal in the monastic life among Protestants. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1947 Mother Basilea Schlink and Mother Martyria founded the Evangelical Sisterhood of Mary, in Darmstadt, Germany. This movement is largely considered Evangelical or Lutheran in its roots. Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mother Basilea, born Klara Schlink (21 October 1904, Darmstadt, Germany - 21 March 2001, Darmstadt) was a German religious leader and writer. ...


In other Lutheran traditions "The Congregation of the Servants of Christ" was established at St. Augustine's House (http://www.staugustineshouse.org/) in Oxford, Michigan, U.S.A., in 1958 when some other men joined Father Arthur Kreinheder in observing the monastic life and offices of prayer. These men and others came and went over the years. The community has always remained small; at times the only member was Father Arthur himself. During the 35 years of its existence over 25 men tested their vocations to monastic life by living at the house for some time, from a few months to many years, but at Father Arthur's death in 1989 only one permanent resident remained. At the beginning of 2006, there are 2 permanent professed members and 2 long-term guests. Strong ties remain with this community and their brothers in Sweden (http://www.svenskakyrkan.se/klostren/OSTANENG.htm) and in Germany (http://www.st-wigberti.com/). Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Around 1964, Reuben Archer Torrey III, an Episcopal missionary, grandson of R. A. Torrey, founded Jesus Abbey as a missionary community in Korea. It is has some links with the Episcopal Church and hold an Evangelical doctrine. 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Reuben Archer Torrey(1856-1928), American evangelist, was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, on 28 January 1856. ...


In 1999 an independent Protestant order was founded named The Knights of Prayer Monastic Order. The community maintains a number of monks in its Portland, Oregon, cloister; and has an international network of associated lay people. It is not affiliated with any particular congregation. Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Nickname: Location in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country United States State Oregon County Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter Area  - City 376. ...


In February, 2001 the United Methodist Church organized the Saint Brigid of Kildare Monastery is a Methodist-Benedictine residential monastery for women in Collegeville, MN. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the current denomination africa. ... Collegeville Township is a township located in Stearns County, Minnesota. ...


Ecumenical Monastic Expressions

Christian monasticism is experiencing renewal in the form of several new foundations with an 'inter-Christian' vision for their respective communities.


In 1946 Roger Schutz, a pastor of the Swiss Reformed Church, founded a small religious brotherhood in France which became known as the Taizé Community. Although he was partly inspired by the hope of reviving monasticism in the Protestant tradition, the brotherhood was interdenominational, accepting a number of Roman Catholic brothers, and is thus an ecumenical rather than a specifically "Protestant" Community. Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brother Roger of Taizé, 2003 Frère Roger (Brother Roger) (Provence, Switzerland, May 12, 1915 - Taizé, August 16, 2005), baptised Roger Louis Schütz-Marsauche, also known as Brother Roger, was the founder and prior of the Taizé Community, an ecumenical monastic community. ... The Reformed branch of Protestantism in Switzerland was started in Zurich by Huldrych Zwingli and spread within a few years to Basle (Johannes Oecolampadius), Berne (Berchtold Haller and Niklaus Manuel), St. ... Prayer in the Church of Reconciliation at Taizé The Taizé Community is an ecumenical Christian mens monastic order in Taizé, Saône-et-Loire, Burgundy, France. ...


The Order of Ecumenical Franciscans (OEF)[1] is a religious order of men and women devoted to following the examples of Saint Francis of Assisi and Saint Clare of Assisi in their life and understanding of the Christian gospel: sharing a love for creation and those who have been marginalized. It includes members of many different denominations, including Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and a range of Protestant traditions. The OEF understands its charism to include not only ecumenical efforts and the traditional emphases of the Franciscans in general, but also to help to develop relationships between the various Franciscan orders. The Order of Ecumenical Franciscans (OEF)[1] is a religious order of men and women devoted to following the examples of Saint Francis of Assisi and Saint Clare of Assisi in their life and understanding of the Christian gospel: sharing a love for creation and those who have been marginalized. ...


Additional expressions of ecumenical monasticism can be seen in the Bose Monastic Community and communities of the New Monasticism movement arising from Protestant Evangelicalism. The ecumenical Monastic Community of Bose ( Monastero di Bose ) was established by Catholic layman Enzo Bianchi in 1965. ... New Monasticism, or Neomonasticism, is a modern day iteration of a long tradition of Christian monasticism which has recently developed within certain communities associated with Protestant Evangelicalism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to...


See also

Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to devote ones life fully to spiritual work. ... St. ... Monastery of St. ... The Desert Fathers were Christian Hermits who lived in the Sahara desert of Egypt, beginning in about the third century. ... The film Into Great Silence (Die Große Stille) directed by Philip Groening, is an intimate portrayal of the everyday lives of Carthusian monks of the Grande Chartreuse, high in a remote corner of the French Alps (Chartreuse Mountains). ... St. ... The eremitic Rule of St. ... A religious order is an organization of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with religious devotion. ... New Monasticism, or Neomonasticism, is a modern day iteration of a long tradition of Christian monasticism which has recently developed within certain communities associated with Protestant Evangelicalism. ... Coptic icon of St Pachomius Saint Pachomius (ca. ... Onuphrius lived as a hermit in the desert of Upper Egypt in the late 4th century A hermit (from the Greek erÄ“mos, signifying desert, uninhabited, hence desert-dweller) is a person who lives to some greater or lesser degree in seclusion and/or isolation from society. ... A poustinia cabin. ... Lay brothers are Catholic religious occupied solely with manual labour and with the secular affairs of a monastery or friary. ... Capital Karyes Official languages Koine Greek and Church Slavonic (both liturgical); Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (civil use) Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 390 km²  150 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 2,250  Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). ... // Overview Bethany Ashram, also called the Order of the Imitation of Christ (O.I.C.), was founded by Fr. ... The Community of Hermits of St. ...

External links

Bibliography

  • Lawrence, C. H. Medieval Monasticism. 3rd ed. Harlow: Pearson Education, 2001. ISBN 0-582-40427-4
  • Chitty, D. J. The Desert a City (Oxford: Basil Blackwell 1966)
  • R. T. Meyer, St. Athanasius: The Life of Anthony, ACW 10 (Westminster, Md.: Newman Press 1950)

Notes

  1. ^ Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Ecclesiastical History, describes Philo's Therapeutae as the first Christian monks, ientifying their renunciation of property, chastity, fasting, solitary lives with the cenobitic ideal of the Christian monks. Professor Constantine Scouteris, Source
  2. ^ One may hear Orthodox monks referred to as "Basilian Monks", but this is really an inappropriate application of western categories to Orthodoxy.
  3. ^ Saint Paul of Thebes had gone into the desert before Anthony; however, he went not for the purpose of pursuing God, but to escape persecution.
  4. ^ Note that both Mount Sinai and Mount Athos are referred to as "the Holy Mountain" in Orthodox literature,

  Results from FactBites:
 
Monasticism (2375 words)
Jerome, the distinguished Christian scholar, ruled that the woman who remained a spinster as a nun for the sake of Christ, was the bride of Christ, and her mother was the mother-in-law of Christ, i.e.,God.
The viewpoint of Christian monasticism in these matters was that the one who sought love of God, should break off all relations of human love that bound him in the world of his parents, his brothers and sisters, and his children.
Monasticism fought it and ultimately fell in the pit of immorality, the story of which is a most shameful blot on the religious history of the 8th to 11th centuries.
Monasticism - OrthodoxWiki (1932 words)
Monasticism (from Greek: μοναχος—a solitary person) is the ancient Christian practice of withdrawal from the world in order to dedicate oneself fully and intensely to the life of the Gospel, seeking union with Jesus Christ.
Christian monasticism is in itself a lay order, originally not having clergy as a standard part of the community (thus, monks relied on local parishes for sacramental life).
Orthodox Monasticism (Serbian Orthodox Diocese of Raska and Prizren)
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