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Encyclopedia > Christian democracy

Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. While Christian democrats hold a variety of views, there is general agreement on certain issues. Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... The relationship between Christianity and politics is a historically complex subject. ... Democracy describes a series of related forms of government. ...


Broadly speaking, Christian democracy is conservative in regard to moral and cultural issues, and issues of public morality and tradition. It can be described as left-wing as it claims a "strong social conscience", in the sense of emphasizing the alleviation of poverty, the welfare state, and if necessary the restraint of market forces. It may also be seen as liberal as it upholds human rights and individual initiative. This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...

Part of the Politics series on
Christian Democracy The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is defined as a group of people who are influenced to change laws and other such things to make the world a better place the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ...

Parties

Christian Democratic parties
Christian Democrat International
European People's Party
European Democratic Party
Euro Christian Political Movement
Christian Dem Org of America
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Christian Democratic Party (disambiguation). ... The Christian Democrat and Peoples Parties International (IDC-CDI) is the global political international dedicated to the promotion of christian democracy. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest European political party. ... For the eurosceptic informal grouping, see European Democrats. ... The European Christian Political Movement (ECPM) is an European political association for reflection and working on Christian-democratic politics in Europe from an explicit Christian Social view. ... you suck wener and WE THINK THAT UR STUPID WEBSITE SHOULD GO TO HELL ALL OF YOU FOR MAKING US EAT BROCOLLI>>>> WOMAN<<< SALAD FINGERS HAD A TREAT WHILE RUBBING HIS FINGERS ON METAl IT WAS QUITE ORGASMICAL AND FAIRTAILING YOUR ASS BUMM! BOOTOOM DRIBBLING DOWN MY FACE. ...

Ideas

Social conservatism
Social market economy
Sphere sovereignty
Communitarianism
Stewardship
Catholic social teaching
Neo-Calvinism
Neo-Thomism
This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Social market economy was the German and Austrian economic model during the Cold War era. ... In Neo-Calvinism, the idea of sphere sovereignty insists that created boundaries should be affirmed and respected. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Stewardship is a concept in theology. ... Catholic social teaching comprises those aspects of Catholic doctrine which relate to matters dealing with the collective aspect of humanity. ... Neo-Calvinism, a form of Dutch Calvinism, is the movement initiated by the theologian and former Dutch prime minister Abraham Kuyper. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ...

Important documents

Rerum Novarum (1891)
Stone Lectures (Princeton 1898)
Graves de Communi Re (1901)
Quadragesimo Anno (1931)
Laborem Exercens (1981)
Sollicitudi Rei Socialis (1987)
Centesimus Annus (1991)
Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... The steeple of Alexander Hall Princeton Theological Seminary is a theological seminary located in the Borough of Princeton, New Jersey in the United States. ... The steeple of Alexander Hall Princeton Theological Seminary is a theological seminary located in the Borough of Princeton, New Jersey in the United States. ... Graves de Communi Re was an encyclical written by Pope Leo XIII in 1901, on Christian Democracy. ... Quadragesimo Anno is an encyclical by Pope Pius XI, issued 15 May 1931, 40 years after Rerum Novarum (thus the name, Latin for the fortieth year). Written as a response to the Great Depression, it calls for the establishment of a social order based on the principle of subsidiarity. ... Laborem Exercens was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1981, on human work. ... Sollicitudi Rei Socialis was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1987, on the twentieth anniversary of Populorum Progressio. ... Centesimus Annus (which is Latin for hundredth year) was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1991, on the hundredth anniversary of Rerum Novarum. ...

Important figures

Thomas Aquinas · John Calvin
Pope Leo XIII · Abraham Kuyper
Maritain · Adenauer · De Gasperi
Pope Pius XI · Schuman
Pope John Paul II · Kohl
Herman Dooyeweerd Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... Prof. ... Jacques Maritain Jacques Maritain (November 18, 1882 – April 28, 1973) was a French Catholic philosopher. ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... Alcide De Gasperi (3 April 1881 – 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman and politician. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ) (May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... President of Council: 1947–1948 Foreign Minister: 1948–1952 Profession: Lawyer Robert Schuman (June 29, 1886 – September 4, 1963) was a noted Luxembourg-born German-French politician, a Christian Democrat (M.R.P.) who is regarded as one of the founders of the European Union. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II or Pope John Paul II (The Great) (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... Herman Dooyeweerd Herman Dooyeweerd (1894-1977) was a Dutch juridical scholar by training, who by vocation was a philosopher, and the founder of a new approach called, the philosophy of the cosmonomic idea. ...

Politics Portal · edit

Christian democracy is a significant force in the political mainstream of Europe and Latin America, but is less common on other continents. Christian Democratic parties in Latin America are generally more inclined to support left-leaning economic views, while their European counterparts tend to be more right-wing. This article deals with the politics of the European continent. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Left-Right politics. ...

Contents

Political viewpoints

As with every category of political thought, in practice, the policies and priorities of Christian Democratic parties can vary considerably over time and between countries.


Christian Democrats are usually socially conservative, and, as such, many Christian Democrats are opposed to abortion and same-sex marriage, although some Christian Democratic parties have accepted the legalization of both, within certain limits. Christian Democratic parties are often likely to assert the Christian heritage of their country, and to explicitly affirm Christian ethics, rather than adopting a more liberal and secular stance that all religions are to be considered equivalent. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...   CA, CT, MD, NY, NJ, OR, RI, VT, WA See also Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized marriage in which two people of the same sex live... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...


Christian Democracy sees the economy as being at the service of humanity; however, most Christian Democratic parties do not call capitalism itself into question. The duty of the state to care for its citizens is of real importance for Christian Democrats. Some Christian Democrats oppose Christian socialism, while others may at times seem to hold political opinions close to it. In recent decades, some major Christian Democratic parties in Europe have shifted more towards a right-leaning policy of economic liberalism, based on reducing the role of the state in the economy. Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... Christian socialism generally refers to those on the Christian left whose politics are both Christian and socialist and who see these two things as being interconnected. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Left-Right politics. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood describe the basis of Christian Democracy by writing "In terms of ideology, Christian Democracy has incorporated many of the views held by liberals, conservatives and socialists within a wider framework of moral and Christian principles."[1] They describe the basis of Christian Democracy in terms of comparisons to and contrasts with liberalism, socialism and conservatism, a useful approach to understanding Christian Democracy. Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ...


In such terms of comparisons and contrasts, a "typical" Christian Democratic viewpoint might be described as follows:

  • In common with liberalism, an emphasis on human rights and individual initiative.
  • In contrast to liberalism, a rejection of laicity, and an emphasis on the fact that the individual is part of a community and has duties towards it.
  • In common with conservatism, conservative moral values (i.e. on issues such as marriage, divorce, abortion etc.), a view of the evolutionary development of society, an emphasis on law and order, and a rejection of communism.
  • In contrast to conservatism, open to change (e.g. in the structure of society) and not necessarily supportive of the social status quo.
  • In common with socialism, a strong emphasis on social solidarity (i.e. the welfare state, prioritizing alleviation of poverty, high taxes on the wealthy, etc.) and a willingness to restrain market forces.
  • In contrast to socialism, supports capitalism and a market economy and does not advocate class struggle.

In France and some other French-speaking countries, laïcité (pronounced /laisite/ IPA/X-SAMPA) is a prevailing conception of the separation of church and state and the absence of religious interference into government affairs (and conversely). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ...

History of Christian Democracy

Christian Democracy as a political movement was born at the end of the 19th century, largely as a result of the papal encyclical Rerum Novarum of Pope Leo XIII, in which the Vatican recognized workers' misery and agreed that something should be done about it, in reaction to the rise of the socialist and trade union movements. The position of the Roman Catholic Church on this matter was further clarified in a subsequent encyclical, Quadragesimo Anno, by Pope Pius XI in 1931. Christian Democracy has evolved considerably since then, and it is no longer a particularly Catholic ideology. In Germany, for example, the Christian Democratic Party emerged as a grouping dominated by Rhenish and Westphalian Catholics, but also encompassed the more conservative elements of the protestant population. Following World War II, Christian Democracy was seen as a neutral and unifying voice of compassionate conservatism, and distinguished itself from the far right. It gave a voice to 'conservatives of the heart', particularly in Germany, who had detested Hitler's regime yet did not agree with the left on many issues. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope of Rome... Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... A trade union or labor union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... Quadragesimo Anno is an encyclical by Pope Pius XI, issued 15 May 1931, 40 years after Rerum Novarum (thus the name, Latin for the fortieth year). Written as a response to the Great Depression, it calls for the establishment of a social order based on the principle of subsidiarity. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ) (May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 &#8211; April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...


In Protestant countries, Christian Democratic parties were founded by more conservative Protestants in reaction to the political power of liberal tendencies within the Protestant churches. In the Netherlands, for instance, the Anti Revolutionary Party was founded in 1879 by conservative Protestants. It institutionalized early 19th century opposition against the ideas from the French Revolution on popular sovereignty. It held the position that government derived its authority from God and not from the people. This Burkean position is sometimes also called Christian Historian. It was a response to the liberal ideas that predominated in political life. The Swedish Christian Democratic Party, rooted in the Pentecostal religious tradition, has a similar history. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The Anti Revolutionary Party (in Dutch: Anti Revolutionaire Partij, ARP) was a Dutch Protestant Christian democratic political party. ... The Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) is a political party in Sweden. ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ...


While Christian Democracy is of Roman Catholic origin, it has been adopted by many Protestant and Orthodox Christians as well. Some Christian Democratic parties, particularly in Europe, no longer emphasize religion and have become much more secular in recent years. Also within Europe, two essentially Islamic parties, the Democratic League of Kosovo and the Turky's Justice and Development Party have moved towards the tradition. The Democratic League of Kosovo is now a full member of the Christian Democrat International. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... The Democratic League of Kosovo (Lidhja Demokratike e Kosovës) is the largest political party in Kosovo. ... The Justice and Development Party (Turkish: Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi or AKP, or AK Parti[1]) is a right-wing, moderately conservative Turkish political party. ... The Christian Democrat and Peoples Parties International (IDC-CDI) is the global political international dedicated to the promotion of christian democracy. ...


Though they do not identify with Christian Democracy for obvious religious reasons, Israel's Shas (Sephardic Orthodox party) and United Torah Judaism (Ashkenazi Orthodox party) could be classified as Christian Democratic parties, due to their combination of conservative social and religious policies with an emphasis on increased social spending. They also tend to be centrist and relatively flexible in terms of their positions on national security and the peace process. Shas (Hebrew: ) is an political party in Israel, primarily representing Ultra-orthodox Sephardi and Mizrahi Judaism. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (&#1505;&#1508;&#1512;&#1491;&#1497;, Standard Hebrew S&#601;fardi, Tiberian Hebrew S&#601;p&#772;ardî; plural Sephardim: &#1505;&#1508;&#1512;&#1491;&#1497;&#1501;, Standard Hebrew S&#601;fardim, Tiberian Hebrew S&#601;p&#772;ardîm) is a Jew original to the... United Torah Judaism (In Hebrew: &#1497;&#1492;&#1491;&#1493;&#1514; &#1492;&#1514;&#1493;&#1512;&#1492; which translates as Judaism [of the] Torah) (UTJ) is a small Haredi political party in the Israeli Knesset. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ...


Christian Democracy can trace its philosophical roots back to Thomas Aquinas and his thoughts about Aristotelian ontology and the Christian tradition. According to him, human rights are defined as the things that humans need to function properly. For example, food is a human right because without food humans cannot function properly. Modern authors important to the formation of Christian Democratic ideology include Emmanuel Mounier, Étienne Gilson, and Jacques Maritain. Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... // In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of being (part. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Emmanuel Mounier (philosophe français 1905-1950) Mounier was the guiding spirit in the French personalist movement, and founder and director of Esprit, the magazine which is the organ of the movement. ... Etienne Gilson (1884-1978) was a French philosopher and historian, born in Paris. ... Jacques Maritain Jacques Maritain (November 18, 1882 – April 28, 1973) was a French Catholic philosopher. ...


Christian Democracy around the world

The international organization of Christian Democratic parties, the Christian Democrat and People's Parties International, is the second largest international political organization in the world (second only to the Socialist International). European Christian Democratic parties have their own regional organization called the European People's Party, which forms the largest group in the European Parliament. However, not all Christian Democratic parties in Europe are members of it. Some, such as the Union for French Democracy, have joined the centrist group called the European Democratic Party, which takes a strongly Europhile stance. Similarly, Italy's Margherita ("Daisy") party - a member of Prime Minister Romano Prodi's center-left coalition l'Unione - is a founding constituent of the EDP, while the Alleanza Popolare-UDEUR (also member's of Romani's l'Unione) caucus with the EPP-ED. The Christian Democrat and Peoples Parties International (IDC-CDI) is the global political international dedicated to the promotion of christian democracy. ... The official symbol of Socialist International. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest European political party. ... The European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats is a group in the European Parliament. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Political parties 8 Committees 22 Last election June 2004 (785 MEPs) Meeting place Brussels and Strasbourg Secretariat Luxembourg and Brussels Website europarl. ... The Union for French Democracy, also known by its French acronym UDF (Union pour la Démocratie Française), is a French centrist political party. ... For the eurosceptic informal grouping, see European Democrats. ... A Europhile is a term for a person who wants to increase cooperation between governments within the European Union. ... Daisy-Democracy is Freedom (full name in Italian: Democrazia è Libertà – La Margherita: Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy) is a centrist political Party in Italy. ...   (born 9 August 1939) is an Italian politician. ... LUnione (The Union in English) is a Italian left-wing coalition of parties. ... For the eurosceptic informal grouping, see European Democrats. ... The Popular Alliance-UDEUR (Italian: Alleanza Popolare-UDEUR) is a small centrist political party in Italy, led by Clemente Mastella. ... The European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats is a group in the European Parliament. ...


Christian Democracy in Europe

Christian Democracy has been especially important in Italy, inspired by Luigi Sturzo (see Democrazia Cristiana), Norway (see Christian Democratic Party of Norway), and Germany (see Christian Democratic Union and Christian Social Union). Major Christian Democratic influence can also be seen in the politics of Austria (ÖVP), Belgium, Finland, France, Ireland (Fine Gael), Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands (Christian Democratic Appeal), Poland (Law and Justice, part of Civic Platform), Slovenia, Spain (People's Party), and Sweden (Christian Democrats). Christian Democracy is not very strong in the United Kingdom where the Conservative Party dominates conservative politics, although they do contain elements of Christian Democrat ideology and, as a party, are roughly comparable to Christian Democrat Parties throughout the rest of Europe. For example, they have been part of the European People's Party–European Democrats in the European Parliament, which contains many of Europe's major Christian Democrat parties. Don Luigi Sturzo (Caltagirone, Italy, 26. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... The Christian Democratic Party of Norway (Kristelig Folkeparti or Kristeleg Folkeparti, KrF, litteraly Christian Peoples Party), is a Norwegian political party founded in 1933. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU - Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the largest conservative political party in Germany. ... The Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU – ) is a conservative political party in Germany. ... The Austrian Peoples Party or Österreichische Volkspartei is an Austrian political party. ... Fine Gael (IPA: , though often anglicised to ) (approximate English translation: Family or Tribe of the Irish) and officially, Fine Gael - The United Ireland Party, is the second largest political party in the Republic of Ireland, presently forming the largest opposition party in the Dail (Irish Parliament), and claims a membership... The Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) (Dutch: Christen Democratisch Appèl) is a Dutch Christian-democratic political party. ... Then-Prime Minister Marcinkiewicz, Lech KaczyÅ„ski, and Maria KaczyÅ„ska during KaczyÅ„skis swearing in as President of Poland, December 23, 2005. ... The Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, also called the Citizens Platform) is a liberal conservative political party in Poland. ... From the left: Mariano Rajoy, Josep Piqué and José María Aznar during the proclamation act of Josep Piqué in September 2003 The Peoples Party (Spanish: Partido Popular) is a large liberal-conservative political party in Spain. ... The Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) is a political party in Sweden. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and is the second oldest extant political party in the world. ... The European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats is a group in the European Parliament. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Political parties 8 Committees 22 Last election June 2004 (785 MEPs) Meeting place Brussels and Strasbourg Secretariat Luxembourg and Brussels Website europarl. ...

Image File history File links Propaganda_Dc. ...

Christian Democracy in Latin America

Christian Democracy has been especially important in Chile (see Christian Democrat Party of Chile), in a government coalition since 1990 with the socialdemocrats, and most recently in Mexico with the National Action Party of Vicente Fox. The Christian Democrat Party of Chile (Partido Demócrata Cristiano de Chile) is a political party in Chile and governs as part of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition. ... The National Action Party (Spanish: Partido Acción Nacional), known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian Democratic party and one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ... Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) was the President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006. ...


Christian Democracy in Asia

The Philippines

In the Philippines, the influence of Christian Democracy as well as the Roman Catholic and Protestant clergy is very evident, especially in the People Power uprisings it has produced. The largely Roman Catholic country has elected two Christian Democratic presidents (Fidel V. Ramos, a Protestant, and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, a devout Catholic, both from the ruling Lakas-CMD party). Filipino Christian Democrats have always focused on economic growth and development, stronger ties with the United States, creation of jobs, and strong cooperation between the executive and legislative branches of government. Christian Democrats in the country have been known for their advocacy of a shift from the present presidential system to a parliamentary form of government through constitutional amendments and through establishing peace talks with Muslim separatists and communist rebels. Fidel Valdez Ramos (born March 18, 1928) was the 12th President of the Philippines. ... The young Gloria Macapagal (far right) and her family; when this picture was taken, her father Diosdado was the President of the Philippines. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where the executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separate from the legislature, to which it is not accountable, and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


What makes Filipino Christian Democracy distinct from others is its inclusion of Muslim leaders in its political alliance (see Lakas-Christian-Muslim Democrats Party). This is an example of Christian Democracy being "ecumenical" in its political agenda. Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats, also more popularly known as simply Lakas or...


Christian Democracy in Australia and New Zealand

In Australia and New Zealand, two different national histories exist, related to conservative Catholic/Christian Democratic involvement in politics within both societies. In Victoria, the Catholic Australian Labor Party parliamentarians aligned with B. A. Santamaria were expelled from the party (against that party's rules). They formed a new party, soon to be known as the Democratic Labor Party (DLP). Later in 1957, a similar split occurred in Queensland, the resulting group joining with the DLP. The party also had sitting members from Tasmania and NSW for short periods of time, though it was much stronger in its initiating states. Capital Melbourne Government Constitutional monarchy Governor David de Kretser Premier Steve Bracks (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 37  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $222,022 (2nd)  - Product per capita  $44,443/person (5th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  5,110,500 (2nd)  - Density  22. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Bartholomew Augustine Santamaria (14 August, 1915 - 25 February, 1998), (known in public as B.A. Santamaria and in private as Bob), Australian political activist and journalist, was one of the most influential political figures in recent Australian history, but never held public office or joined a political party. ... The Democratic Labor Party (DLP) is a minor political party in Australia that espouses social conservatism. ... Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd)  - Product per capita  $40,170/person (6th) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  4,164,590 (3rd)  - Density  2. ... Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $16,114 (7th)  - Product per capita  $33,243/person (8th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  489,600 (6th)  - Density  7. ... NSW is a three-letter acronym that refers to: New South Wales, a state of the Commonwealth of Australia U.S. Naval Special Warfare Command This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The party agreed with the ruling conservative Liberal and Country parties on many issues, which caused it to preference them over the ALP. This decision kept the Liberals in government for many years as the DLP had great influence over its many followers' second preferences. A switch of alliegance to the ALP would have handed it government. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The National Party of Australia is an Australian conservative political party, which claims to represent rural voters. ...


However, it was more morally conservative, militantly anti-communist and socially compassionate than the Liberals. This moved the Liberals in the first two directions, while allowing the ALP to be more socially liberal and socialist than it would have been if it had broader Catholic support. The DLP determined that communism, sexual sin and fetal murder were greater sins than not feeding and clothing your neighbour.[citation needed]


The DLP was defeated by the polarising federal election of 1974 that saw its primary vote cut by nearly two thirds, and the entry of an ALP government. While this government lasted barely a year, the DLP didn't regain its previous support in subsequent elections and disbanded in 1978.


Though his party was gone, Santamaria and his National Civic Council took a strong diametrically opposed stance to dominant neoliberal/New Right tendencies within both the ALP and Liberal parties throughout the eighties and early nineties. The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s &#8211; and increasingly prominent since 1980 &#8211; that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by... New Right is used in several countries as a descriptive term for various forms of conservative, right-wing, or self-proclaimed dissident oppositional movements and groups that emerged in the mid- to late twentieth century. ...


A new Christian party that found its first strength in 1981 was the Christian Democratic Party. This Protestant party has very similar social policies to the DLP. Its base was and as of 2007 is very small in NSW and WA, and minuscule elsewhere. It has had one or two members of the NSW state parliament for most of its life. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Christian Democratic Party (disambiguation). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Another Australian Christian party of note is the Family First Party. It has had two members of the SA parliament for most of its life, and from 2004 a Victorian senator. Its electoral support is very small in all states. The Family First Party (FFP/F1) is a political party in Australia, with policies that generally mirror socially conservative and family values. ...


In 2006, the DLP experienced a parliamentary resurgence. Soon after the original party's dissolution, a few ex-members reformed it. They struggled through decades of Victorian elections, finally gaining a seat when the Victorian upper house was redesigned. Its electoral support is still very small in Victoria, and non-existent elsewhere. Its policies are the same as the old party, but without the focus on communism.


By contrast, New Zealand had a First Past the Post electoral system that imposed strong centralising and bipartisan pressures on its political configurations, which disadvantaged minor parties. For this reason, Catholics remained enmeshed within the New Zealand Labour Party, and like Santamaria, conservative Catholics opposed Labour and National New Right policies during the eighties and nineties. However, the New Zealand Labour Party never split as the ALP did in the fifties. The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... The New Zealand Labour Party is a New Zealand political party. ...


However, by the eighties, New Zealand Catholic voting patterns were diversifying. Class seemed to trump confessional adherence, as older Catholic sectarians died off, and became less able to enforce preferred economic and social policies through unified bloc pressure. Occupational and class divisions may have led to left/right bifurcation. Rural Catholics might therefore vote National due to occupational preferences as farmers, while urban working-class Catholics might have voted Labour, Alliance or Green, due to each party's commitment to stronger social policy expenditure, or commitment to peace movement and anti-war stances.


As a result, while conservative Catholic United Future List MP Gordon Copeland is currently aligned with Helen Clark's New Zealand Labour Party-led government over confidence and supply, he is still a diehard social conservative. Within the New Zealand National Party, Bill English has often voiced anxieties about the New Right direction of his party since the late nineties, consistent with what one would expect from a European Christian Democrat, but has failed to present a coherent alternative, and has served as prior Cabinet Minister and current shadow Cabinet Education spokesperson in Jenny Shipley and Don Brash's National-led coalition government and current National Opposition. Current United Future logo United Future New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament with eight MPs-- seven list MPs, and one electorate MP, leader Peter Dunne (see MMP for the difference). ... Gordon Copeland is a New Zealand born politician. ... The New Zealand National Party (National or the Nats) currently forms the second-largest (in terms of seats) political party represented in the New Zealand Parliament, and thus functions as the core of the parliamentary Opposition. ... Simon William Bill English is a New Zealand politician, and former leader of the National Party from October 2001 to October 2003. ...


By contrast, Jim Anderton broke away from the Labour Party and was party leader of the New Labour Party and Alliance until left/pragmatist strains broke it apart in 2001-2. Since then, his Progressive Party has adopted social conservative stances against prostitution in New Zealand, euthanasia, and decriminalisation of marijuana, as one would expect from a left-wing Christian Democrat. However, he is also a strong supporter of increased expenditure on public health, social welfare and public education, which is also consistent with such a framework. James Patrick Anderton, almost always referred to as Jim Anderton, is leader of the Progressive Party, a political party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... Currently prostitution and brothel keeping are legal in New Zealand, provided the prostitute is 18 or over. ... Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία -ευ, eu, good, θάνατος, thanatos, death) is the practice of terminating the life of a person or animal with an incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or a possibly undignified death in a painless or minimally painful way, for the purpose of limiting suffering. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ...


Due to the disaggregation of the New Zealand Catholic vote, then, some conservative moralist "Christian Democrats" might vote for Copeland and United Future New Zealand, while other "Christian Democrats" might find Jim Anderton's centre-left social policy stances to be more compatible with their own approach to Catholic social ethics. Rural Catholic farmers might vote for English due to his occupational status as a farmer within a rural-dominated centre-right political party, rather than due to any particular confessional preferences.


Notable Christian Democrats

For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Social market economy was the German and Austrian economic model during the Cold War era. ... Adelino Amaro da Costa (Lisbon, 18 April 1943-Camarate, 4 December 1980) was a Portuguese politician. ... The Democratic Social Center / Peoples Party (Portuguese: Partido do Centro Democrático e Social / Partido Popular or CDS/PP) is a Portuguese political party. ... Giulio Andreotti Giulio Andreotti (born in Rome, 14 January 1919) is an Italian political figure, among the most powerful in post-war Italy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Captain General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915–December 10, 2006) was a general who was military dictator and President of Chile from 1973 to 1990. ... Rafael Caldera Rodríguez (born January 24, 1916) was president of Venezuela from 1969 to 1974 and again from 1994 to 1999. ... Felipe Calderon (born August 18, 1962 in Morelia, Michoacan) Is a Mexican politician that was the Ministry of Energy in Vicente Foxs administration from 2003 to 2004. ... José Napoleón Duarte Fuentes (November 23, 1925 – February 23, 1990) was a Salvadoran political figure who, from 1980 to 1982, led the civil-military Revolutionary Government Junta that took power in a 1979 coup détat. ... Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was the president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ... Alcide De Gasperi (3 April 1881 – 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman and politician. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... Prof. ... The Anti Revolutionary Party (in Dutch: Anti Revolutionaire Partij, ARP) was a Dutch Protestant Christian democratic political party. ... Rudolphus Franciscus Marie Lubbers or Ruud Lubbers (born May 7, 1939) was the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, from 2001 until February 20, 2005, when he resigned because of continuous press attention about an allegation of sexual harassment. ... The prime minister of the Netherlands is the head of the cabinet, and, as such, coordinates the policy of the government. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ...   (IPA: ) (born in Hamburg, Germany, on July 17, 1954, as Angela Dorothea Kasner), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... Aldo Moro (September 23, 1916 – May 9, 1978) was an Italian politician and five time Prime Minister of Italy, from 1963 to 1968 and then from 1974 to 1976. ... Fidel Valdez Ramos (born March 18, 1928) was the 12th President of the Philippines. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats, also more popularly known as simply Lakas or... Bartholomew Augustine Santamaria (14 August, 1915 - 25 February, 1998), (known in public as B.A. Santamaria and in private as Bob), Australian political activist and journalist, was one of the most influential political figures in recent Australian history, but never held public office or joined a political party. ... The Democratic Labor Party (DLP) is a minor political party in Australia that espouses social conservatism. ... President of Council: 1947–1948 Foreign Minister: 1948–1952 Profession: Lawyer Robert Schuman (June 29, 1886 – September 4, 1963) was a noted Luxembourg-born German-French politician, a Christian Democrat (M.R.P.) who is regarded as one of the founders of the European Union. ... Dr h. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Paul M. Weyrich (born October 7, 1942, in Racine, Wisconsin) is a US conservative political activist and commentator. ...

See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Christian Democratic Party (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Labor Party (DLP) is a minor political party in Australia that espouses social conservatism. ... United Future New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament with two MPs -- one electorate MP (leader Peter Dunne) and one list MP (Judy Turner (see MMP for the difference). ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... The Christian Democrat and Peoples Parties International (IDC-CDI) is the global political international dedicated to the promotion of christian democracy. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats, also more popularly known as simply Lakas or... The European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats is a group in the European Parliament. ... For the eurosceptic informal grouping, see European Democrats. ... The European Christian Political Movement (ECPM) is an European political association for reflection and working on Christian-democratic politics in Europe from an explicit Christian Social view. ... Jacques Maritain Jacques Maritain (November 18, 1882 – April 28, 1973) was a French Catholic philosopher. ...

References

  1. ^ Roberts and Hogwood, European Politics Today, Manchester University Press, 1997

External links

See: Christian politics (index) for articles related to this subject.

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