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Encyclopedia > Christian apologetics
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Christianity

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Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christ is the English of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... St. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian theology is reasoned... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a current in Protestant Christian theology... For other uses, see Twelve Apostles (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Kingdom of God or Reign of... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The history of Christianity... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The purpose of this...


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Inspiration · Hermeneutics This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is an exclusive list of books written during the formative period of the Jewish or Christian faiths; the leaders of these communities believed these books to be inspired by God or to express the authoritative history of the relationship between God and his people (although there may... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... The Septuagint: A page from Codex vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons English translation. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The death and resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ...


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Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian theology is reasoned... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity, the doctrine... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian religions that trace their roots... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys transition from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bÉ™rîṯ, Standard Hebrew bÉ™rit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible, thus it is important to all Abrahamic religions. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity, divine grace... Faith in Christianity centers on faith in the Resurrection of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:1-4) ... the gospel I preached to you. ... The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: being saved from something, such as suffering or the punishment of sin - also called deliverance; being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God - also called redemption; being saved through a process of healing or transformation... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Eastern Orthodox and... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of doctrine pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian theology, Christian eschatology is the...


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Congregationalism The term Early Christianity here refers to Christianity of the period after the Death of Jesus in the early 30s and before the First Council of Nicaea in 325. ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... A creed is a statement or confession of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Revivalism. ... The Great Apostasy is a disparaging term used by some religious groups to allege a general fallen state of traditional Christianity, or especially of Catholicism, magisterial Protestantism and Eastern Orthodoxy, that it is not representative of the faith founded by Jesus and promulgated through his twelve Apostles: in short, that... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other usages, see... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Nontrinitarianism refers to Christian... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ...

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Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination, in the... The word ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) is derived from Greek (oikoumene), which means the inhabited world, and was historically used with specific reference to the Roman Empire. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... This article is about the many forms of prayer within Christianity. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // Partial list of Christian liturgies (past and present) Roman Catholic church (churches in communion with the Holy See of the Bishop of Rome) Latin Rite Novus Ordo Missae Tridentine Mass Anglican Use Mozarabic Rite Ambrosian Rite Gallican Rite Eastern Rite, e. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about... Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Important figures
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Patriarch of Constantinople A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (fl. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος, Athanásios; c 293 – May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Bishop of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Gregory Palamas Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς) (1296 - 1359) was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later Archbishop of Thessalonica known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tyndale,Tindall or Tyndall) (ca. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... John Wesley (June 28 [O.S. June 17] 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an eighteenth-century Anglican minister and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Throne inside the Patriarchade of Constantinople. ...

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Christian apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of Christianity. The term "apologetic" comes from the Greek word apologia, which means in defense of; therefore a person involved in Christian or Bible Apologetics is a defender of Christianity. Someone who engages in Christian apologetics is called a "Christian apologist". Christian apologetics have taken many forms over the centuries, starting with Paul of Tarsus, including renowned writers such as Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas, and continuing today with the modern Christian community through authors such as Karl Keating and Jimmy Akin. Apologists have based their defense of Christianity on favoring interpretations of historical evidence, philosophical arguments, scientific investigation, and other avenues. Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Karl Keating (born 1950), a prominent Catholic apologist and author, is the founder and president of Catholic Answers. ... Jimmy Akin is a Catholic apologist for Catholic Answers who has authored several books on Catholic apologetics, evangelization, liturgy, and controversial issues. ...


This Classical Greek term appears in the Koine (i.e. common) Greek of the New Testament. The apostle Paul employed the term "apologia" in his trial speech to Festus and Agrippa when he said, "I make my defense" (Acts 26:2). In the English language, the word apology, derived from the Greek word "apologia", usually refers to asking for forgiveness for an action that is open to blame. Christian apologetics are meant, however, to argue that Christianity is reasonable and in accordance with the evidence that can be examined, analogous to the use of the term in the Apology of Socrates, written by Plato. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Koine redirects here. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... (The) Apology (of Socrates) is Platos version of the speech given by Socrates as he defends himself against the charges of being a man who corrupted the young, did not believe in the gods, and created new deities. Apology here has its earlier meaning (now usually expressed by the... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ...

Contents

Purpose

The First Epistle of Peter (3:15) declares that Christians must be ready to give a reason for their faith. Christian apologetics are designed to present non-Christians with reasons to adopt the Christian faith or to strengthen the belief of current Christians. Also, apologetics within the Christian community provide arguments that describe, support and strengthen the doctrinal and ethical tenets of the Christian faith. In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ...


History of Christian apologetics

Evidentialist apologetics — contemporarily exemplified in Gary Habermas or the more introductory Christian apologetic works of Josh McDowell or Lee Strobel — are the most popular apologetics and have been historically. This can be seen from the earliest times in Christianity, as the New Testament records the apostles appealing to eyewitness testimony. Gary Habermas is an American Christian apologist, theologian, and philosopher of religion. ... Joslin Josh McDowell is a Christian apologist, evangelist, and writer. ... Former atheist and Christian Apologist Lee Strobel Lee Strobel, a former legal editor for the Chicago Tribune, is a Christian apologist and former teaching pastor of Willow Creek Community Church. ...


Early church fathers who were Christian apologists include such apologists as Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Jerome. Justin Martyr (Justin the Martyr, also known as Justin of Caesarea) (100 – 165) was an early Christian apologist. ... Irenaeus (Greek: Εἰρηναῖος), (b. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... “Saint Jerome” redirects here. ...


Historically speaking, philosophical apologetics has not been very instrumental in the propagation of the Christian faith or had much interest to many Christians, although it has appealed to Christian intellectuals. The apostle Paul, who was well-educated, said to beware worldly, human philosophy (Colossians 2:8) that did not accord with Christ. There is evidence that Paul himself was acquainted with Greek philosophy (Acts 9:29). Yet some apologists call themselves Christian philosophers, such as Michael Horner.[1] An explanation of this conflict is that Christians view some philosophy as being compatible with Christianity, such as the laws of logic, while other philosophy is not, such as nontheistic philosophy. Evangelical Christian apologist Norman Geisler composed an essay entitled "Beware of Philosophy: A Warning to Biblical Scholars,"[2] which exhorts Christians to beware philosophical systems that ultimately result in unorthodox theological views but also suggests that Christian scholars unite philosophical and theological studies so that unorthodox philosophies can be detected and eschewed. Also, Francis Schaeffer, a conservative Protestant Christian apologist, argued that Christians needed to be more knowledgeable about philosophical questions, as he taught that only a Judeo-Christian view of man and the world provided satisfactory and consistent answers to the questions of being, knowledge and morals which philosophy addresses. Dr. Norman L. Geisler is a scholar, contributor to the field of Christian apologetics, and the author or coauthor of some sixty books defending the Christian faith. ... Francis A. Schaeffer (30 January 1912 – 15 May 1984), an American Evangelical theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor, is most famous for his writings and his establishment of the LAbri community in Switzerland. ...


An influential Catholic apologist was Saint Thomas Aquinas, who presented five arguments for God's existence in the Summa Theologica.[3] Aquinas's approach, which adapted Aristotelian thought, is known as Thomism, and has dominated both Roman Catholic and Protestant approaches. Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ...


In the period between 1800 and the mid-1900s, there were a number of Christian apologist/scholars such as William Mitchell Ramsay (1851–1939), William Henry Green (1825–1900), Robert Dick Wilson (1856–1930), and Oswald T. Allis (1856–1930) who argued for the historicity of the Bible. Sir William Mitchell Ramsay (March 15, 1851 - April 20, 1939) was a British archaeologist. ... William Henry Green (January 27, 1825 - February 10, 1900), American Hebrew scholar, was born in Groveville, near Bordentown, New Jersey. ... Robert Dick Wilson at the Grove City Bible Conference in 1909. ... Oswald T. Allis, Ph. ...


A common concern in the history of Christianity is that apologetics deny the role of faith and, opponents would argue, that they seem to offer a way to "reason oneself" into the kingdom of Heaven — this was the argument of such authors as Blaise Pascal. However, it should be pointed out that Saint Peter actually commands the defense of the Christian faith by saying that one should always be ready with "a defense of the truth." Some believers assert that a proper view of faith involves not simply accepting that what the Bible says is true, nor only trusting that God exists, but actually trusting in God, citing as an example that Satan's mere knowledge of God is insufficient for his own salvation. Blaise Pascal (pronounced ), (June 19, 1623–August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... For other uses, see Satan (disambiguation). ...


Christian apologetics today

Christian apologetics continues to the current day in various forms. The Roman Catholic G. K. Chesterton, the Anglican C. S. Lewis (who revived use of the classical Patristic 'Deus ut homo malus', or 'Christian trilemma' argument), the evangelical Norman Geisler, the Lutheran John Warwick Montgomery, and the Presbyterian Francis Schaeffer were among the most prolific Christian apologists in the 20th century. Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ... Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... The term trilemma derives from the much older term dilemma, a choice between two unacceptable options. ... Dr. Norman L. Geisler is a scholar, contributor to the field of Christian apologetics, and the author or coauthor of some sixty books defending the Christian faith. ... John Warwick Montgomery was born October 18, 1931 in Warsaw, New York. ... Francis A. Schaeffer (30 January 1912 – 15 May 1984), an American Evangelical theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor, is most famous for his writings and his establishment of the LAbri community in Switzerland. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Among the most widely read Christian apologists writing in English have been Josh McDowell and Lee Strobel. Another modern apologist is Ravi Zacharias, author of The Lotus and the Cross: Jesus Talks with Buddha, which argues for Christian truth over other world religions and alternative modern movements. Other leading Christian apologists include: Jimmy Akin, Gleason Archer, Greg Bahnsen, F. F. Bruce, Gordon Haddon Clark, William Lane Craig, Gary Habermas, Scott Hahn, Karl Keating, Kenneth Kitchen, Greg Koukl, Peter Kreeft, Patrick Madrid, Paul Maier, Bruce Metzger, J. P. Moreland, R. C. Sproul, Cornelius Van Til, Merrill Unger, Edwin M. Yamauchi, and John Frame. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Joslin Josh McDowell is a Christian apologist, evangelist, and writer. ... Former atheist and Christian Apologist Lee Strobel Lee Strobel, a former legal editor for the Chicago Tribune, is a Christian apologist and former teaching pastor of Willow Creek Community Church. ... Ravi Zacharias (full name Frederick Antony Ravi Kumar Zacharias, born 1946) is a Canadian-American Evangelical Protestant Christian philosopher, apologist and preacher. ... Jimmy Akin is a Catholic apologist for Catholic Answers who has authored several books on Catholic apologetics, evangelization, liturgy, and controversial issues. ... Gleason Leonard Archer (May 22, 1916 – April 27, 2004) was a Biblical scholar, theologian, educator, and author. ... Greg L. Bahnsen (September 17, 1948 – December 11, 1995) was an influential Christian philosopher, apologist, and debater. ... Frederick Fyvie Bruce (12 October 1910 – 11 September 1990) was a Bible scholar, and one of the founders of the modern evangelical understanding of the Bible. ... Gordon Clark Gordon Haddon Clark (August 31, 1902-April 9, 1985) was an American philosopher and Calvinist theologian. ... William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American philosopher, theologian, New Testament historian, and Christian apologist. ... Gary Habermas is an American Christian apologist, theologian, and philosopher of religion. ... Scott Hahn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Karl Keating (born 1950), a prominent Catholic apologist and author, is the founder and president of Catholic Answers. ... Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006). ... Greg Koukl is a Christian apologist, radio talk show host, author and blogger in Los Angeles, California. ... Peter Kreeft Peter Kreeft is a Catholic apologist for Christianity, professor of philosophy at Boston College and The Kings College, and author of over 45 books including Fundamentals of the Faith, Everything you Ever Wanted to Know about Heaven, and Back to Virtue. ... Patrick Madrid (born 1960), is an American Catholic author, radio host, apologist, and host of several EWTN television and radio series. ... Paul L. Maier is the Russell H. Seibert Professor of Ancient History at Western Michigan University. ... Bruce Metzger pictured on the cover of his autobiography Reminiscences of an Octogenarian Bruce Manning Metzger (born 1914) is a professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who serves on the board of the American Bible Society. ... James Porter Moreland (born 1948), commonly referred to as J.P. Moreland, is an American Christian apologist, theologian, and philosopher. ... R.C. Sproul Dr. Robert Charles Sproul (born 1939 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American, Calvinist theologian, and pastor. ... Cornelius Van Til Cornelius Van Til (May 4, 1895 - April 17, 1987), born in Grootegast, the Netherlands, was a Christian philosopher, Reformed theologian, and presuppositional apologist. ... Dr. Merrill F. Unger (1909-1980) earned his A.B. and Ph. ... Dr. Edwin M. Yamauchi, born in 1937 in Hilo, Hawaii, is Professor of History at Miami University, Ohio, and has served in that capacity since 1969. ... John Frame Dr. John M. Frame (born 1939) is an American philosopher and a Calvinist theologian especially noted for his work in epistemology and presuppositional apologetics, systematic theology, and ethics. ...


Types of Christian Apologetics

There are a variety of Christian apologetic styles and schools of thought. The major types of Christian apologetics include: historical and legal evidentialist apologetics, presuppositional apologetics, philosophical apologetics, prophetic apologetics, doctrinal apologetics, biblical apologetics, moral apologetics, and scientific apologetics.


Historical and legal evidentialist apologetics

In the evidentialist tradition, empirical arguments about the supposed life, miracles, death and resurrection of Jesus are presented as (informal) probabilistic proofs. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The word probability derives from the Latin probare (to prove, or to test). ...


The Catechism of the Catholic Church, following the Thomist tradition of St. Thomas Aquinas and the dogmatic definition of the First Vatican Council, affirms that it is a doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church that God's existence can in fact be rationally demonstrated. Some other Christians in different denominations hold similar views. On this view, a distinction is to be drawn between (1) doctrines that belong essentially to faith and cannot be proved, such as the doctrine of the Trinity or the Incarnation, and (2) doctrines that can be accepted by faith but can also be known by reason; that is, truths revealed by special revelation and by general revelation. The existence of God is said to be one of the latter. As a theological defense of this view, one might cite Paul's claim that pagans were without excuse because "since the creation of the world [God's] invisible nature, namely, his eternal power and deity, has been clearly perceived in the things that have been made" (Rom. 1:20). The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity, the doctrine... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... General revelation is a theological term which refers to a universal aspect of God, his knowledge and of spiritual matters, discovered through natural means, such as observation of nature (the physical universe), philosophy and reasoning, human conscience or providence or providential history. ...


The first Protestant textbook of apologetics was written by the Dutch legal scholar Hugo Grotius, On The Truth of the Christian Religion. This work, which remained in print until the late 19th century, defended the historicity of the Gospels and also addressed arguments to Jews and Muslims. Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ...


Christian scholar Gary Habermas is recognized as being one of the foremost defenders of the historicity of Jesus Christ's resurrection. Gary Habermas is an American Christian apologist, theologian, and philosopher of religion. ...


Various arguments have been put forth by legal scholars such as Simon Greenleaf and John Warwick Montgomery and others claiming that Western legal standards argue for the historicity of the resurrection of Christ.[4][5][6] In addition, legal authorities' opinions regarding the resurrection of Christ are appealed to.[7] Simon Greenleaf (December 5, 1783 - October 6, 1853), American jurist, was born at Newburyport, Massachusetts. ... John Warwick Montgomery was born October 18, 1931 in Warsaw, New York. ... According to the New Testament, especially the Gospels, God raised Jesus from the dead on the third day after his crucifixion. ...


Christian scholar Edwin M. Yamauchi, James Patrick Holding and others argue against the pagan myth hypothesis for the origin of Christianity.[8][9][10] In addition, Roman historian A. N. Sherwin-White, is often quoted by Christian apologists in regards to Christianity not being formed through myth. Dr. Edwin M. Yamauchi, born in 1937 in Hilo, Hawaii, is Professor of History at Miami University, Ohio, and has served in that capacity since 1969. ... Adrian Nicholas Sherwin-White (born 1911, died January 11, 1993) was an Oxford historian and member of the British Academy who specialized in Roman history. ...


Sherwin-White stated:

For the New Testament of Acts, the confirmation of historicity is overwhelming ... any attempt to reject its basic historicity, even in matters of detail, must now appear absurd. Roman historians have long taken it for granted.... The agnostic type of form-criticism would be much more credible if the compilation of the Gospels were much later in time.... Herodotus enables us to test the tempo of myth-making, [showing that] even two generations are too short a span to allow the mythical tendency to prevail over the hard historic core.

Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament. Oxford: Clarendon Press (1963), pp. 189-190.

Defense of Miracles

C.S. Lewis, Norman Geisler, William Lane Craig, and Christians who engage in jurisprudence Christian apologetics have argued that miracles are reasonable and plausible. [1] [2] [3][4][5]. Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... Dr. Norman L. Geisler is a scholar, contributor to the field of Christian apologetics, and the author or coauthor of some sixty books defending the Christian faith. ... William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American philosopher, theologian, New Testament historian, and Christian apologist. ... A miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by a God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ...


Prophetic Christian apologetics

Bible prophecy is used as an argument for Christianity. It is argued that only God knows the future and the Bible prophecy of a compelling nature has been fulfilled. Peter Stoner is often cited by Protestant apologetic works in regards to Bible prophecy,[11] as well as Grant Jeffrey. Bible prophecy is the concept held by various people that many Bible verses contain prophecies. ... Peter Stoner (June 16, 1888 – March 21, 1980)[1][2] was Chairman of the Departments of Mathematics and Astronomy at Pasadena City College until 1953; Chairman of the science division, Westmont College, 1953-57; Professor Emeritus of Science, Westmont College; Professor Emeritus of Mathematics and Astronomy, Pasadena City College. ... Grant R. Jeffrey is a teacher of Bible prophecy and apologist for Evangelical Christianity. ...


Biblical apologetics

Biblical apologetics include issues concerned with the authorship and date of biblical books, biblical canon, and biblical inerrancy. In addition, Christian apologists defend and comment on various books of the Bible. Some scholars who have engaged in the defense of biblical inerrancy include: Robert Dick Wilson, Gleason Archer, Norman Geisler, and R. C. Sproul. Also, there are several resources that Christians offer defending Bible inerrancy in regards to specific verses.[12][13][14] Some scholars who have defended the authorship and date of biblical books include: John Wenham, Norman Geisler, Kenneth Kitchen, and Bryant G. Wood. Wenham's work is well-regarded by those who supported the Augustinian hypothesis, which is the traditional view of Gospel authorship. Scholars who have defended biblical canon include F. F. Bruce and Bruce Metzger. In addition, there are a host of Bible scholars who have defended and commented on various books of the Bible.[15] A biblical canon is an exclusive list of books written during the formative period of the Jewish or Christian faiths; the leaders of these communities believed these books to be inspired by God or to express the authoritative history of the relationship between God and his people (although there may... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical inerrancy is the... Robert Dick Wilson at the Grove City Bible Conference in 1909. ... Gleason Leonard Archer (May 22, 1916 – April 27, 2004) was a Biblical scholar, theologian, educator, and author. ... Dr. Norman L. Geisler is a scholar, contributor to the field of Christian apologetics, and the author or coauthor of some sixty books defending the Christian faith. ... R.C. Sproul Dr. Robert Charles Sproul (born 1939 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American, Calvinist theologian, and pastor. ... John W. Wenham was a Anglican Bible scholar. ... Dr. Norman L. Geisler is a scholar, contributor to the field of Christian apologetics, and the author or coauthor of some sixty books defending the Christian faith. ... Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006). ... Bryant G. Wood is currently the Creationist Director of the Associates for Biblical Research. ... The Augustinian hypothesis holds that Matthew was written first, then Mark, then Luke, and each Evangelist depended on those who preceded him. ... Frederick Fyvie Bruce (12 October 1910 – 11 September 1990) was a Bible scholar, and one of the founders of the modern evangelical understanding of the Bible. ... Bruce Metzger pictured on the cover of his autobiography Reminiscences of an Octogenarian Bruce Manning Metzger (born 1914) is a professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who serves on the board of the American Bible Society. ...


Philosophical apologetics

Philosophical apologetics concerns itself primarily with arguments for the existence of God, although they do not exclusively dwell on this area. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Existence of God. ...


These arguments can be grouped into several categories:

  1. Cosmological argument - Argues that the existence of the universe demonstrates that God exists. Various ancillary arguments from science are often offered to support the cosmological argument.[16][17][18]
  2. Teleological argument (argument from design) - Argues that there is an intricate design in the world around us, and a design requires a designer. Cicero, William Paley, and Michael Behe employed this argument as well as others.[19]
  3. Ontological argument - Argues that the very concept of God demands that there is an actual existent God.
  4. Moral Argument - Argues that if there are any real morals, then there must be an absolute from which they are derived.[20]
  5. Transcendental Argument - Argues that all our abilities to think and reason require the existence of God.
  6. Presuppositional Arguments - Arguments that show basic beliefs of theists and nontheists require God as a necessary precondition.

Other philosophical apologetics include: The cosmological argument is a metaphysical argument for the existence of God, traditionally known as an argument from universal causation, an argument from first cause, and also as an uncaused cause argument. ... A teleological argument (or a design argument) is an argument for the existence of God or a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design and/or direction in nature. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in American English or in British English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators... William Paley William Paley (July 1743 – May 25, 1805) was an English divine, Christian apologist, utilitarian, and philosopher. ... Michael Behe Michael J. Behe (born January 18, 1952) is an American biochemist and intelligent design advocate. ... An ontological argument for the existence of God is one that attempts the method of a priori proof, which utilizes intuition and reason alone. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Presuppositional apologetics is a school of Christian apologetics, a field of Christian theology that aims to (1) present a rational basis for the Christian faith, (2) defend the faith against objections, and (3) expose the perceived flaws of other worldviews. ...

Alvin Cornelius Plantinga (born 15 November 1932 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, of Frisian ancestry) is a contemporary American philosopher known for his work in epistemology, metaphysics, and the philosophy of religion. ... Pascals Wager (or Pascals Gambit) is the application by the French philosopher, Blaise Pascal, of decision theory to the belief in God. ...

Presuppositional apologetics

Another apologetical school of thought, a sort of synthesis of various existing Dutch and American Reformed thinkers (such as, Abraham Kuyper, Benjamin Warfield, Herman Dooyeweerd), emerged in the late 1920s. This school was instituted by Cornelius Van Til, and came to be popularly called Presuppositional apologetics (though Van Til himself felt "Transcendental" would be a more accurate title). The main distinction between this approach and the more classical evidentialist approach mentioned above is that the Presuppositionalist denies any common ground between the believer and the non-believer, except that which the non-believer denies, namely, the assumption of the truth of the theistic worldview. In other words, Presuppositionalists don't believe that the existence of God can be proven by appeal to raw, uninterpreted (or, "brute") facts, which have the same (theoretical) meaning to people with fundamentally different worldviews, because they deny that such a condition is even possible. They claim that the only possible proof for the existence of God is that the very same belief is the necessary condition to the intelligibility of all other human experience and action. In other words, they attempt to prove the existence of God by means of appeal to the alleged transcendental necessity of the belief -- indirectly (by appeal to the allegedly unavowed presuppositions of the non-believer's worldview) rather than directly (by appeal to some form of common factuality). In practice this school utilizes what have come to be known as Transcendental Arguments for the Existence of God. In these arguments they claim to demonstrate that all human experience and action (even the condition of unbelief, itself) is a proof for the existence of God, because God's existence is the necessary condition of their intelligibility. Presuppositional apologetics is a school of Christian apologetics, a field of Christian theology that aims to (1) present a rational basis for the Christian faith, (2) defend the faith against objections, and (3) expose the perceived flaws of other worldviews. ... -1... Prof. ... B. B. Warfield Benjamin Breckinridge (B.B.) Warfield (November 5, 1851 - February 16, 1921) was the principal of Princeton Seminary from 1887 to 1921. ... Herman Dooyeweerd Herman Dooyeweerd (1894-1977) was a Dutch juridical scholar by training, who by vocation was a philosopher, and the founder of a new approach called, the philosophy of the cosmonomic idea. ... Cornelius Van Til Cornelius Van Til (May 4, 1895 - April 17, 1987), born in Grootegast, the Netherlands, was a Christian philosopher, Reformed theologian, and presuppositional apologist. ... Presuppositional apologetics is a school of Christian apologetics, a field of Christian theology that aims to (1) present a rational basis for the Christian faith, (2) defend the faith against objections, and (3) expose the perceived flaws of other worldviews. ... In philosophy, transcendental/transcendence, has three different but related primary meanings, all of them derived from the words literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond: one that originated in Ancient philosophy, one in Medieval philosophy and one in modern philosophy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Another position that is also sometimes called presuppositional apologetics, but should not be confused with the Van Tillian variety discussed above, is the one of Gordon Clark and his disciples. Clarkians hold that, if Christian theology is true, then God's existence can never be demonstrated, either by empirical means or by philosophical argument. The most extreme example of this position is called fideism, which holds that faith is simply the will to believe, and argues that if God's existence were rationally demonstrable, faith in His existence would become superfluous. In The Justification of Knowledge, the Calvinist theologian Robert L. Reymond argues that believers should not attempt to prove the existence of God. Since he believes all such proofs are fundamentally unsound, believers should not place their confidence in them, much less resort to them in discussions with non-believers; rather, they should accept the content of revelation by faith. Reymond's position is similar to that of his mentor, Clark, which holds that all worldviews are based on certain unprovable first premises (or, axioms), and therefore are ultimately unprovable. The Christian theist therefore must simply choose to start with Christianity rather than anything else, by an unreasoned "leap of faith". Presuppositional apologetics is a school of Christian apologetics, a field of Christian theology that aims to (1) present a rational basis for the Christian faith, (2) defend the faith against objections, and (3) expose the perceived flaws of other worldviews. ... Gordon Haddon Clark (August 31, 1902-April 9, 1985) was an American philosopher and Calvinist theologian. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian theology is reasoned... In Christian theology, fideism is any of several belief systems which hold, on various grounds, that reason is irrelevant to religious faith. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism is a theological... Robert L. Reymond is a Christian theologian of the Protestant Reformed (Calvinist) tradition. ... For the algebra software named Axiom, see Axiom computer algebra system. ...


Ontological argument

In Medieval Europe Saint Anselm of Canterbury composed the Monologion and Proslogion, in which he developed the ontological argument for God's existence. He believed that faith was necessary as a precursor to philosophical argument and expressed his position as "I do not seek to understand that I may believe, but I believe that I may understand: for this I also believe, that unless I believe I will not understand." The basics of his ontological argument are stated in the following quote: "But clearly that than which a greater cannot be thought cannot exist in the understanding alone. For if it is actually in the understanding alone, it can be thought of as existing also in reality, and this is greater ... Without doubt, therefore, there exists, both in the understanding and in reality, something than which a greater cannot be thought." "That than which a greater cannot be thought" refers to God. Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Prosolgion (1077-1078) is an exercise in faith seeking understanding by Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109), a widely influential medieval philosopher and theologian, held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ...


Though Bertrand Russell would later question God's existence, he fully accepted the ontological argument during his undergraduate years: Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician and advocate for social reform. ... An ontological argument for the existence of God is one that attempts the method of a priori proof, which utilizes intuition and reason alone. ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ...

For two or three years ... I was a Hegelian. I remember the exact moment during my fourth year [in 1894] when I became one. I had gone out to buy a tin of tobacco, and was going back with it along Trinity Lane, when I suddenly threw it up in the air and exclaimed: "Great God in Boots! -- the ontological argument is sound!"

Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, vol. 1, 1967.

Doctrinal Christian apologetics

In this type of apologetics, various Christian doctrines are defended, such as the trinity. Also, non-Christian religions are argued against. Christian apologists have developed arguments against Judaism, Islam, and Deism, for example. Changing modes in apologetics, whether or not they are currently fashionable, are important markers in the history of ideas. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity, the doctrine... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. ...


Moral Christian apologetics

In moral apologetics the arguments for man's sinfulness and man's need for redemption is stressed. Examples of this type of apologetic would be Jonathan Edwards's sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God".[23] The Four Spiritual Laws religious tract would be another example.[24] Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 – March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher, theologian, and missionary to Native Americans. ... Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God was one of the most famous of all fire-and-brimstone sermons, first preached by Jonathan Edwards, a prominent Calvinist minister, in Enfield, Connecticut, in 1741. ...


In the first centuries AD, a number of Christian writers undertook the task of proving that Christianity was beneficial for the Roman Empire and for humanity as a whole. Also, they wrote to defend their faith against attacks made by other people or to properly explain their faith. Aristides and Quadratus of Athens, writing in the early second century, were two of the first Christians to write apologetics treatises. Other second-century apologetic writings of note included the First Apology and Second Apology of Justin Martyr and the Epistle to Diognetus , a response to the accusation that Christians were a danger to Rome. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Note: This article is about the Christian author. ... Quadratus of Athens was a Christian apologist who presented his defense of Christianity to Hadrian (ruled 117 - 138) while the emperor was in Athens being initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries. ... Justin Martyr (Justin the Martyr, also known as Justin of Caesarea) (100 – 165) was an early Christian apologist. ... The Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus is probably the earliest example of Christian apologetics, writings defending Christianity from its accusers. ...


About a century after Constantine's conversion to Christianity, the Roman Empire began falling to invaders from northern Europe. Some Christian writers sought to explain the decline of Roman culture and power by systematically downplaying the achievements of classical antiquity while emphasizing the persecution of Christians and the positive role of Christianity in society. Paulus Orosius wrote the first book advancing this perspective (History Against the Pagans), though the far more learned and influential work of this type was The City of God by Saint Augustine of Hippo (426). Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Paulus Orosius (c. ... The City of God, opening text, created c. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ...


Several of the early Christian apologists developed arguments from fulfilled prophecy and gospel miracles as proofs of Christ's divinity. Eusebius of Caesarea in his Demonstration of the Gospel attempted to prove the truth of Christianity by fulfilled prophecies from the Old Testament, and by rebutting arguments that the Apostles had made up the story of Christ's resurrection.


Scientific Christian apologetics

Scientific Christian apologists agree that science and the Bible do not contradict each other. For example, some say that the existence of dinosaurs hasn't been proven and that dinosaurs are not mentioned in the Bible. Others say that dinosaurs did exist and are mentioned in the Bible. Likewise, those that hold to young earth creationism say that science hasn't proven that the world is billions of years old, while those that hold to old earth creationism say that the Bible's six-day account of creation is compatible with a universe that's billions of years old.


Various Christians have put forth arguments that the God of the Bible, and not natural forces, or both God and natural sources are responsible for the existence of the universe as we find it today.[25] Apologists point to the creation of matter and energy, the existence of scientific laws, the origin of life, and the origin of various types of animals including ourselves and plants on the Earth as evidence for Biblical Christianity.[26]


Historically, Christian apologists have defended the long life spans of people in Genesis (e.g., Methuselah),[27][28] the Flood,[29][30] the Tower of Babel,[31][32][33] Joshua halting the sun and moon,[34] and the division of humanity into three races based on descent from the sons of Noah. Genesis (Hebrew: , Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Methuselah or Metushélach (Hebrew: מְתוּשֶׁלַח / מְתוּשָׁלַח, Standard  / Tiberian  /  ; Man of the dart, or alternatively when he dies, it shall be sent) is the oldest person whose age is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... Engraving The Confusion of Tongues by Gustave Doré (1865), who based his conception on the Minaret of Samarra According to the narrative in Genesis Chapter 11 of the Bible, the Tower of Babel was a tower built to reach the heavens by a united humanity. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... Japhetic is a term that refers to the supposed descendants of Japheth, one of the three sons of Noah in the Bible. ...


Notable apologists

Some notable Christian apologists include: Image File history File links Information. ...

Jimmy Akin is a Catholic apologist for Catholic Answers who has authored several books on Catholic apologetics, evangelization, liturgy, and controversial issues. ... Gleason Leonard Archer (May 22, 1916 – April 27, 2004) was a Biblical scholar, theologian, educator, and author. ... Greg Bahnsen Greg Bahnsen (September 17, 1948-December 11, 1995) was an ordained minister in the Orthodox Presbyterian Church and a full time Scholar in Residence for the Southern California Center for Christian Studies. ... Francis J. Beckwith (1960-) is an American Christian philosopher. ... Craig L. Blomberg has been a New Testament scholar at Denver Seminary in Colorado. ... Edward John Carnell (1919-1967) was a prominent Christian theologian and apologist, was an ordained Baptist pastor, and served as President of Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California. ... For the town of Chesterton in Cambridgeshire, see Chesterton (Cambridge). ... Gordon Haddon Clark (August 31, 1902-April 9, 1985) was an American philosopher and Calvinist theologian. ... William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American philosopher, theologian, New Testament historian, and Christian apologist. ... William Dembski Dr William Albert Bill Dembski (born July 18, 1960) is an American mathematician, philosopher and theologian known for advocating the controversial idea of intelligent design. ... John Frame Dr. John M. Frame (born 1939) is an American philosopher and a Calvinist theologian especially noted for his work in epistemology and presuppositional apologetics, systematic theology, and ethics. ... Dr. Norman L. Geisler is a scholar, contributor to the field of Christian apologetics, and the author or coauthor of some sixty books defending the Christian faith. ... For other people with this name, see Michael Green. ... Douglas R. Groothuis is currently Professor of Philosophy at Denver Seminary. ... Gary Habermas is an American Christian apologist, theologian, and philosopher of religion. ... Scott Hahn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Ken Ham Kenneth Alfred Ham (born October 20, 1951) is the president of Answers in Genesis USA and Joint CEO of Answers in Genesis International. ... Hendrik Hank Hanegraaff is an American author, radio talk-show host and advocate of evangelical Christianity. ... Carl F. H. Henry Carl Ferdinand Howard Henry (January 22, 1913 – December 7, 2003) was an American evangelical Christian theologian who served as the first editor-in-chief of the magazine Christianity Today, established to serve as a scholarly voice for evangelical Christianity and a challenge to the liberal Christian... Dietrich von Hildebrand (October 12, 1889, Florence, Italy - January 26, 1977, New Rochelle, New York) was a German Catholic philosopher and theologian who was called (informally) by Pope Pius XII the 20th Century Doctor of the Church. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... Karl Keating (born 1950), a prominent Catholic apologist and author, is the founder and president of Catholic Answers. ... Greg Koukl is a Christian apologist, radio talk show host, author and blogger in Los Angeles, California. ... Peter Kreeft Peter Kreeft is a Catholic apologist for Christianity, professor of philosophy at Boston College and The Kings College, and author of over 45 books including Fundamentals of the Faith, Everything you Ever Wanted to Know about Heaven, and Back to Virtue. ... Patrick Madrid (born 1960), is an American Catholic author, radio host, apologist, and host of several EWTN television and radio series. ... Alister E. McGrath (b. ... Dr. Walter Ralston Martin (September 10, 1928 – June 26, 1989), was an American Evangelical minister, author, and Christian apologist who founded the Christian Research Institute in 1960 as a para-church ministry specialising as a clearing-house of information in both general Christian apologetics and in countercult apologetics. ... R. Albert Mohler, Jr. ... John Warwick Montgomery was born October 18, 1931 in Warsaw, New York. ... James Porter Moreland (born 1948), commonly referred to as J.P. Moreland, is an American Christian apologist, theologian, and philosopher. ... Henry M. Morris Henry Madison Morris, Ph. ... Alvin Cornelius Plantinga (born 15 November 1932 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, of Frisian ancestry) is a contemporary American philosopher known for his work in epistemology, metaphysics, and the philosophy of religion. ... Clark H. Pinnock(Toronto, Ontario, Canada, February 3, 1937) is a Christian theologian, apologist and author. ... Bernard L. Ramm (1916-1992) was born in Butte, Montana and was a Baptist theologian and apologist within the broad Evangelical tradition. ... Hugh Ross Hugh N. Ross (born 1945) is a Canadian-born Old Earth Creationist. ... Dr. Jonathan Sarfati Jonathan D. Sarfati, (born October 1, 1964) is an Australian writer and researcher who works for Creation Ministries International (CMI), formerly part of Answers in Genesis (AiG), a non-profit Christian apologetics ministry specializing in Young-Earth creationism. ... Francis Schaeffer Francis A Schaeffer (January 30, 1912–May 15, 1984), an American Evangelical theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor, is most famous for his writings and his establishment of the LAbri community in Switzerland. ... R.C. Sproul Dr. Robert Charles Sproul (born 1939 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American, Calvinist theologian, and pastor. ... Robert A. Sungenis (born 1955), is a controversial American Catholic apologist and founder of Catholic Apologetics International. ... Cornelius Van Til Cornelius Van Til (May 4, 1895 - April 17, 1987), born in Grootegast, the Netherlands, was a Christian philosopher, Reformed theologian, and presuppositional apologist. ... James R. White is a Reformed Baptist apologist, and Christian author of books dealing with controversial issues. ... Carl Wieland is an Australian young Earth creationist, author, and speaker. ... Douglas Wilson is a conservative Reformed and evangelical theologian, pastor, faculty member at New Saint Andrews College, and prolific author and speaker. ... The philosopher Nicholas Paul Wolterstorff was born January 21, 1932 in Bigelow, Minnesota. ... Ravi Zacharias (full name Frederick Antony Ravi Kumar Zacharias, born 1946) is a Canadian-American Evangelical Protestant Christian philosopher, apologist and preacher. ...

Books

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Overview and reference

  • Bush, L. Russ. 1983. Classical Readings in Christian Apologetics AD. 100-1800.Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
  • Dulles, Avery. 1999. A History of Apologetics. Wipf & Stock, Eugene, Oregon.
  • Frame, John. 1994. Apologetics to the Glory of God. ISBN 0-87552-243-2
  • Geisler, Norman L. 1999. Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics. Baker Books, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

His Eminence Avery Robert Cardinal Dulles, S.J. (born August 24, 1918 in Auburn, New York) is currently the Laurence J. McGinley Professor of Religion and Society at Fordham University, a position he has held since 1988. ... John Frame Dr. John M. Frame (born 1939) is an American philosopher and a Calvinist theologian especially noted for his work in epistemology and presuppositional apologetics, systematic theology, and ethics. ... Dr. Norman L. Geisler is a scholar, contributor to the field of Christian apologetics, and the author or coauthor of some sixty books defending the Christian faith. ...

Historical and legal evidential Christian apologetics

Introductory evidential

  • McDowell, Josh, New Evidence that Demands a Verdict, Thomas Nelson, Inc, Publishers, 1999
  • Strobel, Lee. 1998. The Case for Christ: A Journalist's Personal Investigation of the Evidence for Jesus. Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
  • Hanegraaff, Hank. 2002. Resurrection: The Capstone in the Arch of Christianity. W Publishing Group, Nashville, Tennessee.

Joslin Josh McDowell is a Christian apologist, evangelist, and writer. ... Former atheist and Christian Apologist Lee Strobel Lee Strobel, a former legal editor for the Chicago Tribune, is a Christian apologist and former teaching pastor of Willow Creek Community Church. ... Hendrik Hank Hanegraaff is an American author, radio talk-show host and advocate of evangelical Christianity. ...

Other evidential

  • Habermas, Gary, The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ (College Press: Joplin, MI 1996).
  • Habermas, Gary, Licona, Gary The Case for the Resurrection of Jesus (Kregel, 1994)
  • Kitchen, Kenneth, On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids and Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8028-4960-1, 2003

Gary Habermas is an American Christian apologist, theologian, and philosopher of religion. ... Gary Habermas is an American Christian apologist, theologian, and philosopher of religion. ... Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006). ...

Prophetic

  • Stoner, Peter Science Speaks (Chapter 2: Prophetic Accuracy and Chapter 3: The Christ of Prophecy), Chicago, Moody Press, 1963[35]

Peter Stoner (June 16, 1888 – March 21, 1980)[1][2] was Chairman of the Departments of Mathematics and Astronomy at Pasadena City College until 1953; Chairman of the science division, Westmont College, 1953-57; Professor Emeritus of Science, Westmont College; Professor Emeritus of Mathematics and Astronomy, Pasadena City College. ...

Philosophical

  • Frame, John. 1994. Apologetics to the Glory of God. ISBN 0-87552-243-2
  • Kreeft, Peter and Ronald Tacelli. 1994. "Handbook of Christian Apologetics: Hundreds of Answers to Crucial Questions". InterVarsity Press
  • Ramm, Bernard. 1962. Varieties of Christian Apologetics: An Introduction to the Christian Philosophy of Religion. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

John Frame Dr. John M. Frame (born 1939) is an American philosopher and a Calvinist theologian especially noted for his work in epistemology and presuppositional apologetics, systematic theology, and ethics. ... Peter Kreeft Peter Kreeft is a Catholic apologist for Christianity, professor of philosophy at Boston College and The Kings College, and author of over 45 books including Fundamentals of the Faith, Everything you Ever Wanted to Know about Heaven, and Back to Virtue. ...

Biblical apologetics

  • Archer, Gleason, 2001. New Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties. ISBN 0-310-24146-4
  • Bruce, F. F.,The Canon of Scripture, InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1988
  • Geisler, Norman and Howe, Thomas When Critics Ask: A Popular Handbook on Bible Difficulties Baker Books, Grand Rapids Michigan, 1992
  • Geisler, Norman, ed. (1980). Inerrancy. ISBN 0-310-39281-0.
  • Kaiser, Walter C., Davids, Petr H., Bruce, F. F., Brauch, Manfred, Hard Sayings of the Bible, Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL 1996

Gleason Leonard Archer (May 22, 1916 – April 27, 2004) was a Biblical scholar, theologian, educator, and author. ... Frederick Fyvie Bruce (12 October 1910 – 11 September 1990) was a Bible scholar, and one of the founders of the modern evangelical understanding of the Bible. ... Dr. Norman L. Geisler is a scholar, contributor to the field of Christian apologetics, and the author or coauthor of some sixty books defending the Christian faith. ... Frederick Fyvie Bruce (12 October 1910 – 11 September 1990) was a Bible scholar, and one of the founders of the modern evangelical understanding of the Bible. ...

Scientific

  • Gish, Duanne. Evolution: The Fossils Still Say No!, El Cajon: ICR, 1995[36]
  • Johnson, Phillip E. Darwin on Trial. InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois. 1991
  • Ross, Hugh. The Creator and the Cosmos. Colorado Springs: NavPress, 1993, 2nd ed., 1995, 3rd ed. 2001
  • Sproul, R. C. Not a Chance: The Myth of Chance in Modern Science and Cosmology, Baker Book House: 1994
  • Wysong, R. L. The Creation-Evolution Controversy.[37]
  • Collins, Francis 2006. The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief, Free Press

R.C. Sproul Dr. Robert Charles Sproul (born 1939 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American, Calvinist theologian, and pastor. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...

General/classics

  • Lewis, C. S. 1955. Mere Christianity. Fontana, Glasgow.
  • McGrath, Alister. 1992. Bridge-Building: Effective Christian Apologetics. InterVarsity Press, Leicester, UK.
  • Schaeffer, Francis A. 1982. The Complete Works of Francis Schaeffer. 5 Volumes. Crossway Books, Westchester, Illinois.

Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... Alister E. McGrath (b. ... Francis A. Schaeffer (30 January 1912 – 15 May 1984), an American Evangelical theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor, is most famous for his writings and his establishment of the LAbri community in Switzerland. ...

Criticisms of Christian apologetics

There has been significant academic treatment of Christian apologetics in scholarly institutions and publication, which deal with fact and dissent in a transparent manner. There is also amateur self-published work with varying degrees of thoroughness and credibility. This amateur credibility problem is sufficiently widespread that Answers in Genesis, itself a pro-creationist organization, has engaged in some self-policing by publishing a list of pro-creationist arguments which they regard as invalid.[38] Apologist Ron Wyatt has also published claims that have generated controversy regarding their authenticity.[39] AiGs logo Answers in Genesis (AiG) is a non-profit Christian apologetics ministry with a particular focus on Young Earth creationism and a literal, or plain,[1] interpretation of the first chapters of Genesis. ... Ron Wyatt Ronald Eldon Wyatt (1933 - August 4, 1999) was a controversial self-styled archaeologist (he had no training in the discipline and held no professional position) who claimed to have found many significant biblical sites and artifacts. ...


See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links

General/various apologetics:

Biblical apologetics:

Dr. Norman L. Geisler is a scholar, contributor to the field of Christian apologetics, and the author or coauthor of some sixty books defending the Christian faith. ...

Historical/legal/evidential apologetics:

Gary Habermas is an American Christian apologist, theologian, and philosopher of religion. ... Joslin Josh McDowell is a Christian apologist, evangelist, and writer. ... Gary Habermas is an American Christian apologist, theologian, and philosopher of religion. ... Gary Habermas is an American Christian apologist, theologian, and philosopher of religion. ...

Creationist apologetics:

General:

References

  1. ^ http://www.michaelhorner.com/
  2. ^ http://www.apologetics.com/default.jsp?bodycontent=/articles/faith_and_reason/geisler-beware.html
  3. ^ http://www-phil.tamu.edu/~gary/intro/paper.aquinas.html
  4. ^ http://www.bibleteacher.org/sgtestimony.htm
  5. ^ http://www.mtio.com/articles/bissart1.htm
  6. ^ http://lawreligionculturereview.blogspot.com/2005_01_01_lawreligionculturereview_archive.html
  7. ^ http://www.ankerberg.com/Articles/apologetics/AP0302W3.htm
  8. ^ http://www.leaderu.com/everystudent/easter/articles/yama.html
  9. ^ http://www.tektonics.org/copycat/copycathub.html
  10. ^ http://www.bede.org.uk/jesusmyth.htm
  11. ^ http://www.geocities.com/stonerdon/science_speaks.html#c8
  12. ^ http://www.inerrancy.org
  13. ^ http://www.tektonics.org/index2.html
  14. ^ http://www.christian-thinktank.com
  15. ^ http://www.tektonics.org/books/arsenal.html
  16. ^ http://godevidences.net/space/lawsofscience.php
  17. ^ http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/2329
  18. ^ http://www.answersingenesis.org/home/Area/isd/wanser.asp
  19. ^ http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v22/i2/design.asp
  20. ^ http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/god-ethi.html
  21. ^ http://www.origins.org/articles/plantinga_intellectualsophistication.html
  22. ^ http://www.apologetics.com/default.jsp?bodycontent=/articles/theistic_apologetics/morris-wager.html
  23. ^ http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/sermons/sinners.html
  24. ^ http://www.greatcom.org/laws/
  25. ^ http://www.nwcreation.net/wiki/index.php?title=Creationists
  26. ^ http://www.nwcreation.net/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page
  27. ^ http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/805]
  28. ^ http://www.talkorigins.org/indexcc/CH/CH311.html
  29. ^ http://www.icr.org/article/570/
  30. ^ http://www.answersingenesis.org/home/area/faq/flood.asp
  31. ^ http://www.christiananswers.net/q-abr/abr-a021.html
  32. ^ http://www.christiananswers.net/q-abr/confusionoflanguages.html
  33. ^ http://www.christiancourier.com/articles/read/the_tower_of_babel_legend_or_history
  34. ^ http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v19/i3/longday.asp
  35. ^ http://www.geocities.com/stonerdon/science_speaks.html#c8 (online version available)
  36. ^ http://creationwiki.org/Evolution:_The_Fossils_Still_Say_No%21
  37. ^ http://www.wysong.net/page/WOTTPWS/PROD/EDUAIDS/ED022-S
  38. ^ http://www.answersingenesis.org/home/area/faq/dont_use.asp
  39. ^ http://www.tentmaker.org/WAR/

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