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Encyclopedia > Christian Zionism
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for Christians who belong to Zionist denominations in southern Africa, see Zionist Churches

Christian Zionism is a belief among some Christians that the return of the Jews to the Holy Land, and the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, is in accordance with Biblical prophecy. This belief is primarily, though not exclusively, associated with Christian Dispensationalism, mainly in English-speaking countries outside Europe. The idea was propounded as early as 1917 in the London Manifesto. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Zionism (southern African religion). ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a current in Protestant Christian theology...


Christian Zionism, as a specifically theological belief, does not necessarily entail sympathy for the Jews as a nation or for Judaism as a religion. Since the biblical text is filled with references to God's chosen people, it is common for Christian Zionists to emphasize the Jewish roots of Christianity, and even to promote Jewish practices and Hebrew terminology as part of their own practice; however, Christian Zionists commonly believe that to fulfill prophecy, a significant number of Jews will accept Jesus as their Messiah, and that in the last days, such Messianic Jews will practice a thoroughly Hebraic form of Christianity. Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... For discussion of the messiah in Judaism, see Jewish messianism and Jewish messianic claimants. ...


Many Christian Zionists believe that the people of Israel remain part of the chosen people of God, along with the ingrafted (based on Romans 11:17-24, Holy Bible) Gentile Christians. This has the added effect of turning Christian Zionists into supporters of Jewish Zionism. Various groups have considered themselves chosen by God for some purpose such as to act as Gods agent on earth. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...

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Historical Origins and Biblical Interpretations

Some Christians groups have traditionally adhered to the doctrine of Supersessionism or Replacement Theology, according to which the Jewish people had been punished for failing to accept Jesus as Messiah, and had been replaced by the Church as God's chosen people. Christian advocacy of the restoration of the Jews arose following the translation of the Bible into the vernacular, principally in England, among the Puritans. A plain reading of such translated biblical texts, in some proponent's opinions, is interpreted as evidence that replacement theology is untenable, especially Romans 11, which begins: Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... Supersessionism is the traditional Christian belief that Christianity is the fulfillment of Biblical Judaism, and therefore that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Jewish Messiah fall short of their calling as Gods Chosen people. ...


I say then, Hath God cast away his people? God forbid. For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin.


It continues with a parable of a grafted olive tree, the point of which is that God will restore the Jews to their land and to his favor.[1]


The Biblical foundations of Christian doctrines regarding the theological status of Jews include prophetic and didactic texts. Some supporters of the restoration of the Jews interpret the prophetic texts as describing inevitable future events, and these events primarily involve Israel (taken to mean the descendants of the Biblical patriarch Jacob) or Judah (taken to mean the remaining faithful adherents of Judaism). People who take them at face value see these prophecies as requiring the presence of a Jewish state in Palestine, the central part of the lands promised to the Biblical patriarch Abraham in his covenant with God. This requirement is sometimes interpreted as being fulfilled by the contemporary state of Israel. The didactic texts of the Epistles also include explanations of the events described in prophecy, and so complement and expand upon their significance. The Didactic is facts based as opposed to the Dialectic which is feelings based. ... The word epistle is from the Greek word epistolos which means a written letter addressed to a recipient or recipients, perhaps part of exchanged correspondence. ...


Among the principal relevant prophetic texts are those found in the Jewish Bible or Old Testament in the Book of Daniel, the book of Isaiah and the Book of Ezekiel, and those found in the New Testament in the Book of Revelation. These Old Testament books describe the Apocalypse, meaning literally the "unveiling", a vision of an eschatological event or end times. The Book of Revelation, or "Αποκάλυψις Ιοαννου" in the original Greek, puts forth an early Christian eschatological view which has been interpreted in many ways. The Roman Catholic study Bible as well as the doctrines of most mainline Protestant denominations caution that Revelation is an allegory. However, some Christians, including many evangelicals and fundamentalists, read Revelation as a prophetic script containing a timetable to the future End Times. The contents of these books are discussed in the relevant articles, particularly in the article Book of Revelation. For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... // In the three Abrahamic Religions (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity), the End Times are depicted as a time of tribulation that precede the predicted coming of a Messiah figure. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...


Among the principal relevant Epistles are the New Testament books of Romans (especially chapter 15; q.v. "if the Gentiles have shared in their spiritual benefits, then they are obligated to minister to Jews in material needs.", and chapter 11; "a hardening in part has come to Israel until the full number of the Gentiles has come in, and thus will all Israel be saved"), and especially Hebrews, which elaborates the history of Judaism, relating the events of the Torah and Ketuvim as a "foreshadowing" of the Christian era, and describes the relationship of the Jewish people to God in a continuing context. The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ...


Christian schools of doctrine which consider other teachings to counterbalance these doctrines, or which interpret them in terms of distinct eschatological theories, are less conducive to Christian Zionism. Among the many texts which address this subject in counterbalance are the words of Jesus as for example in Matthew, "the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a nation producing the fruits of it", and the writer of Hebrews's discussion (echoed in 1 Peter) of the Christian church as fulfilling the role previously fulfilled by the faithful Jews and the Temple cult, and the doctrine of Paul, expressed in Galatians, that "in Christ there is neither Jew nor Greek". The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... (Redirected from 1 Peter) In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ...


Though many Christian Zionists believe that conversion of the Jews to Christianity is a necessary adjunct of the Second Coming or the End of Days, conversion of the Jews is not part of the theology of prominent Christian Zionists such as John Hagee and was not thought to be required by the nineteenth century restoration advocate William Eugene Blackstone.[1] For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... End of Days is a 1999 action/horror film starring Arnold Schwarzenegger and directed by Peter Hyams. ... John C. Hagee (b. ... William Eugene Blackstone (October 6, 1841-November 7, 1935) was an American evangelist and Christian Zionist influenced by Dwight Lyman Moody, and author of the Zionist Blackstone Memorial of 1891. ...


Both pro-Zionist and anti-Zionist schools of Christian thought may be influenced and motivated by the description found in Revelation, in the message to the Church at Philadelphia: "Behold, I give of the synagogue of Satan, of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but lie. Behold, I will make them to come and worship before your feet, and to know that I have loved you." This description is often offensive to Zionist Jews who otherwise find some common ground with Christian Zionism in their support of an ethnic Jewish state in the Holy Land. Nonetheless, it forms one of the foundational ideas underlying some support for Christian Zionism and plays a definitive role in its eschatological script of prospective events. Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...


British ideas favoring the restoration of the Jews

Main article: Zionism#British influence

Ideas favoring the restoration of the Jews in Palestine or the so-called "Land of Israel" entered the British public discourse in the 19th century, though British reformationists had written about the restoration of the Jews as early as the 16th century, and the idea had strong support among Puritans.[2] Not all such attitudes were favorable towards the Jews; they were shaped in part by a variety of Protestant beliefs,[3] or by a streak of philo-Semitism among the classically educated British elite,[4] or by hopes to extend the Empire. (See The Great Game) This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Philo-Semitism, Philosemitism, or Semitism is an interest in, respect for the Jewish people, as well as the love of everything Jewish, and the historical significance of Jewish culture and positive impact of Judaism in the history of the world. ... Central Asia, circa 1848. ...


At the urging of Lord Shaftesbury, Britain established a consulate in Jerusalem in 1838, the first diplomatic appointment to Palestine (late 20th century Zionists have started calling Palestine the "Land of Israel" for obvious propaganda purposes. It has no basis in history or in legal terms). In 1839, the Church of Scotland sent Andrew Bonar and Robert Murray M'Cheyne to report on the condition of the Jews in their land. Their report was widely published[5] and was followed by a "Memorandum to Protestant Monarchs of Europe for the restoration of the Jews to Palestine." In August 1840, The Times reported that the British government was considering Jewish restoration.[2] The Treaty of Paris (1856) granted Jews and Christians the right to settle in Palestine and opened the doors for Jewish immigration. The title of Earl of Shaftesbury was created in 1672 for Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Baron Ashley, a prominent politician in the Cabal then dominating the policies of King Charles II. Earls of Shaftesbury (1672) Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (1621-1683) Anthony Ashley Cooper, 2nd Earl of... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... Andrew Alexander Bonar, a minister of the Free Church of Scotland; born Edinburgh May 29, 1810, youngest brother of Horatius Bonar; died Glasgow December 30, 1892. ... Robert Murray MCheyne, in an illustration from his biography Robert Murray MCheyne ( 1813 - 1843) was a minister in the Church of Scotland from 1835 to 1843. ... The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and Ottoman Empire and its allies France and Britain. ...


An important, though often neglected, figure in British support of the restoration of the Jews was William Hechler (1845-1931), an English clergyman of German descent who was Chaplain of the British Embassy in Vienna and became a close friend of Theodor Herzl. Hechler was instrumental in aiding Herzl through his diplomatic activities, and may, in that sense, be called the founder of modern Christian Zionism. [1] For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ...


Biblical Passages Supporting Jews as God's Chosen People

Romans 11 shows that the Gentiles who believed in Christ were grafted in as God's chosen people. The Jews can also be restored as God's chosen people by belief in Jesus Christ. There is still hope for Jews to be Grafted back in as God's people, if and only if, they accept Jesus Christ as their Savior.


The Church is the Israel of God Today

“We want you to recognize that Iran is a clear and present danger to the United States of America and Israel. And… that it’s time for our country to consider a military preemptive strike against Iran if they will not yield to diplomacy.” – John Hagee, Christians United for Israel, July 17, 2007, Washington, D.C. (from Bill Moyers Journal, October 5, 2007). Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ...


According to a 2006 survey by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, American Protestants strongly support Israel in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. This is because 53 percent believe Jews when they say, “This land is mine, God gave this land to me (theme from 1960 movie “Exodus,” written by Pat Boone). And 47 percent believe that “the state of Israel is a fulfillment of the biblical prophecy about the second coming of Jesus.”


These evangelicals believe in a historically-recent and flawed theological view of the last things called dispensationalism. This is a view that was born out of the “secret rapture” hallucinations of a Scottish girl in 1830. John Darby of the Plymouth Brethren adopted and embellished her hallucinations into the popular system we know today as dispensational premillennialism, popularized still more by the Scofield Reference Bible, Hal Lindsey’s The Late Great Planet Earth, and Tim LaHaye’s Left Behind series.


The view that was widely taught was this: the Second Coming is a single event when all history is consummated: Christ appears, all the dead (believers and unbelievers) are resurrected and judged, and eternity in the new heaven and new earth begins. This is what is known as amillennialism, which regards the thousand years of Revelation 20:1-6 as symbolic of a very long, but complete, period of time – the “last days” or “last hour” between the two comings of Christ (Acts 2:16-17; 1 Cor. 10:11; Heb. 1:2; 9:26; 1 Pet. 1:20; 1 John 2:18).


What does dispensationalism teach? All the teachings of dispensationalism rest on an overly literalistic understanding of Biblical prophecy. Dispensationalism regards what they think as unfulfilled prophesies given to Israel in the Old Testament as having a literal fulfillment in a future millennium. Two major errors issue from this erroneous literalistic understanding:


The first error is the Christian “parenthesis.” When Christ came, God’s Plan A was that Christ would offer his kingdom to the Jews, but the Jews instead rejected and killed him. This was totally unexpected by the prophets (and by necessary consequence, by God too!). So God implemented his Plan B to save Israel: he will establish the church, and the church in turn would evangelize the Jews.


The second error is the eternal distinction between Israel and the church. According to dispensationalism, there was never – and there will never be – a time when Israel was part of the universal church. The church is God’s heavenly people, while national Israel is God’s earthly people – two entirely different plans.


Who are God’s Chosen People Today?


“The biblical mandates for supporting Israel began with Genesis 12:3: ‘I will bless those who bless you and I will curse those who curse you.’ Secondly, David said in Psalms 122:6, ‘Pray for the peace of Jerusalem. They shall prosper that love you.’” – Hagee, July 17, 2007.


“The land of Israel was given to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and their seed in an eternal covenant… And that land belongs to the Jewish people today, tomorrow and forever because it is their covenant by the word of God.” – Hagee, September 18, 2005.


For sure, if we were Jews in the Old Testament times, we would understand these texts as referring only to national Israel. This is dispensationalism’s incomplete understanding of the Old Testament – as if the New Testament does not exist. But when Christ came, the apostles, who were all descendants of Abraham, understood the Old Testament not literalistically, but as types and shadows of Christ and his atoning sacrifice (Col. 2:16-17; Heb. 8:5; 9:23-24; 10:1). Why did they interpret the Old Testament as such? Because Jesus showed them so! “And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he interpreted to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself,“ and “everything written about me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled” (Luke 24:27, 44).


Using Jesus’ own principle of interpretation, how then did the New Testament writers read the Old Testament prophecies regarding Israel?


First, Christ is the true Israel of God.


In explaining God’s promise to Abraham in Genesis 22:17-18, the apostle Paul says that “in [Abraham’s] offspring shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.” And who is Abraham’s “offspring”? Paul says in Galatians 3:16 that since the text uses the singular, “offspring,” it is referring to Christ. Christ is the Israel of God, Abraham’s Offspring.


Thus, Matthew interprets all of the life of Jesus, from birth to death, as the ultimate fulfillment of the history of Israel as a nation:

Old Testament Matthew
Pharaoh sought to kill the baby who was to become mediator of the old covenant. Herod sought to kill the baby who was to become mediator of the new covenant.
Israel crossed the sea, called a “baptism” by Paul in 1 Cor. 10:1-2. Jesus went into the river to be baptized (3:13).
The cloud, the Spirit of God, hovered over the Israelites in their journey (Exod. 40:38). The Spirit hovered over Jesus at his baptism (3:16).
Israel was tempted in the wilderness for 40 years (Num. 32:13). Jesus was tempted in the wilderness for 40 days (4:1).
Moses read the old covenant to Israel at Mount Sinai (Exod. 19:2-3). Jesus explained life in the new covenant on a mountain (5:1).
Isaiah ascribes God’s chosen “Servant” in whom he delights to Israel (42:1, 44:1). Matthew ascirbes Isaiah’s “Servant” to Jesus (12:18; cf. 3:17).
Isaiah’s ”Servant” “has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows” (Isa. 53:4). Jesus “took our illnesses and bore our diseases” (8:17).

Second, the Church is the true Israel of God.


Paul shows in his epistles that from the beginning, God already intended to include in his covenant not only Abraham’s blood descendants, but also Abraham’s faith descendants. Those who are in Christ, namely believers from “all the nations,” are the true children of Abraham (Gal. 3:7-9, 29; Rom. 9:6-8). It is not only those who have the external, physical sign of circumcision, but those who have the inward circumcision of the heart by the Spirit of Christ who belong to Israel (Rom. 2:28-29; Phil. 3:3).


Therefore, since Jesus is the true Israel of God, all those who are united to him by faith are also counted as the true Israel of God (Gal. 6:16).


If God’s blessings are given only to Abraham and all people like him who have faith in Christ, what then of those who do not have this same faith? One of the ways in which Jesus pictures Judgment Day is the Son of Man meting out blessings and curses to everyone based on their treatment of God’s people. On that last day, he will say to the sheep, “Come, you who are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom… [because] as you did it to one of the least of these my brothers, you did it to me.” But to the goats, he will say, “Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire… [because] as you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to me” (Matt. 25:31-46). Why is this a basis for judgment? Because love for the brethren is one of the marks of a true believer (1 John 3:14).


The fruit of faith in a true believer is not lobbying the White House to support Israel and bomb Iran, but loving the brethren – the Israel of God – whether they are Jews or Gentiles. Thus, blessings and curses are pronounced by God on people based on how they treated believers, not on how they handled national Israel.


Third, Canaan, the Promised Land, was only a type of the New Heaven and New Earth.


God not only promised innumerable children and many nations to Abraham; he also promised land to him and his descendants (Gen. 17:8). And all that God promised to the Israelites in terms of real estate were given to them, as Joshua 21:43-45 says,

“Thus the Lord gave to Israel all the land that he swore to give to their fathers… Not one word of all the good promises that the Lord had made to the house of Israel had failed; all came to pass.”

Hebrews chapter 11 points out that Abraham knew that Canaan was not the final Promised Land where he would settle. Why? Because “he was looking forward to the city that has foundations, whose designer and builder is God” (vv. 9-10). Abraham knew that God’s promised land extended far beyond what he could see. Our Old Testament heroes of the faith “all died in faith, not having received the things promised, but having seen them and greeted them from afar, and having acknowledged that they were strangers and exiles on the earth” (v. 13). No earthly promise of blessing to Israel remains unfulfilled.


How then could dispensationalists say that the land of Canaan belongs to Israel forever, when even Abraham, the first Israelite, did not acknowledge the land as his permanent dwelling place? All the heroes of our faith ”did not receive what was promised, since God had provided something better for us” (vv. 13-16, 39-40). Could that “something better” be the land of Canaan in the millennium? Absolutely not! ”They desire[d] a better country, that is, a heavenly one” (v. 16). In the same way, all of us in Christ throughout the ages are not to get excited about a millennial, earthly Jerusalem, but are to wait for an eternal “new heavens and a new earth” (2 Pet. 3:13).


Fourth, the temporal, earthly kingdom of David was only a type of the eternal, heavenly kingdom of Christ.


At his trial, Jesus was asked by Pilate if he was the King of the Jews. Jesus replied, as always, in spiritual terms not understood by unbelievers, “My kingdom is not of this world” (John 18:36). Why then, do dispensationalists insist on teaching that Jesus will reign from an earthly throne in Jerusalem – a view that Jesus himself denied?


The apostles also interpreted the temporal kingdom of David as such – a type of Christ’s heavenly kingdom. In his Pentecost sermon, Peter saw God’s promise to David “that he would set one of his descendants on his throne,” and that this Son would sit at God’s right hand in his heavenly reign, as fulfilled by Christ himself (2 Sam. 7:16; Acts 2:30, 34). During the Jerusalem council, James interpreted Amos’ prophecy of the restoration of David’s kingdom as being fulfilled by “all the Gentiles who are called by my name” (Amos 9:11-12; Acts 15:15-18). David’s eternal throne is not the millennial kingdom of Israel, but the heavenly, universal Kingdom of Christ made up of Jews and Gentiles.


Were Peter and James “spiritualizing” Amos’ prophecy by not interpreting it “literalistically”? Not at all. They were looking at Old Testament prophecies as types and shadows of Christ’s person and work in the New Testament. They were interpreting Scripture with Scripture, not Scripture with newspapers, TV, and prophecy conferences.


Bizarre Results


When Scripture is interpreted by Scripture, when the Old Testament is interpreted by the New, and when unclear texts are interpreted by the clear, the result is a single, cohesive Biblical story of man’s redemption through Christ, revealed progressively by God from Genesis to Revelation. Note the simplicity and unspectacularity of amillennialism:

Next prophetic event Second coming of Christ after a brief period of apostasy and revelation of Antichrist; resurrection of believers and unbelievers; Judgment Day; new heaven and new earth

In contrast, literalistic interpretive principles used by dispensationalists result in innovative and bizarre teachings requiring complex timelines and charts:

Next prophetic event Secret rapture and resurrection of believers during the second coming of Christ
Events during the 7-year tribulation period 144,000 Jews giving the world a second chance; Moses and Elijah witnessing in Jerusalem; revelation of the Antichrist; World War III in the plains of Megiddo
Events during the millennium Third coming of Christ; resurrection of OT saints; a millennial reign of Christ from Jerusalem; a rebuilt Jerusalem temple with animal sacrifices
Events after the millennium World War IV (Gog and Magog, the Mother of All Wars); resurrection of unbelievers; new heaven and new earth

We will look only at the teaching about the rebuilt Temple with animal sacrifices for now, and the rest in later posts.


The Insanity of the Millennial Red Heifer Sacrifice


Many evangelicals believe that there will be a rebuilt Jerusalem temple with a High Priest and animal sacrifices during the millennium. To hasten Christ’s coming, some of them are even helping orthodox Jews in trying to raise red heifers, because they believe that the birth of a perfect one in Israel is the signal for starting the temple rebuilding project.


This is not just insane, but heretical. The writer of the book of Hebrews warned the Jewish Christians in the first century against the very same ideas which evangelicals today are longing to see: looking back to the Old Testament types and shadows, and not looking to Christ as the fulfillment of all Scriptures. Christ’s sacrifice was “once for all” – complete, perfect, and sufficient as a substitutionary atonement for all the sins of all God’s people.


Why go back to Old Testament sacrifices? Dispensationalists would say that the animal sacrifices in the millennial temple are only memorial services of Christ’s atoning work. But in what way did Jesus say his disciples are to remember him? Through animal sacrifices? God forbid! It is by partaking of the Lord’s Supper, just as he commanded, “Do this in remembrance of me.” Until when should believers partake of the bread and wine? “Until he comes,” Paul says (1 Cor. 11:24-26). Why then do dispensationalists teach that we are to offer the blood of bulls and goats and the ashes of a red heifer after Jesus comes again and is reigning as King during the millennium? Nowhere in Scripture do we find believers, in the age to come after the Second Coming, commanded to sacrifice animals to remember Christ’s death. This is so because animal sacrifices are obsolete after Christ’s once-for-all sacrifice (Heb. 8:13; 9:11-14). On the contrary, there is a consummate “memorial” service, a “marriage covenant feast” of the Lamb, to be celebrated in the new heaven (Rev. 19:6-8).


The apostle Paul vehemently wrote against “Judaizers” in the Galatian churches who wanted to go back to being slaves under the Mosaic ceremonial laws, such as circumcision and Jewish festivals: “How can you turn back again to the weak and worthless elementary principles of the world [works-righteousness], whose slaves you want to be once more? You observe days and months and seasons and years!” (Gal. 4:9-10).


Why call dispensationalist teaching insane and heretical? This is exactly what Paul calls those Galatians who wanted to go back to the Old Testament ceremonial laws: “mindless” (anoetos, Gal. 3:1, 3); and their teachings a “false gospel” which is accursed (anathema, Gal. 1:8, 9), and “heresies,” “sects,” or “dissensions” (haeresis, 5:20).


Thus, in teaching that animal sacrifices will be offered in the millennial temple, dispensationalists are in violation of two of the most basic Christian doctrines: (1) the Old Testament animal sacrifices are but types and shadows of Christ’s sacrifice; and (2) Christ’s sacrifice is perfect and sufficient for all the sins of all God’s people.


For further reading:


“The Israel of God” by Dr. R. Scott Clark
“The Wittenberg Door” by the faculty of Knox Theological Seminary
“A Present or Future Millennium?” by Dr. Kim Riddlebarger
“A Reply to John MacArthur” by Dr. Kim Riddlebarger
“The Not-So-Secret Rapture” by Dr. W. Fred Rice
“On the Road to Armageddon: How Evangelicals Became Israel’s Best Friend” by Timothy P. Weber


History and recent theological developments

Main articles: End times and Dispensationalism

Christian Zionism is a name applied primarily by opponents to the political implications of the views expressed by advocates of the restoration of the Jews who may subscribe to one of several theological systems, including dispensationalism and Covenant Theology. // In the three Abrahamic Religions (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity), the End Times are depicted as a time of tribulation that precede the predicted coming of a Messiah figure. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a current in Protestant Christian theology... Covenant Theology is not to be confused with the Covenanters For Covenantal Theology in the Roman Catholic perspective, see Covenantal Theology (Roman Catholic). ...


Christian support for the restoration of the Jews was brought to America by the Puritans who fled England. In colonial times, Increase Mather and John Cotton,among others, favored restoration of the Jews, but it was not until the early 19th century that the idea gathered impetus. Ezra Stiles at Yale was a prominent supporter of restoration of the Jews. In 1808, Asa McFarland, a Presbyterian, voiced the opinion of many that the fall of the Ottoman Empire was imminent and would bring about the restoration of the Jews. One David Austin of New Haven spent his fortune building docks and inns from whence the Jews could embark to the Holy Land. In 1825 Mordecai Manuel Noah, a Jew who wanted to found a national home for the Jews on Grand Island in New York as a way station on the way to the holy land, won widespread Christian backing for his project. Likewise, restorationist theology was the inspiration for the first American missionary activity in the Middle East. The Reverend Increase Mather (June 21, 1639 – August 23, 1723) was a major figure in the early history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay (now the Federal state of Massachusetts). ... John Cotton (1585–1652) The Reverend John Cotton (December 4, 1585 – December 23, 1652) was a highly regarded principal among the New England Puritan ministers, who also included John Winthrop, Thomas Hooker, Increase Mather (who became his son-in-law), John Davenport, and Thomas Shepard. ... The Rev. ... David C.H. Austin (born 1926) is a rose breeder and writer who lives in Shropshire, England. ... Mordecai Manuel Noah was a Jewish American diplomat, journalist, and utopian born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 14 July 1785; he died in New York, 22 May 1851. ...


As the demise of the Ottoman Empire appeared to be approaching, the advocacy of restorationism increased. At the same time, the visit of John Nelson Darby, the founder of dispensationalism, to the United States, catalyzed a dispensationalist movement and an evangelical revival. This was expressed at the Niagara Bible Conference in 1878, which issued a 14 point proclamation, including the following text: John Nelson Darby, (November 18, 1800 - April 29, 1882) was an Anglo-Irish evangelist, an influential figure among the original Plymouth Brethren, and founder of the Darbyites. ... In 1883 a group of Christian bible scholars met for the first time at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, near Niagara Falls and established the principles of Christian fundamentalism. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


...that the Lord Jesus will come in person to introduce the millennial age, when Israel shall be restored to their own land, and the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord; and that this personal and premillennial advent is the blessed hope set before us in the Gospel for which we should be constantly looking." Luke 12:35-40; 17:26-30; 18:8 Acts 15:14-17; 2 Thess. 2:3-8; 2 Tim. 3:1-5; Titus 1:11-15).


The tycoon William Eugene Blackstone was inspired by the conference to publish the book Jesus is Coming, which took up the restorationist cause, and also absolved the Jews of the need to convert to Christianity either before or after the return of the Messiah. In 1891 he lobbied President Benjamin Harrison for the restoration of the Jews, in a petition signed by over 400 prominent Americans, that became known as the Blackstone Memorial. William Eugene Blackstone (October 6, 1841-November 7, 1935) was an American evangelist and Christian Zionist influenced by Dwight Lyman Moody, and author of the Zionist Blackstone Memorial of 1891. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Benjamin Harrison, VI (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was a sex offender from Arkansas, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. ... The Blackstone Memorial (1891) was a Zionist petition written by William Eugene Blackstone and presented to the President of the United States, Benjamin Harrison, in favor of the delivery of Palestine to the Jews, and signed by a number of leading American citizens. ...


The dispensationalist theology of John Nelson Darby, which motivates one stream of American Christian Zionism is often claimed to be the foundation of American Christian Zionism. While there is no doubt that it had a great influence through the Scofield Bible, Christian support of the restoration of the Jews preceded the publication of the Scofield bible for nearly a century, and many prominent Christian Zionists and Christian Zionist organizations such as the International Christian Embassy do not subscribe to dispensationalism.[1] John Nelson Darby, (November 18, 1800 - April 29, 1882) was an Anglo-Irish evangelist, an influential figure among the original Plymouth Brethren, and founder of the Darbyites. ... Cyrus Ingerson Scofield (1843 — 1921) was an American theologian, minister and writer. ... International Christian Embassy Sited in Jerusalem, Israel, the International Christian Embassy was established by evangelical Christians as an umbrella organisation to represent Christian concerns for the State of Israel and its position in the world. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a current in Protestant Christian theology...


In the United States, dispensationalist Christian Zionism was popularized by the evangelical Cyrus Scofield (1843-1921), who promoted the doctrine that Jesus could not return to reign on Earth until certain events occurred. In the interim, prior to these last days events, Scofield's system taught that the Christian church was primarily for the salvation of the Gentiles, and that according to God's plan the Jewish people are under a different dispensation of God's grace, which has been put out of gear so to speak, until the last days (the common name of this view is, dispensationalism), when the Christian Church will be removed from the earth by a miracle (called the Rapture). Cyrus Ingerson Scofield (1843 — 1921) was an American theologian, minister and writer. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In conservative Christian eschatology, rapture is...


Scofield writing in the 1900s said that, in those last days, the Bible predicts the return of the Jews to the Holy Land and particularly to Jerusalem. Scofield further predicted that, Islamic holy places would be destroyed, and the Temple in Jerusalem would be rebuilt - signalling the very end of the Church Age when the Antichrist would arise, and all who seek to keep the covenant with God will acknowledge Jesus as their Messiah in defiance of the Antichrist. For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...


Charles Taze Russell was another early Christian advocate of Zionism. Charles Russell in 1911 Charles Taze Russell (February 16, 1852 – October 31, 1916), known as Pastor Russell, was an American evangelist from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania who founded what is known as the Bible Student movement. ...


"Newspaper exegesis"

With the Jewish settlement of Palestine thereafter, and the establishment of a modern Jewish state on May 14, 1948, dispensationalism (already popular among American Christian fundamentalists) enjoyed an immediate boost of credibility. It seemed to many that biblical prophecy was being explained by the headlines of the newspaper, sparking an intense interest in events in the Middle East, which has continued unabated. Modern Christian Zionism is a politically potent consequence of this religious interest in the modern state of Israel, as contemporary events are interpreted in light of their relationship to biblical prophecy. May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The role of certain Christians in supporting the establishment of Israel following World War II is well known; and it is regarded by some critics as, in part, a kind of self-willed fulfillment of prophecy. Given this, some are alarmed by what else Christian Zionists envision being done to bring about the conversion of the Jews and the end of the world. As an example, Hal Lindsey, one of the most popular American promoters of dispensationalism, has written in one of his books about the end times: "the valley from Galilee to Eilat (a town in southern Israel) will flow with blood and 144,000 Jews would bow down before Jesus and be saved". According to Lindsey, the rest of the Jews, and presumably all nations surrounding Israel, will perish in "the mother of all Holocausts", a great battle of religion called Armageddon. Such beliefs asserted as inevitable fact, and a basis for human action, are often criticized in alarmed tones. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Harold Lee Hal Lindsey (born November 23, 1929) is an American evangelist and Christian writer. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 55,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... The evangelist John of Patmos writes the Book of Revelation. ...


In United States politics, Christian Zionism is important because it mobilises an important Republican constituency; fundamentalist and evangelical Protestants who support Israel. The Democratic Party, which has the support of most American Jews, is also generally pro-Israel, but with fewer theological underpinnings. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Fundamentalism is a movement to maintain strict adherence to founding principles. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ...


Sociologically, Christian Zionism can be seen as a product of the peculiar circumstances of the United States, in which the world's largest community of Jews lives side by side with the world's largest community of evangelical Christians. There has historically been a somewhat antagonistic relationship between these two communities, largely based on the generally liberal/progressive social policy tendencies of the Jewish community with the more 'rugged individualist' leanings of the American Protestant communities, more so than any theological dispute. Their mutual reverence for the texts of the Hebrew Bible has brought them together, however, as has their common ground against generally leftist pro-Palestinian and/or anti-Israeli factions in American politics. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


The mobilisation of evangelicals has tended to bolster the so-called neo-conservative policies of the Republicans, because Christian Zionists tend to favor a muscular foreign policy and have less sympathy for Palestinian claims than do the Democrats. Neoconservatism refers to the political movement, ideology, and public policy goals of new conservatives in the United States, who are mainly characterized by their relatively interventionist and hawkish views on foreign policy, and their lack of support for the small government principles and restrictions on social spending, when compared with...


Examples of Christian leaders combining political conservatism with Christian Zionism are Jerry Falwell and Pat Robertson, leading figures of the Christian Right in the 1980s and 1990s. Falwell said in 1981: "To stand against Israel is to stand against God. We believe that history and scripture prove that God deals with nations in relation to how they deal with Israel." They cite part of Genesis 27:29 Those who curse you [Israel] will be cursed, and those who bless you will be blessed. (HCSB) as prooftext. This article is about Jerry Falwell, Sr. ... Marion Gordon Pat Robertson (born March 22, 1930) is a televangelist from the United States. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Christian... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The Holman Christian Standard Bible is an English-language Bible translation, first published with the complete Old and New Testaments in March 2004. ...


The government of Israel has given official encouragement to Christian Zionism, allowing the establishment in 1980 of an "International Christian Embassy" in Jerusalem. The main function of the embassy is to enlist worldwide Christian support for Israel. The embassy has raised funds to help finance Jewish immigration to Israel from the former Soviet Union, and has assisted Zionist groups in establishing Jewish settlements in the West Bank. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... International Christian Embassy Sited in Jerusalem, Israel, the International Christian Embassy was established by evangelical Christians as an umbrella organisation to represent Christian concerns for the State of Israel and its position in the world. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


The Third International Christian Zionist Congress, held in Jerusalem in February 1996, issued a Proclamation which said: Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...

God the Father, Almighty, chose the ancient nation and people of Israel, the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, to reveal His plan of redemption for the world. They remain elect of God, and without the Jewish nation His redemptive purposes for the world will not be completed.
Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah and has promised to return to Jerusalem, to Israel and to the world.
It is reprehensible that generations of Jewish peoples have been killed and persecuted in the name of our Lord, and we challenge the Church to repent of any sins of commission or omission against them.
The modern Ingathering of the Jewish People to Eretz Israel and the rebirth of the nation of Israel are in fulfilment of biblical prophecies, as written in both Old and New Testaments.
Christian believers are instructed by Scripture to acknowledge the Hebraic roots of their faith and to actively assist and participate in the plan of God for the Ingathering of the Jewish People and the Restoration of the nation of Israel in our day.

Popular interest in Christian Zionism was given a boost around the year 2000 in the form of the Left Behind series of novels by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins.[6]. The novels are built around the prophetic role of Israel in the apocalyptic End Times. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: Eretz Yisrael) refers to the land making up the ancient Jewish Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. ... Left Behind is a series of novels by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins, dealing with Christian dispensationalist End Times: pretribulation, premillennial, Christian eschatology viewpoint of the end of the world. ... A panel from Tim LaHaye’s multi-million selling ‘’Left Behind’’ series, depicting the fate LaHaye anticipates for those who do not follow Jesus Christ. ... Book one in the Left Behind series Jerry B. Jenkins (born September 23, 1949 in Kalamazoo, Michigan) is an American novelist and biographer. ... For other uses, see Apocalypse (disambiguation). ... // In the three Abrahamic Religions (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity), the End Times are depicted as a time of tribulation that precede the predicted coming of a Messiah figure. ...


Condemnation by other churches

The Catholic Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem and certain other churches based in Jerusalem have published The Jerusalem Declaration on Christian Zionism (August 22nd, 2006) The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title given to the Latin Rite Roman Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem. ...


See also

This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... The JerUSAlem Connection, International is is a 501 (c)-(3) non-profit organization whose main objectives are to educate, inform and activate, Christian and Jews regarding: 1. ... // In the three Abrahamic Religions (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity), the End Times are depicted as a time of tribulation that precede the predicted coming of a Messiah figure. ... Judaism and Christianity are two closely related Abrahamic religions that in some ways parallel each other and in other ways fundamentally diverge in theology and practice. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a current in Protestant Christian theology... Since Judaism does not accept the validity of the New Testament and rejects the claim that Jesus was a messiah, see the beliefs of Jews and Judaism in Jewish eschatology and the Jewish Messiah. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Christian... Lost Ten Tribes, also referenced as the Ten Lost Tribes or the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, usually refers to the tribes of the ancient Kingdom of Israel that disappear from the Biblical account after the Kingdom of Israel was totally destroyed, enslaved and exiled by ancient Assyria. ... Anglo-Israelism (Sometimes called British-Israelism) is a complex set of theories that are not identical nor are they necessarily compatible with each other. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... It has been suggested that Christian opposition to anti-Semitism be merged into this article or section. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For discussion of the messiah in Judaism, see Jewish messianism and Jewish messianic claimants. ... This article on Mormonism and Judaism describes the views of Latter-day Saints, commonly known as Mormons, with respect to Jews and Judaism, and includes comparisons of the Mormon and Jewish faiths. ... David Hocking was born in Long Beach, California in 1941, and raised in Southern California. ... The Unification Church officially takes a pro-Jewish, pro-Israel stance, yet many Jews denounce the church as anti-Semitic because of its teachings about the Jews in the Old and New testaments. ... Roger Rusk (1906-1994) was survived by his wife Ruth, who is now also deceased. ... The Reverend Dr. Stephen Robert Sizer (b. ... Left Behind is a series of novels by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins, dealing with Christian dispensationalist End Times: pretribulation, premillennial, Christian eschatology viewpoint of the end of the world. ... John C. Hagee (b. ... Gods Learning Channel (or GLC) is a Christian television network which is based in the Southwestern United States. ... The Blackstone Memorial (1891) was a Zionist petition written by William Eugene Blackstone and presented to the President of the United States, Benjamin Harrison, in favor of the delivery of Palestine to the Jews, and signed by a number of leading American citizens. ... The Gathering of Israel, as foretold by numerous Old Testament prophets, refers to recovery or return of Israels Lost Tribes to the lands of their inheritance. ...

Further reading

  • Zev Chafets. "A Match Made in Heaven: American Jews, Christian Zionists, and One Man's Exploration of the Weird and Wonderful Judeo-Evangelical Alliance" 2007 HarperCollins
  • Victoria Clark. "Allies for Armageddon: The Rise of Christian Zionism" 2007
  • Rammy Haija. The Armageddon Lobby: Dispensationalist Christian Zionism and the Shaping of US Policy Towards Israel-Palestine. Holy Land Studies 5(1):75-95. 2006.
  • Irvine Anderson. Biblical interpretation and Middle East policy: the promised land, America, and Israel, 1917-2002. University Press of Florida. 2005. ISBN 0-8130-2798-5.
  • Tony Campolo. The Ideological Roots of Christian Zionism. Tikkun. January-February 2005.
  • Stephen Sizer. Christian Zionism: Road map to Armageddon? InterVarsity Press. 2004. ISBN 0830853685.
  • Gershom Gorenberg. The End of Days: Fundamentalism and the Struggle for the Temple Mount. Oxford University Press. 2002. ISBN 0195152050
  • Paul Charles Merkley. The Politics of Christian Zionism 1891 – 1948. Frank Cass. 1998. ISBN 0714648507
  • Lawrence Jeffrey Epstein. Zion’s call: Christian contributions to the origins and development of Israel. University Press of America. 1984.
  • Michael Oren. Power, Faith and Fantasy. New York, 2007.
  • Barbara W. Tuchman. Bible and Sword.New York, 1956.

Tony Campolo Dr. Anthony Tony Campolo (born 1935) is a well-known American pastor, author, public speaker known for challenging Christians by illustrating how their faith can offer solutions in a world of complexity. ... January/February 2007 issue Tikkun is a bi-monthly English-language magazine, published in the United States, that analyzes American and Israeli culture, politics, religion and history from a leftist-progressive Jewish viewpoint, and provides commentary about Israeli politics and Jewish life in North America. ... The Reverend Dr. Stephen Robert Sizer (b. ... Michael Oren (born in 1955) is an Israeli historian and writer. ... Barbara Wertheim Tuchman (January 30, 1912 _ February 6, 1989) was an American historian and author. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d Christian Zionism (zionism-israel.com)
  2. ^ a b British Zionism - Support for Jewish Restoration (mideastweb.org)
  3. ^ The Untold Story. The Role of Christian Zionists in the Establishment of Modern-day Israel by Jamie Cowen (Leadership U), July 13, 2002
  4. ^ Rethinking Sir Moses Montefiore: Religion, Nationhood, and International Philanthropy in the Nineteenth Century by Abigail Green. (The American Historical Review. Vol. 110 No.3.) June 2005
  5. ^ A Narrative of a Mission of Inquiry to the Jews from the Church of Scotland in 1839 (Edinburgh, 1842) ISBN 1-85792-258-1
  6. ^ [Rammy Haija. The Armageddon Lobby: Dispensationalist Christian Zionism and the Shaping of US Policy Towards Israel-Palestine. Holy Land Studies 5(1):75-95. 2006.]

External links

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... openDemocracy is a website for debate about international politics and culture. ... Max Blumenthal is a blogger and journalist whose work has appeared in The Nation, The Huffington Post, and Media Matters. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. [2] Founded on July 6, 1865 as an Abolitionist publication, it is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States. ... CounterPunch is a biweekly newsletter published in the United States that covers politics from a left-wing perspective. ... The Village Voice is a New York City-based weekly newspaper featuring investigative articles, analysis of current affairs and culture, arts reviews and events listings for New York City. ... The Middle East Research and Information Project (MERIP) is a non-profit independent research group established in 1971, that has released reports and position papers on various Middle East conflicts. ... Sojourners Magazine, a bimonthly publication of Sojourners Fellowship, was first published in 1971 under the original title of The Post-American. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs is a magazine published in Washington, D.C. that focuses on news and analysis from and about the Middle East and U.S. policy in that region[1]. The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs is a 100-page magazine published 9 times... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Christian Zionist Churches and Organizations

Advocacy Sites


  Results from FactBites:
 
Christian Zionism, Left Behind and Rapture - Articles on the theology and politics (3730 words)
Christian Zionism is founded first of all upon a literal and futurist interpretation of the Bible which leads proponents to distinguish between references to Israel and the Church.
Palestinian Christians had suffered much at the hand of theologies and interpretations of scripture that provided a mantle of divine legitimisation to the ideology of Zionism and the political movement that worked for their displacement from their homeland, and built a Jewish state on the basis of their exile, and oppression.
However, Christian Zionism is exceedingly difficult to address because it exists in variegated forms, ranging from individuals or groups who generally support the right of contemporary Israelis to exist in their ancient homeland to extensively organized political activists with agendas of varying degrees of radicalism.
Christian Zionism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1488 words)
Christian Zionism is the belief among some Christians that the return of the Jews to the Holy Land, and the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, is in accordance with Biblical prophecy, and is a necessary prerequisite for the return of Jesus to reign on Earth.
Christian Zionism, as a specifically theological belief, does not necessarily entail sympathy for the Jews as an ethnicity or for Judaism as a religion.
Modern Christian Zionism is a politically potent consequence of this religious interest in the modern state of Israel, as contemporary events are interpreted in light of their understanding of biblical prophecy.
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