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Encyclopedia > Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV
King of Denmark and Norway
Born 12 April 1577
Died 28 February 1648
Buried Roskilde Cathedral
Predecessor Frederick II
Successor Frederick III
Consort Anne Catherine of Brandenburg
Father Frederick II
Mother Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
The coronation of King Christian IV, painted by Otto Bache, 1887.
The coronation of King Christian IV, painted by Otto Bache, 1887.

Christian IV (April 12, 1577February 28, 1648) was the king of Denmark and Norway from 1588 until his death. Image File history File links Christian IV of Denmark from sv:Wikipedia From the Swedish Wikipedia: sv:Bild:Kristian IV av Danmark, målning av Pieter Isaacsz 1611-1616. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Events March 17 - formation of the Cathay Company to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold May 28 - Publication of the Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... Roskilde Cathedral Roskilde Cathedral (Danish: Roskilde Domkirke), in the city of Roskilde on the Island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark was the first Gothic cathedral to be built of brick and its construction encouraged the spread of this Brick Gothic style throughout Northern Europe. ... Frederick II of Denmark and Norway Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... King Frederick III Frederick III (March 28, 1609 – February 19, 1670) was King of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. ... King Christian IV and Queen Anne Catherine. ... Frederick II of Denmark and Norway Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (4 September 1557, Wismar – 14 October 1631, Nykoping) was a German noblewoman and Queen of Denmark. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (877x522, 148 KB) Title: Artist: Otto Bache Year: 1887 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Christian IV of Denmark ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (877x522, 148 KB) Title: Artist: Otto Bache Year: 1887 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Christian IV of Denmark ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Events March 17 - formation of the Cathay Company to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold May 28 - Publication of the Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ...

Contents

Biography

The son of Frederick II, king of Denmark and Norway, and Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, he was born at Frederiksborg castle in 1577, and succeeded to the throne on the death of his father (April 4, 1588), attaining his majority on August 17, 1596. On November 30, 1597 he married Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, a daughter of Joachim Friedrich, margrave of Brandenburg and duke of Prussia. The queen died fourteen years later, after bearing Christian six children. Four years after her death the king privately wedded a handsome young gentlewoman, Christina Munk, by whom he had twelve children — a connection which was to be disastrous to Denmark. Frederick II of Denmark and Norway Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (4 September 1557, Wismar – 14 October 1631, Nykoping) was a German noblewoman and Queen of Denmark. ... Frederiksborg Palace Frederiksborg Palace, in Hillerød, was built as a royal residence for King Christian IV from 1602 to 1620 by the Dutch architects Hans and Lorents van Steenwinckel. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... Events 17 January - A court case in Guildford recorded evidence that a certain plot of land was used for playing “kreckett” (i. ... King Christian IV and Queen Anne Catherine. ... Joachim Friedrich Hohenzollern Kurfürst (elector) of Brandenburg (1546-1608) succeeded his father Johann Georg as margrave of Brandenburg in 1598, and was in turn succeeded at his death by his son Johann Sigismund. ... Margrave is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ...


It is believed that he, counting both legitimate and illegimate, had at least 26 children, quite possibly more.


He descended, through his mother's side, from king Hans of Denmark, thus uniting the senior branch' descent to the crown. John of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden John, Johann, Johan II, Danish and Norwegian name Hans (2 February 1455 – 22 July 1513 ), was a Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1481 – 1513), Norway (1483 – 1513) Sweden (1497 – 1501), under the Kalmar Union, and also Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. ...


He is frequently remembered as one of the most remarkable Danish kings, having initiated many reforms and projects, and ruling for just under sixty years.


Reformer

Despite courtly life, he found time for work of the most various description, including a series of domestic reforms (see History of Denmark). He also did much for the national armaments. New fortresses were constructed under the direction of Dutch engineers. The Danish navy, which in 1596 consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 1610 rose to sixty, some of them being built after Christian's own designs. The formation of a national army was more difficult. Christian had to depend mainly upon hired troops, supported by native levies recruited for the most part from the peasantry on the crown domains. This is a history of the Kingdom of Denmark and the areas comprising modern day Denmark. ... Flag of the Royal Danish Navy Ships of the Royal Danish Navy carry the prefix KMD (Kongelige Danske Marine). ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ...


Christian first initiated the policy of expanding Denmark's overseas trade, as part of the mercantilist wave that was sweeping Europe. Denmark's first colony was established at Tranquebar, or Trankebar, on India's southcoast in 1620. He also assigned the privilege establishing the Danish East India Company. This was in large part the beginning of Danish colonial empire. Mercantilism is the economic theory that a nations prosperity depended upon its supply of gold and silver, that the total volume of trade is unchangeable. ... Tranquebar, 1600. ... Events September 6 - English emigrants on the Mayflower depart from Plymouth, England for the future New England and arrive at the end of the year. ... The Danish East India Company (in Danish Dansk Ostindisk Kompagni) was founded in 1616, following a privilege of the Danish king Christian IV. It was focused on trade with India and had its base in Tranquebar. ... Denmark-Norways possessions c. ...


The Kalmar War

His first experiment with his newly organized army was successful. In the war with Sweden, generally known as the Kalmar War (1611-1613) because its chief operation was the Danish capture of Kalmar, the eastern fortress of Sweden, Christian compelled King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden to give way on all essential points at the Treaty of Knäred (January 20, 1613). Kalmar War The Kalmar War lasted from 1611 to 1613. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ... Kalmar is a city in SmÃ¥land in south east Sweden, situated by the Baltic Sea. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Treaty of Knäred was signed on January 21, 1613 and ended the Kalmar War (1611-1613) between Denmark and Sweden. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ...


He now turned his attention to Germany. His objectives were twofold: first, to obtain control of the great German rivers— the Elbe and the Weser— as a means of securing his dominion of the northern seas; and secondly, to acquire the secularized German bishoprics of Bremen and Verden as appanages for his younger sons. The River Elbe (Czech Labe , Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of Central Europe. ... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... The river Weser flows through Bremen to the estuary at Bremerhaven. ... Verden is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... The system of appanage has greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and explains the flag of many provinces of France. ...


He skilfully took advantage of the alarm of the German Protestants after the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, to secure coadjutorship of the See of Bremen for his son Frederick (September 1621). A similar arrangement was reached in November at Verden. Hamburg was also induced to acknowledge the Danish overlordship of Holstein by the compact of Steinburg in July 1621. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Battle of White Mountain, November 8, 1620 (Bílá hora is the name of White Mountain in Czech) was an early battle in the Thirty Years War in which an army of 20,000 Bohemians and mercenaries under Christian of Anhalt were routed by 25,000 men of the... Events September 6 - English emigrants on the Mayflower depart from Plymouth, England for the future New England and arrive at the end of the year. ... Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ...


The Thirty Years' War

The growing ascendancy of the Catholics in North Germany in and after 1623 almost induced Christian, for purely political reasons, to intervene directly in the Thirty Years' War. For a time, however, he stayed his hand, but the urgent solicitations of the western powers, and, above all, his fear lest Gustavus Adolphus should supplant him as the champion of the Protestant cause, finally led him to plunge into war against the combined forces of the emperor and the League, without any adequate guarantees of co-operation from abroad. On May 9, 1625 Christian quitted Denmark for the front. He had at his disposal from 19,000 to 25,000 men, and at first gained some successes; but on August 27, 1626 he was utterly routed by Tilly at Lutter-am-Barenberge, and in the summer of 1627 both Tilly and Wallenstein, ravaging and burning, occupied the duchies and the whole peninsula of Jutland. In his extremity Christian now formed an alliance with Sweden (January 1, 1628), whereby Gustavus Adolphus pledged himself to assist Denmark with a fleet in case of need, and shortly afterwards a Swedo-Danish army and fleet compelled Wallenstein to raise the siege of Stralsund. Thus the possession of a superior sea-power enabled Denmark to tide over her worst difficulties, and in May 1629 Christian was able to conclude peace with the emperor at Lübeck, without any diminution of territory. Events August 6 - Pope Urban VIII is elected to the Papacy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... Count Tilly on a portrait by van Dyck Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly (February, 1559 – April 30, 1632) was a general in Bavarian and later imperial service during the Thirty Years War, upon whom Ferdinand II depended (since Wallenstein was a threat). ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Albrecht von Wallenstein Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein (also Waldstein, Czech: Albrecht Václav Eusebius z ValdÅ¡tejna), September 24, 1583 – February 25, 1634) was a Bohemian soldier and politician who gave his services (an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men) during the Danish Period of the Thirty... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the only non-insular part of Denmark and also the northernmost part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Events March 1 - writs were issued in February 1628 by Charles I of England that every county in England (not just seaport towns) pay ship tax by this date. ... Stralsund is a city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ...

Monument of Christian IV in Kristiansand, Norway.
Monument of Christian IV in Kristiansand, Norway.

Download high resolution version (423x642, 74 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (423x642, 74 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... County Vest-Agder District Sørlandet Municipality NO-1001 Administrative centre Kristiansand Mayor (2004) Jan Oddvar Skisland (KrF) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 287 277 km² 259 km² 0. ...

Court intrigues and foreign adventures, 1629-1643

Christian IV was now a broken man. His energy was temporarily paralysed by accumulated misfortunes. Not only his political hopes, but his domestic happiness had suffered shipwreck. In the course of 1628 he discovered a scandalous intrigue of his wife, Christina Munk, with one of his German officers; and when he put her away she endeavoured to cover up her own disgrace by conniving at an intrigue between Vibeke Kruse, one of her discharged maids, and the king. In January 1630 the rupture became final, and Christina retired to her estates in Jutland. Meanwhile Christian openly acknowledged Vibeke as his mistress, and she bore him a numerous family. Vibeke's children were of course the natural enemies of the children of Christina Munk, and the hatred of the two families was not without influence on the future history of Denmark. Between 1629 and 1643, however, Christian gained both in popularity and influence. During that period he obtained once more the control of the foreign policy of Denmark as well as of the Sound Tolls, and towards the end of it he hoped to increase his power still further with the assistance of his sons-in-law, Corfitz Ulfeldt and Hannibal Sehested, who now came prominently forward. Vibeke Kruse (died 1648) was King Christian IV of Denmarks lover, and the mother of one of his three acknowledged, illegitimate sons, Ulrik Christian Gyldenløve. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the only non-insular part of Denmark and also the northernmost part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... Corfitz Ulfeldt, painted by Sebastien Bourdon in 1653. ... Hannibal Sehested From J P Trap : Berømte danske mænd og kvinder. ...


Even at the lowest ebb of his fortunes Christian had never lost hope of retrieving them, and between 1629 and 1643 the European situation presented infinite possibilities to politicians with a taste for adventure. Christian was no statesman, and was incapable of a consistent policy. He would neither conciliate Sweden, henceforth his most dangerous enemy, nor guard himself against her by a definite system of counter-alliances. By mediating in favour of the emperor, after the death of Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, he tried to minimize the influence of Sweden in Germany, and did glean some minor advantages. But his whole Scandinavian policy was so irritating and vexatious that Swedish statesmen made up their minds that a war with Denmark was only a question of time; and in the spring of 1643 it seemed to them that the time had come. // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ...


They were now able, thanks to their conquests in the Thirty Years' War, to attack Denmark from the south as well as the east; the Dutch alliance promised to secure them at sea, and an attack upon Denmark would prevent her from utilizing the impending peace negotiations to the prejudice of Sweden. In May the Swedish Privy Council decided upon war; on December 12 the Swedish Field Marshal Lennart Torstensson, advancing from Bohemia, crossed the southern frontier of Denmark; by the end of January 1644 the whole peninsula of Jutland was in his possession. This totally unexpected attack, conducted from first to last with consummate ability and lightning-like rapidity, had a paralysing effect upon Denmark. Fortunately for his subjects, in the midst of almost universal helplessness and confusion, Christian IV knew his duty and had the courage to do it. The Swedish Senate: Riksrådet, from 1809 Statsrådet, from 1975 Regeringen was and is the principal government institution of Sweden The Swedish Senate, Senatus Regni Sueciae, originated as a council of Regional Magnates acting as advisers to the Monarch of the combined Realms of the Swedes (from 996, approximately). ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... This is a list of the 78 Field Marshals of Sweden, with their respective years of appointment, from the 16th to the 20th century. ... Count Lennart Torstenson (August 17, 1603 - April 7, 1651) was a Swedish soldier and the son of Torsten Lennartson, commandant of Älvsborg Fortress. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the only non-insular part of Denmark and also the northernmost part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ...


Renewed war with Sweden

In his sixty-sixth year he once more displayed something of the magnificent energy of his triumphant youth. Night and day he laboured to levy armies and equip fleets. Fortunately too for him, the Swedish government delayed hostilities in Scania till February 1644, so that the Danes were able to make adequate defensive preparations and save the important fortress of Malmö. Torstensson, too, was unable to cross from Jutland to Funen for want of a fleet, and the Dutch auxiliary fleet which came to his assistance was defeated between the islands of Sylt and Rømø on the west coast of Schleswig by the Danish admirals. Another attempt to transport Torstensson and his army to the Danish islands by a large Swedish fleet was frustrated by Christian IV in person on July 1, 1644. On that day the two fleets encountered off Kolberge Heath, SE of Kiel Bay, and Christian displayed a heroism which endeared him ever after to the Danish nation and made his name famous in song and story. As he stood on the quarter-deck of the Trinity a cannon close by was exploded by a Swedish bullet, and splinters of wood and metal wounded the king in thirteen places, blinding one eye and flinging him to the deck. But he was instantly on his feet again, cried with a loud voice that it was well with him, and set every one an example of duty by remaining on deck till the fight was over. View over Malmö towards the old city, from the Kronprinsen skyscraper. ... Funen (Danish: Fyn) is the third largest island of Denmark, it has a population of 445,000 people. ... The German island of Sylt is located in the North Sea off the west coast of Germany and Denmark. ... Rømø Church Rømø is a Danish island in the Wadden Sea. ... The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Bay of Kiel (German: Kieler Bucht; Polish: Zatoka KiloÅ„ska) is a basin in the south-western Baltic Sea, off the shores of German land Schleswig-Holstein and the islands of Denmark. ...


Darkness at last separated the contending fleets; and though the battle was a drawn one, the Danish fleet showed its superiority by blockading the Swedish ships in Kiel Bay. But the Swedish fleet escaped, and the annihilation of the Danish fleet by the combined navies of Sweden and the Netherlands, after an obstinate fight between Fehmarn and Lolland at the end of September, exhausted the military resources of Denmark and compelled Christian to accept the mediation of France and the United Provinces; and peace was finally signed at Brömsebro on February 8, 1645. Here Denmark had to cede Gotland, Ösel and (for thirty years) Halland while Norway lost the two provinces Jämtland and Härjedalen. Puttgarden ferry port Flügge lighthouse Fehmarn Sound Bridge from the sound Fehmarn (Danish, Femern) is an island and - since 2003 - a town on this island in the Baltic Sea, off the eastern coast of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and ca. ... Lolland (formerly spelled Laaland) is the fourth largest island of Denmark, with an area of some 1,243 square kilometers. ... The Treaty of Brömsebro of August 13, 1645 ended the Torstenson War between Sweden and Denmark-Norway, which had begun in 1643. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ...   is a county and province of Sweden and the largest island in the Baltic Sea. ... Ösel is another name for Saaremaa, an island off of Estonia Ösel is also one of the six yogas of Naropa. ... is a historical province (landskap) on the western coast of Sweden. ... (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. ... â–¶ (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ...


Last years and legacy

The last years of the king were still further embittered by sordid differences with his sons-in-law, especially with the most ambitious of them, Corfitz Ulfeldt. On February 21, 1648, at his earnest request, he was carried in a litter from Frederiksborg to his beloved Copenhagen, where he died a week later. He was buried in Roskilde Cathedral. February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... Frederiksborg Palace Frederiksborg Palace, in Hillerød, was built as a royal residence for King Christian IV from 1602 to 1620 by the Dutch architects Hans and Lorents van Steenwinckel. ... Copenhagen (IPA: , rhyming with pagan (the way the Danes themselves pronounce the name of the capital in English), or , with a as in spa; Danish   IPA: ) is the capital of Denmark and the countrys largest city (metropolitan population 1,211,542 (2006)). It is also the name of the... Roskilde Cathedral Roskilde Cathedral (Danish: Roskilde Domkirke), in the city of Roskilde on the Island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark was the first Gothic cathedral to be built of brick and its construction encouraged the spread of this Brick Gothic style throughout Northern Europe. ...


Christian IV was a good linguist, speaking, besides his native tongue, German, Latin, French and Italian. Naturally cheerful and hospitable, he delighted in lively society; but he was also passionate, irritable and sensual. He had courage, a vivid sense of duty, an indefatigable love of work, and all the inquisitive zeal and inventive energy of a born reformer. His own pleasure, whether it took the form of love or ambition, was always his first consideration. In the heyday of his youth his high spirits and passion for adventure enabled him to surmount every obstacle with plan. But in the decline of life he reaped the bitter fruits of his lack of self-control, and sank into the grave a weary and brokenhearted old man. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


Trivia

Christian was present at the first production of the play Macbeth. Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. Painting by William Rimmer The Tragedy of Macbeth is among the most famous of William Shakespeares plays, as well as his shortest tragedy. ...


Preceded by
Frederick II
King of Denmark
15881648
Succeeded by
Frederick III
King of Norway
15881648

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Frederick II of Denmark and Norway Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queen of Denmark, including Regents of the Kalmar Union. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... King Frederick III Frederick III (March 28, 1609 – February 19, 1670) was King of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Christian IV of Denmark - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1709 words)
Christian first initiated the policy of expanding Denmark's overseas trade, as part of the mercantilist wave that was sweeping Europe.
Thus the possession of a superior sea-power enabled Denmark to tide over her worst difficulties, and in May 1629 Christian was able to conclude peace with the emperor at Lübeck, without any diminution of territory.
Christian IV was a good linguist, speaking, besides his native tongue, German, Latin, French and Italian.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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