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Encyclopedia > Christian II of Denmark

Christian II (July 2, 1481January 25, 1559) was a Danish monarch and King of Denmark, Norway (15131523) and Sweden (15201521), under the Kalmar Union. Christian was born the son of King John of Denmark ("Kong Hans") and Christina of Saxony, at Nyborg Castle in 1481 and succeeded his father as king and regent in Denmark and Norway, where he later was to be succeeded by his uncle king Frederick I of Denmark. In Sweden he was as a result of his conquest of Sweden and his involvement in the Stockholm Bloodbath to be remembered as Christian the Tyrant. July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... mary elline m. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... The royal lineages of Norway, Sweden and Denmark for the period around the formation of the Kalmar Union The Kalmar Union (Danish/Norwegian/Swedish: Kalmarunionen) was a series of personal unions (1397–1520) that united the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden under a single monarch. ... John, Johann, Johan II, Danish and Norwegian name Hans, was a Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1481 – 1513), Norway (1483 – 1513) Sweden (1497 – 1501), under the Kalmar Union, and also Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. ... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... King Frederick I. Frederick I of Denmark and Norway (October 7, 1471 – April 10, 1533) was the son of the first Oldenburg King Christian I of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1426-1481) and of Dorothea of Brandenburg (1430-1495). ... Stockholm Bloodbath - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Christian II
Image:Christian II.jpg
Reign in Denmark July 22, 1513January 20, 1523
Reign in Norway July 22, 1513January 20, 1523


Regency from 1506. Christian II The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... 22 July is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... 22 July is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Reign in Sweden November 1, 1520 – August, 1521
Coronation June 11, 1514 in Denmark


July 20, 1514 in Norway
November 4, 1520 in Sweden November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... mary elline m. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... mary elline m. ...

Queen Isabella of Burgundy
Predecessors John in Denmark and Norway


Sten Sture the Younger in Sweden Isabella (18 July 1501–19 January 1526), Archduchess of Austria by birth and Queen of Denmark by marriage, was the daughter of Philip I and Joanna of Castile and the sister of Emperor Charles V. She was born at Brussels. ... John, Johann, Johan II, Danish and Norwegian name Hans, was a Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1481 – 1513), Norway (1483 – 1513) Sweden (1497 – 1501), under the Kalmar Union, and also Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. ... Sten Sture the Younger, or Sten Sture den yngre, Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, 1512 - February 5, 1520. ...

Successors Frederick I in Denmark and Norway


Gustav I in Sweden King Frederick I. Frederick I of Denmark and Norway (October 7, 1471 – April 10, 1533) was the son of the first Oldenburg King Christian I of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1426-1481) and of Dorothea of Brandenburg (1430-1495). ... Gustav I of Sweden, commonly known as Gustav Vasa, but originally known as Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496 – September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ...

Date of Birth July 1, 1481
Place of Birth Nyborg Castle, Denmark
Date of Death January 25, 1559
Place of Death Kalundborg Castle, Denmark
Place of Burial Odense, Denmark

Contents

July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Kalundborg is a city and site of the municipal-council in Kalundborg municipality in Denmark. ... Odense Palace Saint Canutes Church - the Cathedral of Odense Odense Theatre Odense Railroad Centre Odense is the third largest city in Denmark with 145,554 inhabitants (Odense city 1st January 2004) and the capital of the island of Funen. ...


Politics

As viceroy of Norway (15061512) he had already displayed a singular capacity for ruling under exceptionally difficult circumstances. Patriotism, insight, courage, statesmanship, energy -- these great qualities were indisputably his; but unfortunately they were vitiated by obstinacy, suspicion and a sulky craftiness, beneath which simmered a very volcano of vengeful cruelty. 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1512 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Another peculiarity, more fatal to him in that aristocratic age than any other, was his fondness for the common people, which was increased by his passion for a pretty Norwegian girl of Dutch heritage, named Dyveke Sigbritsdatter, who became his mistress in 1507 or 1509. Dyveke Sigbritsdatter was a common girl, the daughter of merchant Sigbrit Willoms, who became the mistress to Christian II of Denmark in 1507 or 1509. ... Mistress is the feminine form of the word master. ... 1507 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Christian's succession to the throne was confirmed at the Herredag, or assembly of notables from the three northern kingdoms, which met at Copenhagen in 1513. The nobles and clergy of all three kingdoms regarded with grave misgivings a ruler who had already shown in Norway that he was not afraid of enforcing his authority to the uttermost. Copenhagen (Danish: København) is the capital of Denmark, and the name of the municipality (Danish, kommune) in which it resides. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Privy Council of Denmark and the Privy Council of Norway, or Rigsraad of Denmark and Norway, insisted in the Haandfæstning (i.e. the charter extorted from the king) that the crowns of both kingdoms were elective and not hereditary, providing explicitly against any transgression of the charter by the king, and expressly reserving to themselves a free choice of Christian's successor after his death. But the Swedish delegates could not be prevailed upon to accept Christian as king at all. The Council of State (Statsrådet) The Council of State (Statsrådet) is the Danish Privy Council. ...


"We have", they said, "the choice between peace at home and strife here, or peace here and civil war at home, and we prefer the former." A decision as to the Swedish succession was therefore postponed. On August 12, 1515, Christian married Isabella of Burgundy, the granddaughter of the emperor Maximilian I. But he would not give up his liaison with Dyveke, and it was only the death of the unfortunate girl in 1517, under suspicious circumstances, that prevented serious complications with the emperor Charles V. August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Isabella (18 July 1501–19 January 1526), Archduchess of Austria by birth and Queen of Denmark by marriage, was the daughter of Philip I and Joanna of Castile and the sister of Emperor Charles V. She was born at Brussels. ... Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria Maximilian I of Bavaria This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Christian avenged himself by executing the magnate Torben Oxe, who on very creditable evidence was supposed to have been Dyveke's murderer, despite the strenuous opposition of Oxe's fellow-peers; and henceforth the king lost no opportunity to suppress the nobility and raise commoners to power.


His chief counsellor was Dyveke's mother Sigbrit, a born administrator and a commercial genius of the first order. Christian first appointed her controller of the Sound tolls, and ultimately committed to her the whole charge of the finances. A bourgeoise herself, it was Sigbrit's constant policy to elevate and extend the influence of the middle classes. She soon became the soul of a middle-class inner council, which competed with the Rigsraad itself. Northern Öresund Oresund (Öresund in Swedish or Øresund in Danish) or The Sound, is the strait that separates Zealand from Scania, and thereby Denmark from Sweden. ...


The patricians naturally resented their supersession and nearly every unpopular measure was attributed to the influence of "the foul-mouthed Dutch sorceress who hath bewitched the king." However Mogens Gøye the leading man of the Council as long as possible supported the king. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Reconquest of Sweden

Meanwhile Christian was preparing for the inevitable war with Sweden, where the patriotic party, headed by the freely elected Viceroy Sten Sture the Younger, stood face to face with the pro-Danish party under Archbishop Gustav Trolle. Sten Sture the Younger, or Sten Sture den yngre, Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, 1512 - February 5, 1520. ... Gustav Eriksson Trolle (1488-1533) was Archbishop of Uppsala, Sweden, in two sessions, and involved in the turbulent events at the break between Catholicism and Lutheranism in Scandinavia. ...


Christian, who had already taken measures to isolate Sweden politically, hastened to the relief of the archbishop, who was beleaguered in his fortress of Stäket, but was defeated by Sture and his peasant levies at Vedila and forced to return to Denmark. A second attempt to subdue Sweden in 1518 was also frustrated by Sture's victory at Brännkyrka. A third attempt made in 1520 with a large army of French, German and Scottish mercenaries proved successful. Almarestäket, or Stäket, is a strait at the inlet of lake Mälaren in midth-east Sweden. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... mary elline m. ...


Sture was mortally wounded at the battle of Bogesund, on January 19, and the Danish army, unopposed, was approaching Uppsala, where the members of the Swedish Privy Council, or Riksråd, had already assembled. The councillors consented to render homage to Christian on condition that he gave a full indemnity for the past and a guarantee that Sweden should be ruled according to Swedish laws and custom; and a convention to this effect was confirmed by the king and the Danish Privy Council on March 31. The Battle of Bogesund was an important conflict in the campaign of Christian II to gain power over Sweden. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) 59°51′ N 17°38′ E is a Swedish City in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... The Swedish Senate: Riksrådet, from 1809 Statsrådet, from 1975 Regeringen was and is the principal government institution of Sweden The Swedish Senate, Senatus Regni Sueciae, originated as a council of Regional Magnates acting as advisers to the Monarch of the combined Realms of the Swedes (from 996, approximately). ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ...


Sture's widow, Dame Christina Gyllenstierna, still held out stoutly at Stockholm, and the peasantry of central Sweden, roused by her patriotism, flew to arms, defeated the Danish invaders at Balundsås on March 19, and were only with the utmost difficulty finally defeated at the bloody battle of Uppsala, on Good Friday, April 6, 1520. Christina Nilsdotter Gyllenstierna Christina Nilsdotter Gyllenstierna (1494-1559), (daughter of Nils Eriksson Gyllenstierna and Sigrid Eskilsdotter (Banér)), wife of the Swedish regent Sten Sture the Younger, and after his death organiser of the defence against the attack from Denmark. ... The Old town in Stockholm from the air (help· info) is the capital of Sweden, located on the east coast at the entrance of lake Mälaren. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... Good Friday is a holy day celebrated by Christians on the Friday before Easter or Pascha. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... mary elline m. ...


In May the Danish fleet arrived, and Stockholm was invested by land and sea; but Dame Gyllenstierna, resisted valiantly for four months longer, and took care, when she surrendered on September 7, to exact beforehand an amnesty of the most explicit and absolute character. On November 1 the representatives of the nation swore fealty to Christian as hereditary king of Sweden, though the law of the land distinctly provided that the Swedish crown should be elective. September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... A hereditary monarchy is the most common style of monarchy and is the form that is used by almost all of the worlds existing monarchies. ... An elective monarchy is a monarchy whose reigning king or queen is elected in some form. ...


Christian descended, through both Valdemar I of Sweden and Magnus I of Sweden, from the Swedish Dynasty of Eric, and from Catherine, daughter of Inge I of Sweden, as well as from Ingrid Ylva, granddaughter of Sverker I of Sweden. His rival Gustav I of Sweden descended only from Sverker II of Sweden and the Dynasty of Sverker (who apparently did not descend from ancient Swedish kings). Christian's ancestry included almist all ancient Swedish kings. Valdemar Birgersson (1239-1302), King of Sweden 1250-1275/1288/1302, was the son of princess Ingeborg Eriksdotter of Sweden and Birger Jarl, Earl Birger Magnusson of Bjälbo, who more or less ruled Sweden from 1248 under king Eric Ericsson the Lame his brother in law. ... Seal of Magnus I Magnus I of Sweden (1240 – 1290), often called LadulÃ¥s: Barnlock, was king of Sweden from 1275/1280 until his death in 1290. ... The house of St Eric was one of the two noble families, dynasties, which rivalled for the kingship of Sweden between 1150 and 1220. ... ... Sverker I Kolson or Sverker the Elder (died c. ... Gustav I of Sweden, commonly known as Gustav Vasa, but originally known as Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496 – September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... Sverker the younger Karlsson or Sverker den yngre Karlsson in Swedish (born c. ... After the extinction of the House of Stenkil and the coronation of Sverker I of Sweden in 1130, a civil war commenced. ...


The Stockholm Bloodbath

Christian II with coats of arms of Norway, Denmark and Sweden

On November 4, he was anointed by Gustavus Trolle in Stockholm Cathedral, and took the usual oath to rule the Realm through native-born Swedes alone, according to prescription. The next three days were given up to banqueting, but on November 7 "an entertainment of another sort began." On the evening of that day Christian summoned his captains to a private conference at the palace, the result of which was quickly apparent, for at dusk a band of Danish soldiers, with lanterns and torches, broke into the great hall and carried off several carefully selected persons. Download high resolution version (606x773, 172 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (606x773, 172 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... Storkyrkan (also known as The Great Church or Stockholm Cathedral) is the cathedral of Stockholm. ... The Realm of Sweden or Svenska väldet is a term that historically was used to comprise all the territories under the control of the Swedish monarchs. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ...


By 10 o'clock the same evening the remainder of the king's guests were safely under lock and key. All these persons had previously been marked down on Archbishop Trolle's proscription list. On the following day a council, presided over by Trolle, solemnly pronounced judgment of death on the proscribed, as manifest heretics.


At 12 o'clock that night the patriotic bishops of Skara and Strängnäs were led out into the great square and beheaded. Fourteen noblemen, three burgomasters, fourteen town councillors and about twenty common citizens of Stockholm were then drowned or decapitated. The executions continued throughout the following day; in all, about eighty-two people are said to have been thus murdered. Skara is a Municipality in Västra Götaland County, in western Sweden. ... Strängnäs is a Municipality in Södermanland County, in central Sweden, located by Lake Mälaren. ...


Moreover, Christian revenged himself upon the dead as well as upon the living, for Sten Sture's body was dug up and burnt, as well as the body of his little child. Dame Christina and many other noble Swedish ladies were sent as prisoners to Denmark. It has well been said that the manner of this atrocious deed, the Stockholm Bloodbath as it is generally referred to, was even more detestable than the deed itself. The massacre and deeds in the Old Town of Stockholm is perhaps the primary reason why Christian is remembered in Sweden, as Christian the Tyrant. Sture was the name an influential family in Sweden from the late 15th century to the early 16th century. ... Stockholm Bloodbath - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Gamla stan is the old town of Stockholm, Sweden. ...


Christian suppressed his political opponents under the pretense of defending an ecclesiastical system which in his heart he despised. Even when it became necessary to make excuses for his crime, we see the same double-standard. Thus, while in a proclamation to the Swedish people he represented the massacre as a measure necessary to avoid a papal interdict, in his apology to the Pope for the decapitation of the innocent bishops he described it as an unauthorized act of vengeance on the part of his own people. The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the successor of St. ...


Attempting reforms

It was with his brain teeming with great designs that Christian II returned to his native kingdom. That the welfare of his dominions was dear to him there can be no doubt. Inhuman as he could be in his wrath, in principle he was as much a humanist as any of his most enlightened contemporaries. But he would do things his own way; and deeply distrusting the Danish nobles with whom he shared his powers, he sought helpers from among the wealthy and practical middle classes of Flanders.


In June 1521 he paid a sudden visit to the Low Countries, and remained there for some months. He visited most of the large cities, took into his service many Flemish artisans, and made the personal acquaintance of Quentin Matsys and Albrecht Dürer, the latter of whom painted his portrait. Christian also entertained Erasmus, with whom he discussed the Reformation, and let fall the characteristic expression: "Mild measures are of no use; the remedies that give the whole body a good shaking are the best and surest." Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai / Ik zal handhaven (French/Dutch for I will maintain) Anthem: Wilhelmus Capital Amsterdam (constitutional capital) The Hague (seat of government) Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch, Frisian 1 Government Head of State Prime minister Constitutional monarchy Queen Beatrix Jan Peter Balkenende Independence  â€¢ Declared  â€¢ Recognized From Spain... Self-Portrait, 1493, Oil on Canvas Albrecht Dürer (May 21, 1471 - April 6, 1528) was a German painter, wood carver, engraver, and mathematician of Hungarian ancestry. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


Never had King Christian seemed so powerful as upon his return to Denmark on September 5, 1521, and, with the confidence of strength, he at once proceeded recklessly to inaugurate the most sweeping reforms. Soon after his return he issued his great Landelove, or Code of Laws. For the most part this is founded on Dutch models, and testifies in a high degree to the king's progressive aims. Provision was made for the better education of the lower, and the restriction of the political influence of the higher clergy; there were stern prohibitions against wreckers and "the evil and unchristian practice of selling peasants as if they were brute beasts"; the old trade guilds were retained, but the rules of admittance thereto made easier, and trade combinations of the richer burghers, to the detriment of the smaller tradesmen, were sternly forbidden. September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ...


Unfortunately these reforms, excellent in themselves, suggested the standpoint not of an elected ruler, but of a monarch by right divine. Some of them were even in direct contravention of the charter; and the old Scandinavian spirit of independence was deeply wounded by the preference given to the Dutch.


Downfall

Sweden too was now in open revolt; and both Norway and Denmark were taxed to the uttermost to raise an army for the subjection of the sister kingdom. Foreign complications were now added to these domestic troubles. With the laudable objective of releasing Danish trade from the grinding yoke of the Hanseatic League, and making Copenhagen the great emporium of the north, Christian had arbitrarily raised the Sound tolls and seized a number of Dutch ships which presumed to evade the tax. The Hanseatic League (German: die Hanse, Dutch: de Hanze) was an alliance of trading cities that established and maintained a trade monopoly over the Baltic Sea and most of Northern Europe for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, between the 13th and 17th century. ... Copenhagen (Danish: København) is the capital of Denmark, and the name of the municipality (Danish, kommune) in which it resides. ...


Thus his relations with the Netherlands were strained, while with Lübeck and her allies he was openly at war. Finally Jutland rose against him, renounced its allegiance and offered the Danish crown to Christian's uncle, Duke Frederick of Holstein, January 20, 1523. So overwhelming did Christian's difficulties appear that he took ship to seek help abroad, and on May 1 landed at Veere in Zeeland. Lübeck ( pronunc. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the mainland part of Denmark and a northern part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... King Frederick I. Frederick I of Denmark and Norway (October 7, 1471 – April 10, 1533) was the son of the first Oldenburg King Christian I of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1426-1481) and of Dorothea of Brandenburg (1430-1495). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Veere is a municipality and a city in the southwestern Netherlands, on Walcheren in the province of Zeeland. ...


During his exile years the king led a relatively humble life in the city of Lier in the Netherlands waiting for the military help of his reluctant imperial brother-in-law. In the meantime he became regarded a social saviour in Denmark where both the peasants and the commoners began to wish his restoration. For some time he even became a protestant but had to re-convert in order to get the support of the Emperor. Lier can refer to the municipalities: Lier, Norway Lier, Belgium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Eight years later, October 24, 1531 he attempted to recover his kingdoms but a tempest scattered his fleet off the Norwegian coast, and on July 1, 1532, by the convention of Oslo, he surrendered to his rival, King Frederick, in exchange for a promise of safe conduct. October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... Events January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake-- thousands die October 1 - Battle of Kappel - The forces of Zürich are defeated by the Catholic cantons. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ...


But King Frederick did not keep his promise, and for the next 27 years King Christian was kept prisoner, first in the Castle of Soenderborg until 1549, and afterwards at the castle of Kalundborg. Sønderborg Castle, 2005 Sønderborg Castle is located in the town of Sønderborg, Denmark on the island of Als in South Jutland. ... Kalundborg is a city and site of the municipal-council in Kalundborg municipality in Denmark. ...


Stories of solitary confinement in small dark chambers are inaccurate; King Christian was treated like a nobleman, particularly in his old age, and he was allowed to host parties, go hunting, and wander freely as long as he did not go beyond the boundaries of the town of Kalundborg. But he was still a prisoner, albeit a royal one, and his 27-year captivity is a major blemish upon the reputation of king Frederick I and his son. Christian II was never convicted of any crime.


His cousin, King Christian III of Denmark, son of Frederick I, died in early 1559, and it was said that even then, with the old king nearing 80, did people in Copenhagen look warily towards Kalundborg. But king Christian II died peacefully just a few days later, and the new king, Frederick II, ordered that a royal funeral be held in memory of his unhappy kinsman, who lies buried in Odense next to his wife and his parents. Christian III Christian III (August 12, 1503–January 1, 1559), king of Denmark and Norway, was the son of Frederick I of Denmark and his first consort, Anne of Brandenburg. ... Frederick II of Denmark and Norway Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... Odense Palace Saint Canutes Church - the Cathedral of Odense Odense Theatre Odense Railroad Centre Odense is the third largest city in Denmark with 145,554 inhabitants (Odense city 1st January 2004) and the capital of the island of Funen. ...


The Opinion of Posterity

The name left behind of Christian II has made him one of the most discussed of all Danish kings. He has been regarded both a hypocrite tyrant and a “progressive despot” who wanted to create an absolute monarchy based upon “free citizens”. Besides his often surprising psychological weaknesses have caught the interest of the historians, especially his frequently mentioned irresolution which as years passed seemed to dominate his acts. Theories of manic-depression have been mentioned but like many others they are impossible to prove. The reason for his downfall was probably that he made too many enemies and that the Danish middle class was still not strong enough to make a base of the royal power. However some of his ambitions were fulfilled by the victory of absolutism 1660. Manic depression, with its two principal sub-types, bipolar disorder and major depression, was first clinically described near the end of the 19th century by psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, who published his account of the disease in his Textbook of Psychiatry. ... Events Expulsion of the Carib indigenous people from Martinique by French occupying forces. ...


The king’s almost “Shakespearean” life and career – both the Dyveke affair, his acts concerning the Bloodbath, his behavior at the time of his downfall 1523 and his obscure existence as “the prisoner of Soenderborg” has created many myths. One of the most famous is the story about the irresolute king crossing the Little Belt forwards and backwards during a whole night February 1523 until he at last gave up. Another probably just as unlikely one is the legend that the restless king wandered around a round table on Soenderborg making a grove in the table top with his finger. His life of course also inspired modern Danish poets and authors. The most famous literary result is probably the novel by Johannes Vilhelm Jensen: The Fall of the King (1900-1901) in which the king is regarded almost as a symbol of the Danish “illness of hesitation”. William Shakespeare—born April 1564; baptised April 26, 1564; died April 23, 1616 (O.S.), May 3, 1616 (N.S.)—has a reputation as the greatest of all writers in English. ... Categories: Straits of Europe | Stub ... Johannes Vilhelm Jensen (January 20, 1873 – November 25, 1950) was a Danish author, often considered the first great Danish writer of the 20th century. ... 1900 (MCM) is a common year starting on Monday. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

Preceded by:
John
King of Denmark
1513–1523
Succeeded by:
Frederick I
King of Norway
1513–1523
Preceded by:
Sten Sture the Younger
Regent of Sweden
King of Sweden
1520–1521
Succeeded by:
Gustav Vasa
Regent of Sweden

John, Johann, Johan II, Danish and Norwegian name Hans, was a Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1481 – 1513), Norway (1483 – 1513) Sweden (1497 – 1501), under the Kalmar Union, and also Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. ... This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queen of Denmark, including Regents of the Kalmar Union. ... King Frederick I. Frederick I of Denmark and Norway (October 7, 1471 – April 10, 1533) was the son of the first Oldenburg King Christian I of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1426-1481) and of Dorothea of Brandenburg (1430-1495). ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The... Sten Sture the Younger, or Sten Sture den yngre, Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, 1512 - February 5, 1520. ... This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... Gustav I of Sweden, commonly known as Gustav Vasa, but originally known as Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496 – September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, a publication in the public domain.

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Christian II of Denmark - definition of Christian II of Denmark in Encyclopedia (1662 words)
Christian II (1481 - 1559) was a Danish monarch and King of Denmark, Norway (1513 - 1523) and Sweden (1520 - 1521), under the Kalmar Union.
Christian was born the son of King John of Denmark ("Kong Hans") and Christina of Saxony, at Nyborg Castle in 1481 and succeeded his father as king and regent in Denmark and Norway, where he later was to be succeeded by his uncle king Frederick I of Denmark.
The Privy Council of Denmark and the Privy Council of Norway, or Rigsraad of Denmark and Norway, insisted in the Haandfæstning (i.e.
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