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Encyclopedia > Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg
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Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg.

Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (April 19, 1795June 27, 1876), German naturalist, zoologist, comparative anatomist, geologist, and microscopist, was one of the most famous and productive scientists of his time. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (751x850, 1233 KB) Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876) German naturalist, zoologist, comparative anatomist, geologist, and microscopist File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (751x850, 1233 KB) Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876) German naturalist, zoologist, comparative anatomist, geologist, and microscopist File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now usually viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines. ... Zoology (Greek zoon = animal and logos = word) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in organisms. ... A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into microscope. ... The physicist Albert Einstein is probably the most famous scientist of our time. ...

Contents

Early collections

The son of a judge, Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg was born in Delitzsch, near Leipzig. He first studied theology, then medicine and natural sciences in Berlin and became a friend of the famous explorer Alexander von Humboldt. In 1818, he completed his doctoral dissertation on fungi, Sylvae mycologicae Berolinenses. Delitzsch is a city in Saxony, near Leipzig. ... [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the Federal State (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason) means reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God. ... This article is about the field and science of medical practice and health care. ... The term natural science as the way in which different fields of study are defined is determined as much by historical convention as by the present day meaning of the words. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... This list of explorers is sorted by surname. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the thesis in dialectics and academia. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ...


In 1820–1825, on a scientific expedition to the Middle East with his friend Wilhelm Hemprich, he collected thousands of specimens of plants and animals. He investigated parts of Egypt, the Libyan desert, the Nile valley and the northern coasts of the Red Sea, where he made a special study of the corals. Subsequently parts of Syria, Arabia and Abyssinia were examined. Some results of these travels and of the important collections that had been made were reported on by Humboldt in 1826. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Wilhelm Friedrich Hemprich (June 24, 1796 - June 30, 1825) was a German naturalist. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera Subregnum Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subregnum Eumetazoa Radiata (unranked) Ctenophora Cnidaria Bilateria (unranked) Acoelomorpha Myxozoa Superphylum Deuterostomia Chordata Hemichordata Echinodermata Chaetognatha Superphylum Ecdysozoa Kinorhyncha Loricifera Priapulida Nematoda Nematomorpha Onychophora Tardigrada Arthropoda Superphylum Platyzoa Platyhelminthes Gastrotricha Rotifera Acanthocephala Gnathostomulida Micrognathozoa Cycliophora Superphylum Lophotrochozoa Sipuncula Nemertea Phoronida Bryozoa... Desert landscape in Southern Libya The Libyan Desert (Arabic: الصحراء الليبية) is an African desert that is located in the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert and occupies southwestern Egypt, eastern Libya and northwestern Sudan. ... The Nile (Arabic: ‎, translit: , Ancient Egyptian iteru) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river on Earth, though some sources claim the Amazon in South America is longer. ... Location of the Red Sea Image:Red Seaimage. ... A coral reef can be an oasis of marine life. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


After his return, Ehrenberg published several papers on insects on corals and two volumes Symbelae physicae (1828–1834), in which many particulars of the mammals, birds, insects, etc., were made public. Other observations were communicated to scientific societies. Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrates that are taxonomically referred to as the class Insecta. ... Subclasses Alcyonaria Zoantharia See text for orders. ... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata... Orders Many - see section below. ... Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrates that are taxonomically referred to as the class Insecta. ...


Focus on microscopic organisms

Ehrenberg was appointed professor of medicine at Berlin University in 1827. In 1829 he accompanied Humboldt through eastern Russia to the Chinese frontier. After his return he began to concentrate his studies on microscopic organisms, which until then had not been systematically studied. This article is about the field and science of medical practice and health care. ...


For nearly 30 years Ehrenberg examined samples of water, soil, sediment, and rock and described thousands of new species, among them well-known flagellates such as Euglena, ciliates such as Paramecium aurelia and Paramecium caudatum, and many teeny fossils, in nearly 400 scientific publications. He was particularly interested in a unicellular group of protists called diatoms, but he also studied, and named, many species of radiolaria. In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Flagellata from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Parasitic excavate (Giardia lamblia) Green alga (Chlamydomonas) Flagellates are cells with one or more whip-like organelles called flagella. ... Euglena , Hi, is a common genus of flagellate protozoa, typical of the euglenids, and commonly found in nutrient-rich freshwater, with a few marine species. ... Classes Karyorelictea Heterotrichea Spirotrichea Litostomatea Phyllopharyngea Nassophorea Colpodea Prostomatea Oligohymenophorea Plagiopylea See text for subclasses. ... Paramecium is a well-known genus of ciliate protozoa, formerly known as slipper animalcules from their slipper shape. ... An ammonite fossil Eocene fossil fish of the genus Knightia Petrified wood fossil formed through permineralization. ... Typical phyla Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: ) are a heterogeneous group of organisms, comprising those eukaryotes that are not animals... Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ... Possible classes Polycystinea Acantharea Taxopodea Radiolaria are amoeboid protozoa that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into inner and outer portions, called endoplasm and ectoplasm. ...


These researches had an important bearing on some of the infusorial earths used for polishing and other economic purposes; they added, moreover, largely to our knowledge of the microorganisms of certain geological formations, especially of the chalk, and of the marine and freshwater accumulations. Until Ehrenberg took up the study it was not known that considerable masses of rock were composed of minute forms of animals or plants. He also demonstrated that the phosphorescence of the sea was due to organisms. A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Interstate road cut through limestone and shale strata in eastern Tennessee In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguishes it from contiguous layers. ... The Needles, part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation. ... The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... Phosphorescent powder under visible light, ultraviolet light, and total darkness. ...


He was a foreign member of the Royal Society of London since 1837. In 1839, he won the Wollaston Medal, the highest award granted by the Geological Society of London. He continued until late in life to investigate the microscopic organisms of the deep sea and of various geological formations. He died in Berlin on June 27, 1876. The premises of the Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Wollaston Medal is a scientific award for geology, the highest award granted by the Geological Society of London. ... The Geological Society of London is a learned society based in England with the aim of investigating the mineral structure of the Earth. It is the oldest national geological society in the world and the largest in Europe with over 9000 Fellows entitled to the postnominal FGS - over 2000 of... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


Legacy

After his death in 1876, his collections of microscopic organisms were deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde at the Humboldt University of Berlin. The "Ehrenberg Collection" includes 40,000 microscope preparations, 5,000 raw samples, 3,000 pencil and ink drawings, and nearly 1,000 letters of correspondence. 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Museum für Naturkunde (in English, the Museum of Natural History), widely known as the Humboldt Museum of Berlin, is the first national museum in the world, with a massive collection of more than 25 million zoological, paleontological, and minerological specimens, including more than ten thousand type specimens. ... Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly influenced...


He was also the first winner of the Leeuwenhoek Medal in 1877. The Leeuwenhoek Medal, in 1877 by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, (KNAW), in honor of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, is granted every ten years to the scientist judged to have made the most significant contribution to microbiology during the preceding decade. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


In his hometown, Delitzsch, the highest A-Level school, the "Ehrenberg-Gymnasium" is named after him. The best student of the school year receives the Ehrenberg Prize and a scholarship.


Publications

  • The Ehrenberg Collection (including plates from Mikrogeologie, 1854) is available for download from Museum für Naturkunde, Humboldt-Universität [1]
  • Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen (2 vols., Leipzig, 1838)
  • Mikrogeologie (2 vols., Leipzig, 1854)
  • "Fortsetzung der mikrogeologischen Studien", in Abhandlungen der königlichen Akadademie der Wissenschaft (Berlin, 1875).

 
 

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