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Encyclopedia > Christian God

The term God is used to designate a Supreme Being, however, there are countless definitions of God. For example:

  • Many religious and philosophic systems consider God to be the creator of the universe.
  • Some traditions hold that the creator of the universe is also the sustainer of the universe (as in theism), while others argue that God is no longer involved in the world after creation (as in deism).
  • The common definition of God assumes omnipotence, omniscience and benevolence. However, not all systems hold that God is necessarily morally good (see summum bonum). Others maintain that God is beyond the limited human understanding of morality. Negative theology argues that no true statements about attributes of God can be made at all, while agnostic positions argue that limited human understanding does not allow for any conclusive opinions on God whatsoever. Some mystical traditions ascribe limits to God's powers, arguing that God's supreme nature leaves no room for spontaneity.
  • The concept of a singular God is characteristic of monotheism, but there is no universal definition of monotheism. The differences between monotheism and polytheism vary among traditions (see also trinity, dualism, and henotheism).
  • Some concepts of God may include anthropomorphic attributes, gender, particular names, and ethnic exclusivity (see Chosen people), while others are purely transcendent or philosophic concepts.
  • Some concepts of God centre on a view of God as ultimate, immanent, transcendent, eternal Reality beyond the shifting and constantly mutable multiplicities of the sensible world.
  • The concept of God is often connected to principles of absolute morality or truth.
  • There are variations on defining God either as a person, or not as a person but as an ambiguous impersonal force (see Absolute Infinite). Also at stake are questions concerning the possibilities of human/God relations. There are countless variations in traditions of worship and/or appeasement of God.
  • Some espouse an exclusionist view, holding to one sole definition of God. Others hold an inclusionist view, accepting the possibility of more than one definition of God to be true at the same time.
  • There are also atheistic explanations for the concept of God that can include psychological and/or sociological factors.
Contents

1.1 Capitalisation
For other meanings see Creator (dissambiguation). ... The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. ... Theism is the belief in one or more gods or goddesses. ... Historical and modern Deism are defined by the view that reason should be the basis of belief rather than revelation or tradition. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is the power to do absolutely anything. ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything, or at least everything that can be known. ... Benevolence is a faculty from the discipline of Phrenology. ... Morality is a complex system of general principles and particular judgments based on cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which an individual determines whether his or her actions are right or wrong. ... Summum bonum (greatest or supreme good) is a neoplatonic concept attributed to the Christian God by Saint Augustine in de natura boni (399), in direct opposition to his earlier Manichaean convictions. ... Negative theology, also known as the Via Negativa (Lat. ... Agnosticism is the philosophical and theological view that the existence of God, gods or deities is either unknown or inherently unknowable. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... This article concerns the Holy Trinity of Christianity and related religious denominations. ... The term dualism is the state of being dual, or having a twofold division. ... In religion and philosophy, henotheism is a term coined by Max Müller, meaning belief in, and possible worship of, multiple gods, one of which is supreme. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... This entry contains a discussion of how monotheistic religions deal with God and gender, and how modern feminism has influenced the theology of many religions. ... Monotheistic faiths believe that there is a supreme being, who is necessarily unique, and the different names given to that being in different languages could in principle be translated as English God. ... Throughout history, various groups have considered themselves chosen by God for some purpose. ... Moral absolutism is the belief or theory that there are absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged and suggests that morals are not determined by societal or situational influences. ... The Absolute Infinite is Georg Cantors concept of an infinity that transcended the transfinite numbers. ...

Etymology

Earliest attestation of the Germanic word in the 6th century Codex Argenteus (Mt 5:9)

The word God continues Old English/Germanic god (guþ, gudis in Gothic, Gott in modern German). The original meaning and etymology of the Germanic word god have been hotly disputed, though most agree to a reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form *ǵhutóm, which is a passive perfect participle from the root *ǵhu-, which likely meant "libation", "sacrifice". Compare:- detail of Codex Argenteus, Mt 5:9 scan of the 1927 facsimile edition This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... detail of Codex Argenteus, Mt 5:9 scan of the 1927 facsimile edition This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. ... first page of the Codex Argenteus The Codex Argenteus (or Silver Bible) is a 6th century manuscript, originally containing bishop Ulfilass 4th century translation of the bible into the Gothic language. ... The Gospel of Matthew is one of the four Gospels of the New Testament. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Besides its original meaning, of or relating to the Goths, a Germanic tribe and thus the Gothic language and the Gothic alphabet, and aside from its Early Modern connotations of rough, barbarous, the word Gothic has been used since the 18th century to refer to distinctly different things. ... Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. ... A libation is a ritual pouring of a drink as an offering to a god. ... Sacrifice (is a Middle English verb meaning to make sacred, from Old French, from Latin sacrificium : sacer, sacred; sacred + facere, to make) is commonly known as the practice of offering food, or the lives of animals or people to the gods, as an act of propitiation or worship. ...

The connection between these meanings is likely via the meaning "pour a libation". Another possible meaning of *ǵhutóm is "invocation", related to Sanskrit hūta. The adjective Vedic may refer to The Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts. ... The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... An ingot is a mass of metal or semiconducting material, heated past the melting point, and then recast, typically into the form of a bar or block. ... A libation is a ritual pouring of a drink as an offering to a god. ... The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ...


The word God was used to represent Greek theos, Latin deus in Bible translations, first in the Gothic translation of the New Testament by Ulfilas. Representation of Ulfilas surrounded by the Gothic alphabet Ulfilas or Wulfila (perhaps meaning little wolf) (c. ...


Philologically, Gk. theos is said to be akin to Zeus, the chief god in Greek mythology, who has Dios in a genitive form. L. Diespiter means Jupiter, chief god in L. mythology, dies + pater, day + father. In Skr. deva is a god, as derived from the root div, heaven, and diu denoting day, shine and brightness (L. niter).


Capitalisation

KJV of 1611 (Psalms 23:1,2): Occurrence of "Lord" (and "God" in the heading)

The development of English orthography was dominated by Christian texts. Capitalised "God" was first used to refer to the Judeo-Christian concept, and may now signify any monotheistic conception of God, including the translations of the Arabic Allah and the African Masai Engai. KJV of 1611 sample This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... KJV of 1611 sample This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Events November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. ... Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... An example of allāhu written in simple Arabic calligraphy For the town in Nigeria see Allah (town in Nigeria). ... A Maasai tribesman The Maasai or Masai are an indigenous African tribe of semi-nomadic people located primarily in Kenya and northern Tanzania. ... Ngai (Enkai, En-kai, Engai, Eng-ai, Mweai) is the supreme God in the monotheistic religions of the Kamba, Kikuyu, and Maasai tribes of Africa. ...


In early English bibles, the Tetragrammaton was rendered in capitals: "IEHOUAH" in William Tyndale's version of 1525. The King James Version of 1611 renders The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to AD 300), Aramaic (10th century BC to 1 BC) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tindale) (ca. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Events November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ...

  • YHWH as "The Lord"
  • Elohim as "God"
  • Adonay YHWH and Adonay Elohim as "Lord God"
  • kurios ho theos as "Lord God" (in the New Testament)

The use of capitalisation, as for a proper noun, has persisted to disambiguate the concept of a singular God from pagan deities for which lowercase god has continued to be applied, mirroring the use of Latin deus. Pronouns referring to God are also often capitalised and are traditionally in the masculine gender, i.e. "He", "His" etc. The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... Elohim (אלהים) is a Hebrew word related to deity, but whose exact significance is often disputed. ... The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Scriptures, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism. ... In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once. ...


Names of God

Main article: Names of God Monotheistic faiths believe that there is a supreme being, who is necessarily unique, and the different names given to that being in different languages could in principle be translated as English God. ...

The generic term God is the proper English name used for the deity of monotheistic faiths. Different names for God exist within different religious traditions. Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ...

An example of allāhu written in simple Arabic calligraphy For the town in Nigeria see Allah (town in Nigeria). ... Islam (Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The 99 Names of God, according to Islamic tradition, are the names of God that God, or Allah, has revealed to man. ... You might find the information you seek in any of the following pages: Tetragrammaton, a page about the history, religious significance and possible pronunciations (Jehovah, Yahweh) of the explicit name of God in Judaism and Christianity; The names of God in Judaism, a more general page discussing various names of... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... Elohim (אלהים) is a Hebrew word related to deity, but whose exact significance is often disputed. ... The Bible (From Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, plural of βιβλιον, biblion, book, originally a diminutive of βιβλος, biblos, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos, meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported this writing material), is a word applied to sacred scriptures. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ... This article concerns the Holy Trinity of Christianity and related religious denominations. ... The neutrality and accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Christ, from the Greek in english known as Χριστός, or Khristós, means anointed, and is equivalent to the Hebrew term Messiah. ... The Holy Spirit, or the Holy Ghost, is the name used in the Bible referring to the processed Triune God. ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Saguna Brahman, also called Iswara, in Hinduism, is God with personal characteristics or attributes. ... In Hinduism, the Trimurti (also called the Hindu trinity) are three aspects of God in His forms as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... For the Jewish ritual of mourning, see Shivah. ... In the Vedantic (and subsequently Yogic) schools of Hinduism, Brahman is the signifying name given to the concept of the unchanging, infinite, immanent and transcendent reality that is the Divine Ground of all being. ... Gayatri (gāyatrī) is the feminine form of gāyatra, a Sanskrit word for a song or a hymn. ... Vishnu The Vishnu sahasranama (literally: thousand names of Vishnu) is a list of 1,000 names for Vishnu, one of the main forms of God in Hinduism and the only Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavites. ... A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism, a religious faith originating in the Punjab. ... The word Waheguru means The Wonderful Lord in the Gurmukhi language. ... Jah is traditionally thought to be a shortened form of the name Yahweh or Jehovah. ... Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement of Jah people is a religious movement that reveres Haile Selassie I, the former emperor of Ethiopia, as King of Kings, Lord of Lords and the Lion of Judah. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... St. ... Religious Science, also known as Science of Mind, was founded in 1926 by Ernest Holmes (1887-1960) and is a religious movement within the New Thought Movement. ... The realization of Oneness is the achieving of the awareness of the absolute interconnectedness of all matter and thought in space-time. ... A Maasai tribesman The Maasai or Masai are an indigenous African tribe of semi-nomadic people located primarily in Kenya and northern Tanzania. ... Ngai (Enkai, En-kai, Engai, Eng-ai, Mweai) is the supreme God in the monotheistic religions of the Kamba, Kikuyu, and Maasai tribes of Africa. ... A volcano is a geological landform (usually a mountain) where magma (rock of the earths interior made molten or liquid by high pressure and temperature) erupts through the surface of the planet. ... Ol Doinyo Lengai is a volcano located in Tanzania. ...

History of monotheism

See also monotheism. Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ...


The religions widely thought of as monotheistic today are of relatively recent origin historically, although Eastern religions (notably religions of China and India) that have concepts of panentheism are difficult to classify along Western notions of monotheism vs. polytheism, and sometimes have claims of being very ancient, if not eternal. Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all, en=in and Theos=God) is the view that God is immanent within all Creation and that the universe is part of God or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... The term Western world can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ...


In the Ancient Orient, many cities had their own local god, but this henotheistic worship of a single god did not imply denial of the existence of other gods. The Hebrew Ark of the Covenant adapted this practice to a nomadic lifestyle, paving their way for a singular God. The cult of the solar god Aten is often cited as the earliest known example of monotheism, but even if Akhetaten's hymn to Aten praises this god as omnipotent creator, worship of other gods beside him never ceased. Early examples of monotheism also include two late rigvedic hymns (10.129,130) to a Panentheistic creator god, Shri Rudram, a Vedic hymn to Rudra, an earlier aspect of Shiva, which expressed monistic theism, and is still chanted today, the Zoroastrian Ahuramazda and Chinese Shang Ti. The worship of polytheistic gods, on the other hand, is seen by many to predate monotheism, reaching back as far as the paleolithic. Today, monotheistic religions are dominant (mainly due to the missionary efforts of Christianity and Islam), but polytheism, and to a lesser extent also animism, survive. Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Egypt, the Fertile Crescent, Anatolia), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... In religion and philosophy, henotheism is a term coined by Max Müller, meaning belief in, and possible worship of, multiple gods, one of which is supreme. ... Hebrews (syns. ... A late 19th-century artists conception of the Ark of the Covenant, employing a Renaissance cassone for the Ark and cherubim as latter-day Christian angels The Ark of the Covenant (in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container built at the command... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Aten is a sun god in ancient Egyptian mythology, and represented by the suns disk. ... Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ... The Great Hymn to the Aten was found in the tomb of Ay, in the rock tombs at Akhetaten. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all and Theos=God) is the view that God is immanent within all creation and that the universe is part of God or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... For other meanings see Creator (dissambiguation). ... The Shri Rudram Chamakam (TS 4. ... The adjective Vedic may refer to The Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts. ... In Hinduism, Rudra (howler) is a storm, the hunt, death, wild nature and a wind god. ... For the Jewish ritual of mourning, see Shivah. ... Monism is the metaphysical position that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Ahura Mazda (Persian هرمز (Hormoz) also transcripted as Ormazad, Ormuzd, Hormuz, Ormus, Ohrmizd) - The Wise Lord - is the god of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. ... Shang Ti (上帝) or Lord of Heaven is the name of the supreme deity worshipped by the ancient Chinese, especially during the Shang and Zhou dynasties. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic – lit. ... Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. ... Islam (Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Animism is the belief that personalized supernatural beings (or souls) inhabit all objects and govern their existence. ...


The existence of God

While belief in God can be considered solely a matter of faith (Fideism), there are also many intellectual arguments for as well as arguments against the existence of God. In Christian theology, fideism is any of a number of positions. ... Many arguments for the existence of God exist. ... Many arguments against the existence of gods have been proposed over time, with reference to multiple gods and conceptions of God. ...


Theology

Theology is the study of religious beliefs. Theologians attempt to explicate (and in some cases systematize) beliefs; some express their own experience of the divine. Theologians ask questions such as: What is the nature of God? What does it mean for God to be singular? If people believe in God as a duality or trinity, what do these terms signify? Is God transcendent, immanent, or some mix of the two? What is the relationship between God and the universe, and God and mankind? Theology is literally reasonable discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Transcendental in philosophical contexts In philosophy, transcendental experiences are experiences of an exclusively human nature that are other-worldly or beyond the human realm of understanding. ... Immanence is a religious and philosophical concept. ...

  • Theism holds that God is both transcendent and immanent; thus, God is simultaneously infinite and in some way present in the affairs of the world. Catholic theology holds that God is infinitely simple and is outside of time. Most theists hold that God is omnipotent, omniscient, and benevolent, although this belief raises questions about God's responsibility for evil and suffering in the world. Some theists ascribe to God a self-conscious or purposeful limiting of omnipotence, omniscience, or benevolence. Open Theism, by contrast, asserts that God has limits. "Theism" is sometimes used to refer in general to any belief in a god or gods, i.e., monotheism or polytheism.
  • Deism holds that God is wholly transcendent: God exists, but does not intervene in the world beyond what was necessary for God to create it. In this view, God is not anthropomorphic, and does not literally answer prayers or cause miracles to occur.
  • Monotheism holds that there is only one God, and/or that the one true God is worshipped in different religions under different names. It is important to note, however, that monotheists of one religion can, and often do, consider the monotheistic god of a different religion to be a false god. For instance, many Christian fundamentalists consider the God of Islam (Allah) to be a false god or demon (although theologians and linguists argue that "Allah" is merely the Arabic word for "God," and not the literal name of a specifically Muslim god). Many Jews consider the messiah of Christianity (Jesus) to be a false god and some monotheists (notably fundamentalist Christians) hold that there is one triune God, and that all gods of other religions are actually demons in disguise (as in 2nd Corinthians 11 (http://wikisource.org/wiki/Bible%2C_English%2C_King_James%2C_2_Corinthians#Chapter_11) verse 14). Eastern religious believers and Liberal Christians are more likely to assume those of other faiths worship the same God as they.
  • Pantheism holds that God is the universe and the universe is God. Panentheism holds that God contains, but is not identical to, the Universe. The distinctions between the two are subtle, and many consider them unhelpful. Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism, paints a pantheistic/panentheistic view of God, which has wide acceptance in Hasidic Judaism, particularly from their founder The Baal Shem Tov. It is also the view of the Liberal Catholic Church, Theosophy, Hinduism, some divisions of Buddhism, and Taoism, along with many varying denominations and individuals within denominations.
  • Dystheism is a form of theism which holds that God is malevolent as a consequence of the problem of evil. Dystheistic speculation is common in theology, but there is no known church of practicing dystheists. See also Satanism.

Most believers allow for the existence of other, less powerful spiritual beings, and give them names such as angels, saints, Djinn, demons, and devas. Theism is the belief in one or more gods or goddesses. ... Transcendental in philosophical contexts In philosophy, transcendental experiences are experiences of an exclusively human nature that are other-worldly or beyond the human realm of understanding. ... Immanence is a religious and philosophical concept. ... In theology, the doctrine of divine simplicity says that God is without parts. ... Eternal links here. ... Open theism, also known as Free will theism, is a theological movement that has arisen within Evangelical Protestant Christianity. ... Historical and modern Deism are defined by the view that reason should be the basis of belief rather than revelation or tradition. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... According to many religions, a miracle is an intervention by God in the universe. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... An example of allāhu written in simple Arabic calligraphy For the town in Nigeria see Allah (town in Nigeria). ... In Christian contexts, demons such as Satan are often depicted in a grotesque fashion. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Anointed one, Standard Hebrew Mašíaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew Māšîªḥ) is a human descendant of King David who will rebuild the nation of Israel and bring world peace by restoring the Davidic Kingdom. ... The neutrality and accuracy of this article are disputed. ... This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ... The Christian Left encompasses those who hold a strong Christian belief and share left-wing or socialist ideals. ... Pantheism (Greek: pan = all and Theos = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all, en=in and Theos=God) is the view that God is immanent within all Creation and that the universe is part of God or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... The tree of life. ... Pantheism literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all, en=in and Theos=God) is the view that God is immanent within all Creation and that the universe is part of God or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות, meaning pious from the Hebrew root word chesed חסד meaning loving kindness) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1698 Okopy Świętej Trójcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as the Baal Shem Tov, or the... The Liberal Catholic Church is a form of Christianity based on theosophical ideas. ... Seal of the Theosophical Society Theosophy is a body of belief which holds that all religions are attempts by man to ascertain the Divine, and as such each religion has a portion of the truth. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... The Yin-Yang or Taiji of Taoism. ... Eutheism and dystheism are dialectic opposites within the spectrum of theistic religious beliefs. ... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of an omniscient, omnipotent, omnibenevolent god. ... Satanism is a religious and philosophical movement whose adherents recognize Satan as an archetype who all humans have some characteristics of, and Satanists celebrate aspects of human nature represented by the Satan archetype. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) In various human mythologies an angel is believed to be an ethereal creature whose duties are to assist and serve the God or gods of many religious traditions. ... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... Genie is the anglicized word for the Arabic jinni. In Semitic mythology and Islamic religion, a jinni (also djinni or djini) is a member of the jinn (or djinn), a race of spirits. ... In Christian contexts, demons such as Satan are often depicted in a grotesque fashion. ... A Deva, in Hinduism, is a deity, controlling forces of nature such as fire, air, etc. ...


Conceptions of God

Jewish, Christian and Muslim conceptions

Judaism, Christianity and Islam see God as a being who created the world and rules over the universe. God is usually held to have the properties of holiness (separate from sin and incorruptible), justness (fair, right, and true in all His judgements), sovereignty (unthwartable in His will), omnipotence (all-powerful), omniscience (all-knowing), omnibenevolence (all-loving), and omnipresence (all-present). The Star of David, a common symbol of Jews and Judaism Judaism is the religion and culture of the Jewish people and one of the first recorded monotheistic faiths. ... Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. ... Islam (Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Holiness means the state of being holy, that is, set apart for the worship or service of a god or gods. ... Justice is a concept involving the fair, moral, and impartial treatment of all persons, especially in law. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region, group of people, or ones self. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is the power to do absolutely anything. ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything, or at least everything that can be known. ... Omnibenevolence is the property of being perfectly good, attributed by some religions to God. ... Omnipresence is defined, in a general sense, as the ability to be present in every place at the same time; unbounded or universal presence. ...


Jews, Christians and Muslims often conceive of God as a personal God, with a will and personality. However, many medieval rationalist philosophers of these religions felt that one should not view God as personal, and that such personal descriptions of God are only meant as metaphors. Some within these three faiths still accept these views as valid, although many of the laity today do not have a wide awareness of them. The phrase personal God is religious term used far more often by laypeople than by theologians due to its numerous connotations. ... This article is not about continental rationalism. ... In language, a metaphor is a rhetorical trope where a comparison is made between two seemingly unrelated subjects. ... In religious organizations , the laity comprises all lay persons, i. ...


In Eastern Christianity, it remains essential that God be personal; hence it speaks of the three persons of the Trinity. It also emphasizes that God has a will, and that God the Son has two wills, divine and human, though these are never in conflict. The personhood of God and of all human people is essential to the concept of theosis or deification. Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions which developed in Greece, the Near East and Eastern Europe. ... This article concerns the Holy Trinity of Christianity and related religious denominations. ... In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis, meaning deification or divinization or, becoming gods, or even becoming God, is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ...


Biblical definition of God

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16th century Christian view of Genesis: God creates Adam (Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel)

The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) characterizes God by these attributes: "The LORD, the LORD God, merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness, keeping steadfast love for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, but who will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children and the children's children, to the third and the fourth generation." (Exodus 34:6–7) God creates Adam by Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. ... God creates Adam by Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... This article is about the biblical Adam and Eve. ... This page is about the artist. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Palace of the Vatican, the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope in the Vatican City. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible refers to the common portions of the Jewish and Christian canons. ... The Old Testament or the Hebrew Scriptures constitutes the first major part of the Christian Bible, usually divided into the categories law, history, poetry (or wisdom books) and prophecy. ...


The Hebrew Bible contains no systematic theology: No attempt is made to give a philosophical or rigorous definition of God, nor of how God acts in the world. It does not explicitly describe God's nature, exemplified by God's assertion in Exodus that "you cannot see my face; for man shall not see me and live". Nowhere in the Hebrew Bible are the words omnipotent, omniscient, or omnibenevolent used to define God in a systematic sense. Philosophy (from a combination of the Greek words philos meaning love and sophia meaning wisdom), as a practice, aims at some kind of understanding, knowledge, or wisdom about fundamental matters such as reality, knowledge, meaning, value, being, and truth. ... For other uses of the name, see Exodus (disambiguation) Exodus is the second book of the Torah (the five books of Moses) and also the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and Christian Old Testament. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is the power to do absolutely anything. ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything, or at least everything that can be known. ... Omnibenevolence is the property of being perfectly good, attributed by some religions to God. ...


Although Scripture does not describe God systematically, however, it does provide a poetic depiction of God and His relationship with people. According to the biblical historian Yehezkal Kaufmann, the essential innovation of Biblical theology was to posit a God that cares about people, and that cares about whether people care about Him. Most people believe that the Bible should be viewed as humanity's view of God, but theologian Abraham Joshua Heschel described the Biblical God as "anthropopathic", which means that one should read the Bible as God's view of humanity, and not as humanity's view of God. Abraham Joshua Heschel Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel (January 11, 1907, Warsaw, Poland - December 23, 1972) was considered by many to be one of the most significant Jewish theologians of the 20th century. ...


Similarly, the New Testament contains no systematic theology: no attempt is made to give a philosophical or rigorous definition of God, nor of how God acts in the world. The New Testament does, however, provide an implicit theology as it teaches that God became human while remaining fully God, in the person of Jesus, and that he subsequently sent the Holy Spirit. In this view, God becomes someone that can be seen and touched, and may speak and act in a manner easily perceived by humans, while also remaining transcendent and invisible. This appears to be a radical departure from the concepts of God found in Hebrew Bible. The New Testament's statements regarding the nature of God were eventually developed into the doctrine of the Trinity. The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Scriptures, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... The neutrality and accuracy of this article are disputed. ... The Holy Spirit, or the Holy Ghost, is the name used in the Bible referring to the processed Triune God. ... This article concerns the Holy Trinity of Christianity and related religious denominations. ...


Kabbalistic definition of God

Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism) teaches that God is neither matter nor spirit. Rather God is the creator of both, but is himself neither. But if God is so different from his creation, how can there be any interaction between the Creator and the created? This question prompted Kabbalists to envision two aspects of God, (a) God himself, who in the end is unknowable, and (b) the revealed aspect of God who created the universe, preserves the universe, and interacts with mankind in a personal way. Kabbalists believe that these two aspects are not contradictory but complement one another. The tree of life. ... The Star of David, a common symbol of Jews and Judaism Judaism is the religion and culture of the Jewish people and one of the first recorded monotheistic faiths. ... Mysticism (ancient Greek mysticon = secret) is meditation, prayer, or theology focused on the direct experience of union with divinity, God, or Ultimate Reality; or the belief that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. ... Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. ... (Singular-lower case) The transmitting organ of man for contacting God. ...


Negative theology

Main article: Negative theology. Negative theology, also known as the Via Negativa (Lat. ...


Some Jewish, Christian and Muslim medieval philosophers developed what is termed as negative theology, the idea of approaching a knowledge of God through negative attributes. For example, we should not say that God exists in the usual sense of the term; all we can safely say is that God is not nonexistent. We should not say that God is wise, but we can say that God is not ignorant. We should not say that God is One, but we can state that there is no multiplicity in God's being. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Negative theology, also known as the Via Negativa (Lat. ... In theology, the doctrine of divine simplicity says that God is without parts. ...


God as Unity or Trinity

Jews, Muslims, and a small fraction of Christians are unitarian monotheists. The vast majority of Christians have been and still are Trinitarian monotheists. Islam (Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. ...

  • Unitarian monotheists hold that there is only one "person" (so to speak), or one basic substance, in God. Some adherents of this position consider Trinitarianism to be a form of polytheism.
  • Trinitarian monotheists believe in one God that exists as three distinct persons who share the same substance/essence; the Christian version of this is called the Trinity, the Hindu version Trimurti. Trinitarians hold that the three persons have the same purpose, holiness, and sovereignty, and therefore each can be worshipped as God, without violating the idea that there is only one God to which worship belongs.
  • Mormons believe that there are three separate divine personages. One of these personages is a spirit without a body referred to as the Holy Ghost. The other two personages are spirits with perfected or glorified (often called celestial) bodies referred to as Heavenly Father (or less commonly "Elohim") and his son, Jesus Christ. Mormons hold that God is a Holy Man who advanced to his divine status through a repeatable process of progression. They believe that by following their religion's teachings, humans can literally become gods (sometimes phrased as "become like Heavenly Father") at some point after death and resurrection; this is also called Exaltation.
  • Rastafarians believe that Haile Selassie is both God the Father and God the Son, made manifest in human flesh as the reincarnation of Jesus, while the Holy Spirit is seen to dwell within all believers (of Rastafari), and within all people (believed by some).
  • Hasidic Jews hold that there are ten Sefirot (emanations) of God. Each of these are more distinct than a characteristic, but less distinct than a separate personage.
  • Monism is the metaphysical position that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy, that being a pantheist, or panentheist, immanent God. Monism can be inclusive of other interpretations of God.
  • Dualism is the idea of two, nearly equal divine entities, one being the good God, and the other being an evil god, or Satan. All beings are under the influence of one side, or the other, if they know it or not. Zoroastrianism is an example of dualism.

Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to traditional Christian belief in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). ... This article concerns the Holy Trinity of Christianity and related religious denominations. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism, the Trimurti (also called the Hindu trinity) are three aspects of God in His forms as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name most often used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Elohim (אלהים) is a Hebrew word related to deity, but whose exact significance is often disputed. ... This article is about the religious meaning of the word Resurrection. For other meanings see Resurrection (disambiguation). ... For the term exalt, see exalt. ... Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement of Jah people is a religious movement that reveres Haile Selassie I, the former emperor of Ethiopia, as King of Kings, Lord of Lords and the Lion of Judah. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות, meaning pious from the Hebrew root word chesed חסד meaning loving kindness) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Sephirah, also Sefirah (Hebrew language סְפִירָה Enumeration); plural Sephiroth or Sefiroth סְפִירוֹת. ... Monism is the metaphysical position that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Alternate use: essence (Shadowrun role-playing game) In philosophy, essence is the attribute (or set of attributes) that make an object or substance what it fundamentally is. ... Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. ... Pantheism literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all and Theos=God) is the view that God is immanent within all creation and that the universe is part of God or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... Immanence is a religious and philosophical concept. ... The term dualism is the state of being dual, or having a twofold division. ... Gustave Dores depiction of Satan from John Miltons Paradise Lost Satan (שָׂטָן Standard Hebrew Satan, Tiberian Hebrew Śāṭān; Aramaic שִׂטְנָא Śiṭnâ: both words mean Adversary; accuser) is an angel, demon, or minor god in many religions. ... Faravahar, The depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ...

Quranic definitions of God, i.e. Allah

Main article: Allah An example of allāhu written in simple Arabic calligraphy For the town in Nigeria see Allah (town in Nigeria). ...


Allah (Arabic allāhu الله) is traditionally used by Muslims as the Arabic word for "God" (not "God's personal name", but the equivalent of the Hebrew word El as opposed to YHWH). The word Allah is not specific to Islam; Arab Christians and Arab Jews also use it to refer to the monotheist deity. Arabic translations of the Bible also employ it, as do the Catholics of Malta who pronounce it as "Alla" in Maltese, a language derived from and most closely related to Arabic, as well as Christians in Indonesia, who pronounce it "Allah Bapa" (Allah the Father). Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... A name is a label for a thing, person, place, product (as in a brand name), and even an idea or concept, normally used to distinguish one from another. ... EL or El may mean: El (god), a Semitic word for god and the name of a particular northwest Semitic father god who was head of many pantheons and identified with God in the Tanakh. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... Islam (Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Christianity in the Arab world has existed since the first century. ... This article deals with those Jewish communities indigenous to the Middle East. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... A deity or a god, is a postulated preternatural being, usually, but not always, of significant power, worshipped, thought holy, divine, or sacred, held in high regard, or respected by human beings. ... The Bible (From Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, plural of βιβλιον, biblion, book, originally a diminutive of βιβλος, biblos, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos, meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported this writing material), is a word applied to sacred scriptures. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


Many linguists believe that the term Allāh is derived from a contraction of the Arabic words al (the) + ilah (male deity). In addition, one of the main pagan goddesses of pre-Islamic Arabia, Allāt (al + ilāh + at, or 'the female deity'), is cited as being etymologically (though not synchronically) the feminine linguistic counterpart to the grammatically masculine Allah. If so, the word Allāh is an abbreviated title, meaning 'the deity', rather than a name. For this reason, both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars often translate Allāh directly into English as 'God'; however, some Muslim scholars feel that "Allāh" should not be translated, because it expresses the uniqueness of God more accurately than "God", which can take a plural "Gods", whereas "Allāh" has no plural. This is a significant issue in translation of the Qur'an. This also explains why Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians freely refer to God as Allāh. Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Mentioned in the Quran (Sura 53:20), Allāt (a contraction of pre-Arabic *al-ilahat the Goddess) was a pre-Islamic Arabian fertility goddess who was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. ... Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ... Translations of the Qurán are versions of the most holy book of Islam in languages other than Arabic. ...


Aristotelian definition of God

Main article: Aristotelian view of God. This article is on Aristotelian and Neo-Aristotelian definitions of God. ...


In his Metaphysics, Aristotle discusses the meaning of "being as being". Aristotle holds that "being" primarily refers to the Unmoved Movers, and assigned one of these to each movement in the heavens. Each Unmoved Mover continuously contemplates its own contemplation, and everything that fits the second meaning of "being" by having its source of motion in itself, moves because the knowledge of its Mover causes it to emulate this Mover (or should). Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Aristotle (sculpture) Aristotle (Greek: Αριστοτέλης Aristotelēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher. ...


The Ultimate

Arguably, Eastern conceptions of The Ultimate (this, too, has many different names) are not conceptions of a personal divinity, though certain Western conceptions of what is at least called "God" (e.g., Spinoza's pantheistic conception and various kinds of mysticism) resemble Eastern conceptions of The Ultimate. The Ultimate is a general term embracing the concept of an ultimate supernatural reality which transcends material reality and from which, according to a broad spectrum of Eastern philosophies and religions, material reality derives. ... Baruch Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in the community in which he grew up. ... Mysticism (ancient Greek mysticon = secret) is meditation, prayer, or theology focused on the direct experience of union with divinity, God, or Ultimate Reality; or the belief that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. ...


Hindu Conceptions of God

  • In Shaivism and Vaishnavism, Hindus believe that God, whether in the form of Shiva or Vishnu has six attributes. However, the actual number of auspicious qualities of God, are countless, with the following six qualities being the most important.
  • The number six is invariably given, but the individual attributes listed vary.
  • One set of attributes (and their common interpretations) are
    • Jnana (Omniscience), defined as the power to know about all beings simultaneously;
    • Aishvarya (Sovereignty), which consists in unchallenged rule over all;
    • Shakti (Energy), or power, which is the capacity to make the impossible possible;
    • Bala (Strength), which is the capacity to support everything by will and without any fatigue;
    • Virya (Vigour), or valour which indicates the power to retain immateriality as the supreme being in spite of being the material cause of mutable creations; and
    • Tejas (Splendour), which expresses his self-sufficiency and the capacity to overpower everything by his spiritual effulgence.; cited from Bhakti Schools of Vedanta, by Swami Tapasyananda.
  • A second set of six characteristics are
  • Other important qualities attributed to God are Gambhirya (grandeur), Audarya (generosity), and Karunya (compassion).
  • Chanted prayers, or mantras, are central to Hindu worship. Among the most chanted mantras in Hinduism are the Vishnu sahasranama (a prayer to Vishnu that dates from the time of the Mahabharata and describes him as the Universal Brahman), Shri Rudram (a Vedic hymn to Rudra, an earlier aspect of Shiva that also describes Him as Brahman) and the Gayatri mantra, (another Vedic hymn that initially was meant as a prayer to the Sun, an aspect of Brahman but has other interpretations. It is now interpreted as a prayer to the impersonal absolute Brahman). Another famous hymn, Lalitha Sahasranama, describes the 1000 names of Devi, worshipped as God the Divine Mother, or God's Shakti or Power personified by Hindus.
  • It is important to add that in Hinduism (Sanatan Dharam) God is considered the Supreme Being, and many views of God range from panentheism to dualism. His appearance, in its entirety, cannot be comprehended by the common man. His appearance with form is only a manifestation of certain characteristics.

In Hinduism there are two methods of worship: Shaivism, also Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... For the Jewish ritual of mourning, see Shivah. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything, or at least everything that can be known. ... The adjective sovereign is used to refer to a state of sovereignty. ... Strength can mean: Physical strength of organisms means (especially the muscles of most metazoa) of locomotion and movement Strength of materials in physics, engineering and materials science Strength is a rap compilation presented by Asiatic Warriors The word strengths is one of the longest English words with one syllable. ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything, or at least everything that can be known. ... Detachment is a state in where a person becomes separated from his or her environment and its influence. ... FAME is an acronym for fatty acid methyl ester. ... The adjective sovereign is used to refer to a state of sovereignty. ... Glory can refer to: Glory (religion) Glory (optical phenomenon) Glory (film) Glory (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Righteousness is an important concept in the theology of Judaism and Christianity. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... Vishnu The Vishnu sahasranama (literally: thousand names of Vishnu) is a list of 1,000 names for Vishnu, one of the main forms of God in Hinduism and the only Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavites. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is the great religious and philosophical epic of India. ... In the Vedantic (and subsequently Yogic) schools of Hinduism, Brahman is the signifying name given to the concept of the unchanging, infinite, immanent and transcendent reality that is the Divine Ground of all being. ... The Shri Rudram Chamakam (TS 4. ... Gayatri (gāyatrī) is the feminine form of gāyatra, a Sanskrit word for a song or a hymn. ... Lalitha sahasranama is a hymn that describes the 1000 names of Devi or Lalitha and praises God as the Divine Mother or Gods Shakti or Power. ... 1: In Hinduism, Devi (goddess) is the personification of the supreme God as the Divine Mother of Hinduism. ... This article is about the Hindu religious concept. ...

  1. To worship God through meditation on an icon (murti).
  2. To worship God without icon worship.

Murti Worship Different sects of Hinduism, especially devotional/bhakti and tantric ones, have their own particular monotheistic conception of supreme Godhead from whom all other deities and principles emanate (such as Vishnu or Shiva, Krishna or Devi). ...

Modern views

Mathematical definitions

Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (March 3, 1845 – January 6, 1918) was a mathematician who was born in Russia and lived in Germany for most of his life. ... The Absolute Infinite is Georg Cantors concept of an infinity that transcended the transfinite numbers. ... Kurt Gödel Kurt Gödel [kurt gøːdl], (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was a logician, mathematician, and philosopher of mathematics. ... Gödels ontological proof is a formalization of Saint Anselms ontological argument for Gods existence by the mathematician Kurt Gödel. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 - April 21, 1109), a widely influential medieval philosopher and theologian, held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... In theology and the philosophy of religion, an ontological argument for the existence of God is an argument that Gods existence can be proved a priori, that is, by intuition and reason alone. ...

Process philosophy and Open Theism definition of God

In both views, God is not omnipotent in the classical sense of a coercive being. Reality is not made up of material substances that endure through time, but serially-ordered events, which are experiential in nature. The universe is characterized by process and change carried out by the agents of free will. Self-determination characterizes everything in the universe, not just human beings. God and creatures co-create. God cannot force anything to happen, but rather only influence the exercise of this universal free will by offering possibilities. See the entries on Process theology, Panentheism, and Open theism. Process theology (also known as Neoclassical theology) is a school of thought influenced by the metaphysical process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead (1861 - 1947). ... Process philosophy is a philosophical and metaphysical system developed by Alfred North Whitehead, described in his book Whitehead was a philosopher with a neoclassical theistic point of view, and was also a logician/mathematician with a scientific point of view. ... Alfred North Whitehead Alfred North Whitehead ( February 15, 1861, Ramsgate, Kent, UK – December 30, 1947, Cambridge, MA) was a British-American philosopher, physicist and mathematician who worked in logic, mathematics, philosophy of science and metaphysics. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Process theology (also known as Neoclassical theology) is a school of thought influenced by the metaphysical process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead (1861 - 1947). ... Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all, en=in and Theos=God) is the view that God is immanent within all Creation and that the universe is part of God or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ...


Posthuman God

Similar to this theory is the belief or aspiration that humans will create a God entity, emerging from an artificial intelligence. Arthur C. Clarke, a science fiction writer, said in an interview that: It may be that our role on this planet is not to worship God, but to create him. Artificial intelligence (also known as machine intelligence and often abbreviated as AI) is intelligence exhibited by any manufactured (i. ... Arthur C. Clarke, progenitor of communication satellites, is considered by many to be a grand master of science fiction. ...


Another variant on this hypothesis is that humanity or a segment of humanity will create or evolve into a posthuman God by itself; for some examples, see cosmotheism, transhumanism, technological singularity. Charles Darwin, the father of modern evolutionary theory In the life sciences, evolution is a change in the traits of living organisms over generations, including the emergence of new species. ... Posthuman is a term that refers to a hypothetical future being whose basic capacities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer human by our current standards. ... Cosmotheism can refer to: Pantheism The religious sect founded by William Luther Pierce This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Transhumanism is an emergent philosophy analysing or favouring the use of science and technology, especially neurotechnology, biotechnology, and nanotechnology, to overcome human limitations and improve the human condition. ... In futurism, a technological singularity is a predicted point in the development of a civilization at which technological progress accelerates beyond the ability of present-day humans to fully comprehend or predict. ...


Extraterrestrials

Some comparatively new belief systems and books portray God as Extraterrestrial life. Many of these theories hold that intelligent beings from another world have been visiting Earth for many thousands of years, and have influenced the development of our religions. Some of these books posit that prophets or messiahs were sent to the human race in order to teach morality and encourage the development of civilization. (See e.g. Rael). Extraterrestrial life is life that exist and originate outside our planet Earth. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Anointed one, Standard Hebrew Mašíaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew Māšîªḥ) is a human descendant of King David who will rebuild the nation of Israel and bring world peace by restoring the Davidic Kingdom. ... Morality is a complex system of general principles and particular judgments based on cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which an individual determines whether his or her actions are right or wrong. ... The Pyramid of the Moon in Teotihuacan, Mexico. ... Raels first published book, the basis of the Raelian movement Raëlism is the belief system promoted by the Raëlian Movement, a religious organization which believes that scientifically advanced extraterrestrials known as the Elohim (derived from a Hebrew word appearing in the Torah) created life on Earth through genetic engineering...


Phenomenological definition

The philosopher Michel Henry defines God in a phenomenological point of view. He says : « God is Life, he is the essence of Life, or, if we prefere, the essence of Life is God. Saying this we already know what is God, we know it not by the effect of a learning or of some knowledge, we don’t know it by the thought, on the background of the truth of the world ; we know it and we can know it only in and by the Life itself. We can know it only in God. » (That’s me the Truth. Toward a philosophy of Christianity). Michel Henry was a French philosopher and novelist who was born 10 January 1922 at Haiphong, French Indochina (Vietnam) and who died 3 July 2002 at Montpellier,France. ... The life is traditionally understood on an exterior point of view as an ensemble of objective properties which define the life in the biological sense of the term, that of the material body. ...


References

  • Karen Armstrong, A History of God: The 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Ballantine Books, 1994
  • Jack Miles, God : A Biography, Knopf, 1995. [1] (http://www.jackmiles.com/default.asp?ID=15)
  • Cliff Pickover, The Paradox of God and the Science of Omniscience, Palgrave/St Martin's Press, 2001.

Karen Armstrong is an author and expert on Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ... Jack Miles work has appeared in numerous national publications, including The Atlantic Monthly, The New York Times, The Boston Globe, The Washington Post, and The Los Angeles Times. ... Clifford A. Pickover is a writer in the fields of science, mathematics, and science fiction. ...

See also

Atheism is the state either of being without theistic beliefs, or of actively disbelieving in the existence of deities. ... Agnosticism is the philosophical and theological view that spiritual truth, such as the existence of God, gods or deities, is either unknown or inherently unknowable. ... Many arguments for the existence of God exist. ... Many arguments against the existence of gods have been proposed over time, with reference to multiple gods and conceptions of God. ... This entry contains a discussion of how monotheistic religions deal with God and gender, and how modern feminism has influenced the theology of many religions. ... Buddhism is generally regarded as a non-theistic religion. ... In traditional Buddhist cosmology, the six lower realms are six of the ten spiritual realms; these six realms compose samsara. ... The following is a list of chronological appearances of God in fiction, where appearance is defined as a physical or mental manifestation either clearly identified as God (that is, not merely a miraculous or supernatural phenomenon) or for which independent claims have been made that God is depicted (excluding metaphor). ... Natural theology (or natural religion) is theology based on reason and ordinary experience. ... Higgs bosons are hypothetical elementary particles predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ... Transtheism assumes the existence of God as an absent Deity and the ultimate concept of God’s existence is transcendent and external to all other forms of existence, which implies an impersonal, non-anthropomorphic, non-universemorphic or even non-omniversemorphic being and view of God. ...

External links

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Inquisitive Atheists - Is the Christian God Logical? (1924 words)
The Christian god is the god that I am presented with most often and is the god most US citizens hold to be the one true god.
God knew we would fail; knew that He would have to drown all but a few of the entire species at some point; knew that He would send a majority of us to Hell in the end.
God is responsible for placing the Tree of Knowledge in the garden and for allowing the serpent the opportunity to tempt the gullible humans who knew of no good or evil, knew of no lies and liars.
Christian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1349 words)
Christians of this stripe maintain that a centralizing impulse in the church, present from the early days of the church through the rise of Constantine, represented a departure from true Christianity.
Christian spirituality blossomed in the Roman Empire between A.D. 100 and 300 in spite of official efforts to suppress it.
New Christian denominations and other organizations are usually the result of these self interperated renewal movements that seek to bring back some aspect of the Christian faith but lack in the fullness through misguidance of freethought.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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