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Encyclopedia > Christiaan Barnard
Christiaan Neethling Barnard

Born 8 November 1922
Beaufort West, South Africa
Died September 2, 2001 (aged 78)
Flag of Cyprus Paphos, Cyprus
Profession Surgeon
Specialism Cardiothoracic surgery
Heart transplantation
Known for first successful human-to-human
heart transplant.
Years active 1950-2001
Education University of Cape Town

Christiaan Neethling Barnard (November 8, 1922September 2, 2001) was a South African cardiac surgeon, famous for performing the world's first successful human-to-human heart transplant. is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links South_Africa_Red_Ensign. ... Beaufort West is a town in the Western Cape province in South Africa. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... District Paphos Government  - Mayor Savvas Vergas Population (2001)  - City 47,300 Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: http://www. ... This article is about the medical specialty. ... In medicine, the field of (cardio)thoracic surgery or cardiovascular surgery is involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax, i. ... UCT redirects here. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Look up South Africa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Government South Africa Government Online official government site Parliament of South Africa official site Statistics South Africa official government site News AllAfrica. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...

Contents

Career

Barnard did his internship and residency at the Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, after which he worked as a general practitioner in Ceres, a rural town in the Western Cape province. In 1951, he returned to Cape Town where he worked at the City Hospital as a Senior Resident Medical Officer, and in the Department of Medicine at the Groote Schuur Hospital as a registrar. During this time he completed his Masters degree, receiving Master of Medicine (MMed) in 1953 from the University of Cape Town. In the same year he obtained a doctorate in medicine (MD) from the same university for a dissertation entitled "The treatment of tuberculous meningitis". Groote Schuur Hospital (also known as GSH or, colloquially, Grotties) is a large, government-funded, teaching hospital situated on the slopes of Devils Peak in the city of Cape Town, South Africa. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - Total 2,499 km² (964. ... A general practitioner (GP), family physician or family practitioner (FP) is a medical doctor who provides primary care. ... Ceres is a town in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. ... Capital Cape Town Largest city Cape Town Premier Ebrahim Rasool Area - Total Ranked 4th 129,370 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 5th 4,524,335 35/km² Elevation Highest point: Seweweekspoort Peak at 2325 meters (7628 feet) Lowest point: sea level Languages Afrikaans (55. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ...


In 1956, he received a scholarship for a two-year postgraduate training in cardiothoracic surgery at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, United States. It was during this time that Barnard first became acquainted with Norman Shumway, who did much of the pioneering research leading to the first human heart transplant. In 1958 he received a Master of Science in Surgery for a thesis entitled, "The aortic valve - problems in the fabrication and testing of a prosthetic valve". The same year he was awarded Doctor of Philosophy degree for his dissertation entitled "The aetiology of congenital intestinal atresia". Barnard described the two years he spent in the USA as "the most fascinating time in his life". This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ... This article is about the city in Minnesota. ... Norman E. Shumway, M.D., (February 9th 1923 in Kalamazoo, Michigan - February 10th 2006 in Palo Alto, California) was a pioneer of heart surgery at Stanford University. ...


Upon returning to South Africa in 1958, Barnard was appointed cardiothoracic surgeon at the Groote Schuur Hospital, establishing the hospital's first heart unit. He was promoted to full-time lecturer and Director of Surgical Research at the University of Cape Town. Three years later he was appointed Head of the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery at the teaching hospitals of the University of Cape Town. He rose to the position of Associate Professor in the Department of Surgery at the University of Cape Town in 1962. Barnard's younger brother Marius, who also studied medicine, eventually became Barnard's right-hand man at the department of Cardiac Surgery. Over time, Barnard became known as a brilliant surgeon with many contributions to the treatment of cardiac diseases, such as the Tetralogy of Fallot and Ebstein's anomaly. He was promoted to Professor of Surgical Science in the Department of Surgery at the University of Cape Town in 1972. Among the many awards he has received over the years, he received the title of Professor Emeritus in 1984. The tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect which classically has four anatomical components. ... Ebsteins anomaly is a congenital heart defect in which the opening of the tricuspid valve is displaced towards the apex of the right ventricle of the heart. ... This article is about the year. ...


Heart transplant

Following the first successful kidney transplant in 1953, in the United States, Barnard performed the first kidney transplant in South Africa in 1959. Barnard experimented for several years with animal heart transplants. More than 50 dogs received transplanted hearts, but typically died shortly afterward.[1] With the availability of new breakthroughs introduced by several pioneers, amongst them Norman Shumway, several surgical teams were in a position to prepare for a human heart transplant. Barnard had a patient willing to undergo the procedure, but as with other surgeons, he needed a suitable donor.[2] The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Barnard performed the world's first human heart transplant operation on 3 December 1967, in an operation assisted by his brother, Marius Barnard, lasting nine hours and using a team of thirty people. The patient, Louis Washkansky, was a 55 year old grocer, suffering from diabetes and incurable heart disease[3]. Barnard later wrote, "For a dying man it is not a difficult decision because he knows he is at the end. If a lion chases you to the bank of a river filled with crocodiles, you will leap into the water, convinced you have a chance to swim to the other side." The donor heart came from a young woman, Denise Darvall, who had been killed in a December 2, 1967, road accident while crossing a street in Cape Town. After securing permission from Darvall's father to use her heart, Barnard performed the transplant. Twenty years later, Dr. Marius Barnard recounted, "Chris stood there for a few moments, watching, then stood back and said, 'It works.'"[4] Washkansky survived the operation and lived for eighteen(18) days. However, he succumbed to pneumonia induced by the immunosuppressive drugs he was taking. Though the first patient with the heart of another human being survived for only a little more than two weeks, Barnard had passed a milestone in a new field of life-extending surgery. is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marius Barnard (Born: ??) Is a South African cardiac surgeon and inventor of critical illness insurance. ... Louis Washkansky (1913 – 21 December 1967) was the recipient of the worlds first human heart transplant. ... A grocer is a dealer in staple foodstuffs, such as meats, produce or dairy products, and other household supplies. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... Denise Darvall achieved renown when on 3 December 1967, she became the donor in the world’s first successful human heart transplant, performed by Professor Christiaan Barnard and his team at Groote Schuur Hospital. ... A car accident in Yate, near Bristol, England, in July 2004. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Barnard became an international superstar overnight and was celebrated around the world for his daring accomplishment. He was quite photogenic and enjoyed the media attention following the operation. Barnard continued to perform heart transplants. A transplant operation was conducted on 2 January 1968, and the patient, Philip Blaiberg, survived for 19 months. Mrs Dorothy Fisher was given a new heart in 1969 and became Barnard's longest surviving patient. She lived for 24 years after the transplant.([1]). A photogenic subject (generally a person), is a subject that usually appears physically attractive or striking in photographs, regardless of their physical appearance in real life. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Philip Blaiberg (1909 - August 17, 1969) was a South African dentist and the second person to receive a heart transplant in the world. ...


Barnard performed 10 orthotopic transplants (19671973). He was later also to be the first to perform a heterotopic heart transplant, an operation that he himself devised. Forty-nine consecutive heterotopic heart transplants were performed in Cape Town between 1975 and 1984. Diagram illustrating the placement of a donor heart in an orthotopic procedure. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Diagram illustrating the placement of a donor heart in an orthotopic procedure. ... Diagram illustrating the placement of a donor heart in an orthotopic procedure. ... This article is about the year. ...


When many surgeons, disillusioned by poor results, gave up cardiac transplantation, he persisted in his efforts until the advent of the drug Cyclosporin, which helped revive the operation throughout the world. He was also the first surgeon to attempt xenograft transplantation in a human patient, while attempting to save the life of a young girl unable to leave artificial life support after a second aortic valve replacement. He was later accused of wrongdoing by her parents. ... A xenograft (xenotransplant) is a transplant of tissue from a donor of one species to a recipient of another species. ...


Public life

After his first successful heart transplant Barnard became known as the "film star surgeon". He was loved by his patients throughout the world, hundreds of whom were treated free of charge, and hated by many others who were jealous of his instant success. He was accused by some colleagues in the profession of "stealing" the idea and the opportunity to perform the first heart transplant. Often considered a spoiled and arrogant personality, he was also regarded as kind and considerate by others. Due to his widely publicized love affairs, he became jokingly known as "doctor of hearts", referring to the heart as emotional symbol rather than in its usual medical context.[citation needed]


Barnard was an outspoken opponent of South Africa's laws of apartheid, and was not afraid to criticize his nation's government, although he had to temper his remarks to some extent in order to travel abroad. Rather than leaving his homeland, he used his fame in order to campaign for a change in the law. After Denise Darvall provided the means for the very first heart transplant, Barnard transplanted her kidney into a 10 year old mixed race boy. The donor for the second heart transplant was also of mixed race. Christian's brother, Dr. Marius Barnard, went into politics, and was elected to the legislature on an anti-apartheid platform [5]. However, he later claimed that the reason he never won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was probably because he was a "white South African".[2] A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Marius Barnard (Born: ??) Is a South African cardiac surgeon and inventor of critical illness insurance. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ...


Personal life

Barnard's first marriage was to Aletta Louw, a nurse, whom he married in 1948 while practicing medicine in Ceres. The couple had two children, Andre and Deirdre. International fame took a toll on his personal life, and in 1969 Barnard and his wife divorced. In 1970, he married the glamorous Barbara Zoellner, with whom he also had two children, but whom he divorced in 1982. Barnard married for a third time in 1988 to Karin Setzkorn, a beautiful model young enough to be his granddaughter. They also had two children but this last marriage also led to a divorce in 2000. This article is about the occupation. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ceres is a town in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


Retirement

Barnard retired as Head of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery in Cape Town in 1983 after developing rheumatoid arthritis in his hands, which prevented him from operating. He then spent two years as the Scientist-In-Residence at the Oklahoma Transplantation Institute in the USA and acted as consultant for other institutions. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ...


He had by this time become very interested in anti-aging research, and his reputation suffered in 1986 when he promoted Glycel, an "anti-aging" skin cream, that was withdrawn by the United States Food and Drug Administration soon thereafter.[verification needed] He also spent time as a research advisor to the Clinique la Prairie, in Switzerland, where the controversial "rejuvenation therapy" was practiced. He later expressed regret for endorsing Glycel.[verification needed] “FDA” redirects here. ...


He divided the remainder of his years between Austria, where he established the Chris Barnard Foundation, dedicated to helping underprivileged children throughout the world, and his game-farm in Beaufort West, in South Africa. Beaufort West is a town in the Western Cape province in South Africa. ...


Barnard died in September 2001, whilst on holiday in Paphos, Cyprus. Early reports claimed that he had died of a heart attack, although an autopsy showed his death to be caused by an acute asthma attack.[6] District Paphos Government  - Mayor Savvas Vergas Population (2001)  - City 47,300 Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: http://www. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ...


Books

Christiaan Barnard wrote two autobiographies. His first book, One Life, was published in 1969 and subsequently sold copies worldwide. Some of the proceeds were used to set up the Chris Barnard Fund for research into heart disease and heart transplants in Cape Town. His second autobiography, The Second Life, was published in 1993.


Apart from his autobiographies Dr Barnard also wrote several other books including:

  • The Donor
  • Your Healthy Heart
  • Night Season
  • The Best Medicine
  • Arthritis Handbook: How to Live With Arthritis
  • Good Life Good Death: A Doctor's Case for Euthanasia and Suicide
  • South Africa: Sharp Dissection
  • 50 Ways to a Healthy Heart
  • Body Machine

See also

In medicine, the field of (cardio)thoracic surgery or cardiovascular surgery is involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax, i. ... “Transplant” redirects here. ... Hamilton Naki (26 June 1926 – 29 May 2005) was a teacher, trainer, and falsely alleged as the surgical assistant of Dr Christiaan Barnard who undertook the worlds first heart transplantation at Groote Schuur Hospital, South Africa, in 1967. ... Pierre Grondin (August 18, 1925 - January 17, 2006) was a Canadian cardiac surgeon who was one of the first doctors to perform a successful heart transplant. ...

References

  1. ^ "Memories of the heart," Daily Intelligencer (Doylestown, PA), November 29, 1987, pA-18
  2. ^ Id.
  3. ^ "Memories of the heart", Daily Intelligencer (Doylestown, PA), November 29, 1987, pA-18
  4. ^ Id.
  5. ^ "Memories of the heart," Daily Intelligencer (Doylestown, PA), November 29, 1987, pA-18
  6. ^ "Autopsy confirms asthma killed Barnard", Cyprus Mail, Wednesday, September 5, 2001. Retrieved on 2007-03-15. 

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Cyprus Mail is a Cypriot English-language newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Christiaan Barnard: his first transplants and their impact on concepts of death
  • To Transplant and Beyond : First Human Heart Transplant
  • In Memoriam : Christiaan Neethling Barnard
  • 40th anniversary of first human heart transplant
  • Official Heart Transaplant Museum - Heart Of Cape Town
“Transplant” redirects here. ... An allograft is a transplanted organ or tissue from a genetically non-identical member of the same species. ... Alloplant is an experimental, chemically processed biomaterial used for transplantation. ... The transplantation of organs between members of the same species. ... Autotransplantation is the transplantation of tissue from one part of the body to another in the same individual. ... (xeno- from the Greek meaning foreign) is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another such as from pigs to humans (see Medical grafting). ... Bone grafting is a surgical procedure where bone is taken from a donor site and implanted into the patient. ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), of cells either derived from the bone marrow or peripheral blood, colloquially known as bone marrow transplantation is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology that involves transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). ... Cornea transplant. ... A face transplant is a skin graft that involves replacing part or all of a patients face with a donor face. ... Hand transplantation is a surgical procedure to transplant a hand from one human to another. ... Diagram illustrating the placement of a donor heart in an orthotopic procedure. ... A heart-lung transplant is a procedure carried out to replace both heart and lungs in a single operation. ... The donor kidney is typically placed inferior of the normal anatomical location. ... Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy liver allograft. ... Lung transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a patients diseased lungs are partially or totally replaced by lungs which come from a donor. ... A pancreas transplant is an organ transplant that involves implanting a healthy pancreas (one that can produce insulin) into a person who has diabetes. ... Penis transplantation is a surgical transplant procedure in which a replacement penis, either one grown artificially (untested in humans) or from a deceased human donor (allograft), is transplanted onto a patient. ... Skin grafting is a type of organ transplant involving the transplantation of skin. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... History For many years, organ transplantation has been a medical and surgical challenge. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cellular memory is the unproven hypothesis that such things as memories, habits, interests, and tastes may somehow be stored in all the cells of human bodies, and not only in the brain. ... The Edmonton Protocol is a method of implantation of pancreatic islets for the treatment of diabetes. ... Eye banks retrieve and store eyes for cornea transplants and research. ... Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in which functional immune cells in the transplanted marrow recognize the recipient as foreign and mount an immunologic attack. ... For a list of immunosuppressive drugs, see the transplant rejection page. ... Microscopic image of an islet of Langerhans (lighter area) surrounded by exocrine pancreas tissue (darker staining) Islet transplantation is the transplantation of islets from a donor pancreas and into another person. ... An implant is an artificial device made to replace and act as a missing biological structure. ... Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has emerged in recent decades as a critical surgical option for patients with end stage liver disease, such as cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma often attributable to one or more of the following: long-term alcohol abuse, long-term untreated Hepatitis C infection, long-term... The lung allocation score or LAS is a numerical value used by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) to assign relative priority for distributing donated lungs for transplantation within the United States. ... Machine perfusion (MP) is a technique used in organ transplantation as a means of preserving the organs which are to be transplanted. ... In medicine, grafting is a surgical procedure to transplant tissue without a blood supply. ... Introduction Prior to the introduction of brain-stem death into law in the mid to late 1970s, all organ transplants from cadaveric donors came from non-heart beating donors (NHBD). ... Organ donationcan only be peformed by untrained workers who do not have a drivers license and are poor. ... Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is the name given to a group of B cell lymphomas occurring in immunosuppressed patients following organ transplant. ... Total Body Irradiation (TBI) is a radiotherapy technique used to ablate the bone marrow and immune system prior to bone marrow transplantation or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. ... Transplant rejection occurs when the immune system of the recipient of a transplant attacks the transplanted organ or tissue. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Human Tissue Authority is a UK public body created by the Human Tissue Act 2004. ... The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) is a nonprofit organization based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, that operates the largest national registry of volunteer hematopoietic cell donors in the United States. ... Located in Richmond, Virginia, the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) is a non-profit, scientific and educational organization that administers the nations only Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN), established by the U.S. Congress in 1984. ... Sir Michael Woodruff Sir Michael Francis Addison Woodruff FRS (3 April 1911 – 10 March 2001) was a British surgeon and scientist principally remembered for his contribtions to organ transplantation. ... Alexis Carrel Alexis Carrel (June 28, 1873 – November 5, 1944) was a French surgeon and biologist. ... Norman E. Shumway, M.D., (February 9th 1923 in Kalamazoo, Michigan - February 10th 2006 in Palo Alto, California) was a pioneer of heart surgery at Stanford University. ... Jean-Michel Dubernard is a medical doctor specializing in transplant surgery, as well as a Deputy in the current French National Assembly. ... This list of notable organ transplant donors and recipients includes people who were the first to undergo certain organ transplant procedures or were people who made significant contributions to their chosen field and who have either donated or received an organ transplant at some point in their lives, as confirmed...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Christiaan Barnard Summary (2861 words)
Barnard was born and raised in the arid South African countryside known for its sheep farms.
Barnard continued to perform heart transplants: a transplant operation was conducted on 2 January 1968, and the patient, Philip Blaiberg, survived for 19 months.
Barnard divorced in 1982, and retired due to stiffness brought on by rheumatoid arthritis in his hands in 1983, mostly due to activities on his ranch in the Great Karoo.
Christiaan Barnard (447 words)
Christiaan Neethling Barnard (sometimes given as Barnaard, November 8, 1922 - September 2, 2001) was a heart surgeon from South Africa, who became known for performing the world's first human open heart transplantation[?] in 1967.
Barnard was born and grew up in Beaufort West[?].
Barnard continued to perform heart transplants (his second patient, operated on in January 1968, survived for 19 months) as well as pioneer new and risky techniques, including double transplants (1974), artificial valves and using animal hearts for emergency treatment (1977).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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