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Encyclopedia > Christendom
This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. More detailed versions place Jerusalem at the centre of the world.
This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. More detailed versions place Jerusalem at the centre of the world.

Christendom usually refers to Christianity as a territorial phenomenon. It can also refer to the part of the world in which Christianity prevails.[1] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Earliest printed example of a classical T and O map (by Guntherus Ziner, Augsburg, 1472), illustrating the first page of chapter XIV of the Etymologiae. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...

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Christendom as a polity

The term Christendom has been used to refer to the medieval and renaissance notion of the Christian world as a sort of social and political polity. In essence, the vision of Christendom is a vision of a Christian theocracy, a government devoted to the enforcement of Christian values, whose institutions are suffused with Christian doctrine. In this vision, members of the Christian clergy wield political authority. The specific relationship between the political leaders and the clergy can vary but, in theory, national or political divisions are subsumed under the leadership of a church institution. This vision would tempt Church leaders and political leaders alike throughout European history. For other uses, see Polity (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ...


Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 proclaiming toleration for the Christian religion, and convoked the First Council of Nicaea in 325 whose Nicene Creed included belief in "one holy catholic and apostolic Church". Christianity became the state religion of the Empire in 392 when Theodosius I prohibited the practice of pagan religions. The Church gradually became a defining institution of the Empire. Constantine. ... The Edict of Milan was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... Flavius Theodosius (Cauca [Coca-Segovia], Spain, January 11, 347 - Milan, January 17, 395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was a Roman emperor. ... Religion in ancient Rome combined several different cult practices and embraced more than a single set of beliefs. ...


As the Western Roman Empire disintegrated into feudal kingdoms and principalities, the concept of Christendom became less defined in the West and the Christians of the Eastern Roman Empire (and the subsequent Byzantine Empire came to see themselves as the last bastion of Christendom. The vision would eventually take a radical turn with the rise of the Franks, a Germanic tribe that converted to the Christian faith and entered into communion with Rome. On Christmas day 800 AD, Pope Leo III made the fateful decision to switch his allegiance from the emperors in Constantinople and crowned Charlemagne, the king of the Franks, as the Emperor of what came to be known as the Holy Roman Empire. This empire created a competing definition of Christendom in contrast to the Byzantine Empire. The question of what constituted true Christendom would occupy political and religious leaders for centuries. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Infobox Pope| English name=Leo III| image= | birth_name=Unknown| term_start=December 27, 795 | term_end=June 12, 816| predecessor=Adrian I| successor=Stephen IV| birth_date=Date of birth unknown| birthplace=Rome, Italy| dead=dead|death_date=June 12, 816| deathplace=Place of death unknown| other=Leo}} Pope Leo III (died June 12... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


After the collapse of Charlemagne's empire, the Holy Roman Empire became a collection of states loosely connected to the Holy See of Rome. Tensions between the Popes and secular rulers ran high, as the pontiffs attempted to exert control over their temporal counterparts and vice versa. The idea of Christendom in the West was already greatly discredited by the time of the Renaissance Popes because of the moral laxity of the pontiffs and their willingness to seek and rely on temporal power as secular rulers did. While all episcopal sees can be referred to as holy, the expression the Holy See (without further specification) is normally used in international relations (as well as in the canon law of the Catholic Church)[1] to refer to the central government of the Catholic Church, headed by the Bishop... This is a list of Popes of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


In the East, Christendom became increasingly well defined as the Byzantine Empire's gradual loss of territory to an expanding Islam caused Christianity to become ever more important to Byzantine identity. Even after the East-West Schism which divided the Church, there had always been a vague notion of a universal Christendom that included the East and the West. The Byzantines would be divided among the Byzantine rite of the Orthodox Church and the Byzantine rite of the Catholic Church. The political unity (now without religious unity) was finally destroyed by the Fourth Crusade when Western Christian mercenaries conquered the Byzantine capital of Constantinople and set the Byzantine Empire on the path to annihilation. [2] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


With the breakup of the Byzantine Empire into individual nations with nationalist Orthodox Churches, the term Christendom became more valid in describing Western Europe, Catholicism and the non-Orthodox among Byzantines and other Eastern rites of the Church.


The Reformation and the ensuing decline and breakup of the Holy Roman Empire into independent states caused the term "Christendom" to take on a more informal meaning in Western Europe signifying countries which were predominantly Christian as opposed to Islamic or pagan countries. Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is...


Others[attribution needed] argue that, with the division of Protestantism into many denominations, Christendom could only apply to the civilization of Catholic nations that espoused the doctrine of the Social Reign of Christ the King. This article is about the figure known by both Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ. For other usages, see Jesus (disambiguation). ...


The term can also refer to Christians considered as a group (the "Christian World") or to the informal cultural hegemony that Christianity has traditionally enjoyed in the West. Occident redirects here. ...


Corpus Christianum

There is another sense to the polity, with a less secular meaning, which would have been compatible with the idea of both a religious and a temporal body: Corpus Christianum. The Latin term Corpus Christianum is often translated as the Christian body, meaning the community of all Christians.


It described the pre-modern notion of the community of all Christians united under the Roman Catholic Church. This community was to be guided by Christian values in its politics, economics and social life. Its legal basis was the corpus iuris canonica (body of canon law). The Church's peak of authority over all European Christians in the Middle Ages and common endeavors of the Christian community — for example, the Crusades, the fight against the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula and that against the Ottomans in the Balkans — helped to develop this sense of communal identity against the obstacle of Europe's deep political divisions. The Corpus Christianum can be seen as a Christian equivalent of the Muslim Ummah. The concept also justified the Inquisition and anti-Jewish pogroms, to root out divergent elements and create a religiously uniform community. For other uses, see Community (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see moor. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... Balkan redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ...


This concept has been in crisis since the late Middle Ages, when the kings of France managed to establish a French national church during the 14th century and the papacy became ever more aligned with the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. Other developments in philosophy and events in England and Europe were also critical: the War of the Roses, the Hundred Years' War, the end of feudalism and the rise of strong, centralized monarchies presaging the modern nation-state. The Empire, due to its massive size, did represent a large portion of European Christians. Thus the Corpus Christianum was limited to the Christian community of the Empire, rather than all Christians worldwide. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The Holy Roman Empire should not be mistaken for the Roman Empire (31 B.C.–A.D. 476). ... The War or Wars of the Roses may refer to, or have been referred to by: The historical Wars of the Roses, the civil war that took place in Mediæval Britain between the House of York and the House of Lancaster. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


The rise of Modernity and the Reformation in the early 16th century entailed the further deconstruction of the Corpus Christianum. The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 officially ended the idea that all Christians could be united under one church. The principle of cuius regio, eius religion ("whose the region is, his religion") established the religious, political and geographic divisions of Christianity, and this was established in international law with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which finally legally ended the concept of Christian unity, i.e. the "One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church" of the Nicene Creed. With the Treaty of Westphalia, the Wars of Religion came to an end, and in the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 the concept of the sovereign national state was born. The Corpus Christianum was replaced by something foreshadowing the modern idea of a tolerant and diverse society consisting of many different communities. Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The front page of the document. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, is the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years War and officially recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between the Catholic League and the Huguenots from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598. ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. ...


In this way Western Christendom, it can be argued, gave birth to a new civilisation known as "Western civilisation", characterised by the values of secularism and the separation of church and state. However, under the motto of the clash of civilizations and the growth of Christian fundamentalism, the idea might experience a revival to help define the West in contrast to other cultures. For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... This article is about secularism. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Cover of The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order The Clash of Civilizations is a theory, proposed by political scientist Samuel P. Huntington, that peoples cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. ... Fundamentalist Christianity is a fundamentalist movement, especially within American Protestantism. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...


See also

Caesaropapism is the concept of combining the power of secular government with, or making it supreme to, the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; most especially, the inter-penetration of the theological authority of the Christian Church with the legal/juridical authority of the government; in its extreme form, it... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... In Islamic theology and legal interpretations, the ultimate aim of Islam is to bring the whole world under the dominion of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Christian Flag The Christian Flag is a flag designed to represent all of Christianity (see also Christendom), but flown mainly by Protestant churches in North America, Africa, and Latin America. ... The Christian Church is traditionally divided into the Church Militant (Ecclesia Militans), comprising Christians who are living, and the Church Triumphant (Ecclesia Triumphans), comprising those who are in Heaven. ... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Raphael, Vatican Rooms. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Church... Res publica christiana is a Latin phrase combining the idea of res publica + christiana to describe the worldwide community of Christianity and its well-being. ... This article is on the political-religious concept of dominionism. ...

Notes

  1. ^ See http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Christendom
  2. ^ Palmer, 1881. Edwin Palmer, The Greek Testament] with the Readings Adopted by the Revisers of the Authorised Version. London: Simon Wallenberg Press, 2007. ISBN 1843560232

External links

Look up Christendom in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christendom (5606 words)
The formation of Christendom was to be the work of a new generation of nations, baptized in their infancy and receiving even the message of the ancient world from the lips of Christian teachers.
For this sense of a common Christendom was not confined to the clergy or the knightly and baronial classes.
The history of this change from the Christendom of the twelfth century to the nations of the Reformation epoch, is the history of the later Middle Ages.
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