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Encyclopedia > Chris Hani

Chris Hani, born Martin Thembisile Hani (June 28, 1942April 10, 1993) was the leader of the South African Communist Party and Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC). He was a fierce opponent of the apartheid government. He was assassinated on 10 April 1993. June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... SACP symbol South African Communist Party (SACP) is a political party in South Africa. ... For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Assassin and Targeted killing redirect here. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...

Contents

Early life

Chris Hani, born Martin Thembisile Hani, was born on June 28, 1942 in the small town of Cofimvaba in a rural village called kuSabalele Transkei. He was the fifth of six children. He attended Lovedale school and later studied modern and classical literature at the University of Fort Hare. June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Flag of Transkei bantustan Political Map of South Africa prior to 1994 Transkei, as of 1978 The Transkei — which means the area beyond the Kei River — is a region situated in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. ... Fort Hare University is located on the Tyhume river in a South African town known as Alice in English or as eDikeni in the local isiXhosa language. ...


Political career

At age 15 Hani joined the ANC Youth League. As a student he was active in protests against the Bantu Education Act. Following his graduation, he joined Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), the armed wing of the ANC. Following his arrest under the Suppression of Communism Act, he went into exile in Lesotho in 1963. Bantu Education Act of 1953 was a South African law which codified several aspects of the apartheid system. ... For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... The 1950 Suppression of Communism Act was legislation of the National government in South Africa. ...


He received military training in the Soviet Union and served in campaigns in the Rhodesian Bush War in what is now Zimbabwe. In Lesotho he was the target of assassination attempts, and he eventually moved to the ANC's headquarters in Lusaka, Zambia. As head of Umkhonto we Sizwe, he was responsible for the suppression of a mutiny by dissident ANC members in detention camps, but denied any role in abuses including torture and murder. Combatants Rhodesia Zimbabwe African National Union Zimbabwe African Peoples Union ZIPRA Commanders Ian Smith ZANU: Robert Mugabe ZAPU: Joshua Nkomo Casualties unknown unknown Civilians killed = unknown The Rhodesian Bush War (now officially called the Second Chimurenga by the Mugabe regime,) was a conflict in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) between the... Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. ...


He returned to South Africa following the unbanning of the ANC in 1990, and took over from Joe Slovo as head of the South African Communist Party in 1991. 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joe Slovo Joe Slovo (May 23, 1926 – January 6, 1995) was a South African Communist politician and long time leader of the South African Communist Party (SACP) and leading member of the African National Congress. ... SACP symbol South African Communist Party (SACP) is a political party in South Africa. ...


Assassination

Chris Hani was assassinated on 10 April 1993 outside his home in Dawn Park, a racially-mixed suburb of Boksburg. He was accosted by a Polish anti-communist immigrant named Janusz Walus, who shot him in the head as he stepped out of his car. Walus fled the scene, but was arrested soon afterwards. Clive Derby-Lewis, a senior South African Conservative Party M.P., who had loaned Walus his pistol, was also arrested for complicity in Hani's murder. Assassin and Targeted killing redirect here. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Boksburg is a city on the East Rand of Gauteng, South Africa. ... Clive John Derby Lewis was born on 22nd January 1936 in Cape Town, and was a South African parliamentarian, firstly in the National Party and then in the Conservative Party. ... The Conservative Party of South Africa (Konserwatiewe Party van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans) was a far-right party formed in 1982 as a breakaway from the ruling National Party. ...


Hani's assassination was part of a plot by the far right in South Africa to derail the negotiations to end apartheid. An alleged hit list of senior ANC and SACP figures found in the Derby-Lewis home included Nelson Mandela and Joe Slovo at numbers one and two. Hani was number three on the list. Mandela redirects here. ... Joe Slovo Joe Slovo (May 23, 1926 – January 6, 1995) was a South African Communist politician and long time leader of the South African Communist Party (SACP) and leading member of the African National Congress. ...


Historically it is seen as a turning point. Serious tensions following the assassination, with fears that the country would erupt in violence. Nelson Mandela addressed the nation appealing for calm, in a speech regarded as 'presidential' even though he was then not president of the country: Tonight I am reaching out to every single South African, black and white, from the very depths of my being. A white man, full of prejudice and hate, came to our country and committed a deed so foul that our whole nation now teeters on the brink of disaster.A white woman, of Afrikaner origin, risked her life so that we may know, and bring to justice, this assassin. The cold-blooded murder of Chris Hani has sent shock waves throughout the country and the world. …Now is the time for all South Africans to stand together against those who, from any quarter, wish to destroy what Chris Hani gave his life for – the freedom of all of us. The feared violence did not erupt, and the two sides of the negotiation process were in fact galvanised into action, agreeing a date for democratic elections which occurred on 27 April 1994, just over a year after Hani's assassination.


Both Janusz Walus and Clive Derby-Lewis were sentenced to death for the murder. Clive Derby-Lewis's wife Gaye Derby-Lewis, also a senior Conservative Party figure, was acquitted and she immigrated to Australia afterwards. The two men's sentences were commuted to life imprisonment when the death penalty was abolished as a result of a Constitutional Court ruling in 1995 because of the adoption of South Africa's new constitution, which they had fought against. 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hani's killers appeared before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, claiming political motivation for their crimes and applying for amnesty on the basis that they had acted on the orders of the Conservative Party. Their applications were controversially denied when the TRC ruled that they were not acting on orders. They are still in prison. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like body assembled in South Africa after the end of Apartheid. ...


Influence

Hani was seen [attribution needed] as a charismatic populist leader, with significant support among radical youth. At the time of his death, he was the most popular ANC leader after Nelson Mandela, and was sometimes perceived as a rival to the more moderate party leadership. However, following the unbanning of the ANC, his support for the negotiation process with the apartheid government was probably critical in keeping the militants in line. Populism is a political philosophy or rhetorical style that holds that the common persons interests are oppressed or hindered by the elite in society, and that the instruments of the state need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and used for the benefit and advancement of the... Mandela redirects here. ...


Given his popularity and relative youth (he was 51 when he was killed), had he lived, he would have been a strong candidate for a position as deputy president or even president in a future ANC government of South Africa.


Trivia

In 1997, Baragwanath Hospital - one of the largest hospitals in the world - was renamed the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in his memory. 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital is the largest hospital in the world, occupying 173 acres, with 3200 beds and 6760 staff members. ... Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital is the largest hospital in the world, occupying 173 acres, with 3200 beds and 6760 staff members. ...


He was voted 20th in the controversial Top 100 Greatest South Africans poll. Great South Africans was a South African television series that aired on SABC3 and hosted by Noeleen Maholwana Sangqu and Denis Beckett. ...


Four days after his assassination, the rock group Dave Matthews Band (whose guitarist, Dave Matthews, is from South Africa) began playing a song, #36, to honor Hani. A live favorite for years, the music evolved into the basic foundation of the 2001 single, Everyday. The Introduction to the popular hit "Everyday" starts with the crowd singing "Hani, Hani, come and dance with me". - Liptak Dave Matthews Band (also known by the initialism DMB) is an American rock band, originally formed in Charlottesville, Virginia in 1991 by singer, songwriter, and guitarist Dave Matthews; saxophonist LeRoi Moore; bassist Stefan Lessard; electric violinist Boyd Tinsley; drummer Carter Beauford, and keyboardist Peter Griesar (who left the band in... David John Matthews (born January 9, 1967) is a South African, now naturalized American, Grammy-award winning lead vocalist and guitarist from Dave Matthews Band. ...


French philosopher Jacques Derrida tributes his book "Specters of Marx" to Hani. Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Viva Chris Hani - Martin Thembisile - MayibuyeChrisHain.com (310 words)
Chris Hani (1942-1993) was a South African revolutionary leader whose political vision and military tactics helped bring about the end of the apartheid system.
Hani was also known internationally for promoting solidarity among movements of the poor, workers and the oppressed worldwide.
Hani's assassination by pro-apartheid forces sparked such outrage and grassroots activism that within days, the regime had to concede to "one person, one vote" elections.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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