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Encyclopedia > Chrétien de Troyes

Chrétien de Troyes wrote in Champagne, France, during the last half of the twelfth century. Of his life we know neither the beginning nor the end, but we know that between 1160 and 1181 he lived at Troyes, perhaps as herald-at-arms (as Gaston Paris speculated), where was the court of his patroness, the Countess Marie de Champagne, daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine. Champagne is one of the traditional provinces of France, a region of France that is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the regions name. ... France - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Events Erik den helige is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ... Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ... Troyes is a commune in northeastern France. ... Bruno Paulin Gaston Paris (August 9, 1839 - March 6, 1903), was a French scholar, the son of Alexis Paulin Paris. ... Marie Capet, Countess of Champagne (1145 - 1198), was the elder daughter of Louis VII of France and his first wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Eleanors tomb Eleanor of Aquitaine (c. ...


Chrétien's works include four major poems in rhyming eight-syllable couplets: Erec and Enide (c. 1170), Cliges (c. 1176), Yvain, the Knight of the Lion, and Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart (both written simultaneously between 1177 and 1181). The last thousand lines of Lancelot were written by Godefroi de Lagny, apparently by arrangement with Chrétien. Another poem, Perceval le Gallois, was composed for Philip, Count of Flanders after 1181, to whom Chrétien was attached in his last years. However, Chrétien only wrote the first 9000 lines of the 32,000 verses of this work. To him are also attributed two lesser works: the pious romance Guillaume d'Angleterre (an attribution that is no longer believed), and Philomena, the only one of his four poems based on Ovid's Metamorphoses that has survived. Events December 29: Assassination of Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral Eleanor of Aquitaine leaves the court of Henry II because of a string of infidelities. ... Events May 22 - Murder attempt by the Hashshashin on Saladin near Aleppo Raynald of Chatillon released from prison in Aleppo May 29 - Frederick Barbarossa is defeated in the Battle of Legnano by the Lombard League leading to the pactum Anagninum (the Agreement of Anagni) September 17 - Seljuk Turks defeat Manuel... This entry was adapted from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica. ... Events November 25 - Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Chatillon defeat Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard. ... Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ... Philip of Alsace was count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191. ... Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Engraved frontispiece of George Sandyss 1640 London edition of Ovids Metamorphoses Publius Ovidius Naso, ( March 20, 43 BC – AD 17) Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid, wrote on topics of love, abandoned women, and mythological transformations. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the poem Metamorphoses written by the poet Ovid. ...


The immediate and specific source for his romances is of deep interest to the student; unfortunately, he has left us in the dark as to what these were. He speaks in the vaguest way of the materials he used, and there is no evidence that he had any Celtic written sources. Geoffrey of Monmouth or Wace might have supplied some of the names, but neither author mentioned Erec, Lancelot, Gornemant and many others who play an important role in Chrétien's narratives. One is forced to guess about Latin or French literary originals which are now lost, or upon continental lore that goes back to a Celtic source. It is the same problem that faces the student in the case of Beroul, an Anglo-Norman who wrote about 1150. However, Chrétien found his sources immediately at hand, without much understanding of its primitive spirit, but appreciating it as a setting for the ideal society dreamed of, although not realized, in his own day. And Chrétien's four romances together form the most complete expression from a single author of the ideals of French chivalry. This article is about the European people. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth was a clergyman and one of the major figures in the development of British history. ... Wace (c. ... This entry was adapted from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica. ... The Anglo-Normans were the descendents of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... Woman under the Safeguard of Knighthood, allegorical Scene. ...


A French narrative poet of the twelfth century had three categories of subject matter from which to draw his material: The Matter of France, or legends of that country foremost of which was the battle of Roncevaux – in which the sensechal Roland fights a doomed final stand – as well as other legends surrounding the court of King Charlemagne; The Matter of Rome, or legends culled from Antiquity about Thebes, Alexander the Great, Troy and Aeneas; and lastly The Matter of Britain, legends connected with King Arthur and other Celtic heroes. It is to Chrétien's credit that he was alive to literary interest of this material when adapted to suit the taste of his French readers; to his greater credit of giving to the somewhat crude folk-lore a polish and elegance, which is inseparably associated with the Arthurian legends in modern literature. The Matter of France is a body of mythology and legend that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... The Roncevaux Pass (Roncesvaux in English, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of a famous battle in 778 in which Hroudland (later changed to Roland), prefect of Brittany March was defeated by the Basques. ... Statue of Charlemagne in Frankfurt, a Romantic interpretation of his appearance from the 19th century Charlemagne (c. ... According to the mediæval poet Jean Bodel, the Matter of Rome was the literary cycle made up of Greek and Roman mythology, together with episodes from the history of classical antiquity, focusing on military heroes like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. ... For the ancient capital of Upper Egypt, see Thebes, Egypt. ... Bust of Alexander III in the British Museum. ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy This article is about the city of Troy / Ilion as described in the works of Homer, and the location of an ancient city associated with it. ... Aeneas (or Aineias) was a Trojan hero, the son of prince Anchises and the goddess Venus. ... The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, centering around King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... King Arthur is an important figure in the mythology of Great Britain. ...


This article was based on an essay by W. W. Comfort, published in 1914. 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Bibliograpy

  • Jean Frappier, "Chrétien de Troyes" in Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, Roger S. Loomis (ed.). Clarendon Press: Oxford University. 1959. ISBN 0198115881
  • Idris Llewelyn Foster, "Gereint, Owein and Peredur" in Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, Roger S. Loomis (ed.). Clarendon Press: Oxford University. 1959.
  • Albert W. Thompson, "The Additions to Chrétien's Perceval" in Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, Roger S. Loomis (ed.). Clarendon Press: Oxford University. 1959

 
 

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