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Encyclopedia > Chord symbol

In music a chord symbol is an abbreviated notation for chord names and qualities, using letters, numbers, and other symbols. It is usually written above the given lyrics or staff, if any. Music is an art, entertainment, or other human activity which involves organized and audible sound, though definitions vary. ... The term notation can be used in several contexts. ... In music and music theory, a chord (from the Middle English cord) short for accord is three or more different notes or pitches sounding simultaneously, or nearly simultaneously, over a period of time. ... Lyric can have a number of meanings. ... In musical notation, the staff or stave is a set of five horizontal lines on which note symbols are placed to indicate pitch and time. ...


Several different systems are used with varying degrees of consistency. All of the systems described below are intended to describe triad-based chords, and convey the following: In music or music theory, a triad is a tonal or diatonic tertian trichord. ...

Contents

The root (basse fondamentale) of a chord is the note upon which that chord is perceived or labelled as built or centered, the root of a chord in root position or normal form. ... Generally speaking, a major chord is any chord which has a major third above its root, as opposed to a minor chord which has a minor third. ... Generally speaking, a minor chord is any chord which has a minor third above its root, as opposed to a major chord which has a major third. ... In general, an augmented chord is any chord which contains an augmented interval. ... Generally speaking, a diminished chord is a chord which has a diminished fifth in it. ... Bass (IPA: [], rhyming with face), when used as an adjective, describes tones of low frequency. ... Extended chords are tertian chords (built from thirds) or triads with notes extended, or added, beyond the seventh, including all the thirds in between the seventh and the extended note. ... A seventh chord is a chord or triad which has a note the seventh above the tonic in it. ... Extended chords are tertian chords (built from thirds) or triads with notes extended, or added, beyond the seventh, including all the thirds in between the seventh and the extended note. ...


Pop chord symbols

Although these symbols are used occasionally in classical music as well, they are most common for lead sheets and fake books in jazz and other popular music. A simplified form of sheet music, consisting of the tempo, key signature, melody and lyrics to a song, and also the chords to the song as they appear. ... A fake book is a collection of simplified sheet music (sometimes called fake music or lead sheets), either transcribed manually or copied from some other source. ... Jazz master Louis Armstrong remains one of the most loved and best known of all jazz musicians. ...


Root

The principal element of the pop chord symbol is the letter name of the root, such as F, C# or Eb. Each chord is always described in isolation; the key signature and previous chords in the measure do not affect the meaning of these symbols. Occasionally in music printed in Germany a root name of H is used for B, while B stands for Bb; a sharp is indicated by a suffux "is" and a flat by "es" (or "s" after E and A), giving roots like Fis, Bes, Es. For details see Note (music). This article is about music. ...


Simple triads

Additional symbols indicate the quality of the chord and its extensions, if any. For simple triads,

  • major triad, consisting of root, major third, perfect fifth: the letter name alone (e.g. C, Bes) (very occasionally a notation such as DM is used to differentiate from a minor triad)
  • minor triad, consisting of root, minor third, perfect fifth: a small m after the letter name (Dm, C#m)
  • diminished triad, consisting of root, minor third, diminished fifth: a small circle o or the letters dim (Ao, Gdim)
  • augmented triad, consisting of root, major third, augmented fifth: a plus sign (occasionally the letters aug) (C+ or C+). If the chord also includes a minor seventh, the indication #5 is often used instead; see below.

Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... A major third is the larger of two commonly occuring musical intervals that span three diatonic scale degrees. ... The perfect fifth or diapente is one of three musical intervals that span five diatonic scale degrees; the others being the diminished fifth, which is one semitone smaller, and the augmented fifth, which is one semitone larger. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... A minor third is the smaller of two commonly occurring musical intervals that span three diatonic scale degrees. ... The perfect fifth or diapente is one of three musical intervals that span five diatonic scale degrees; the others being the diminished fifth, which is one semitone smaller, and the augmented fifth, which is one semitone larger. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... A minor third is the smaller of two commonly occurring musical intervals that span three diatonic scale degrees. ... This article is about the musical interval. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... A major third is the larger of two commonly occuring musical intervals that span three diatonic scale degrees. ... An augmented fifth is one of three musical intervals that span five diatonic scale degrees. ...

Seventh chords

Five common types of seventh chords have standard symbols. The chord quality indications are sometimes superscripted and sometimes not (e.g. Dm7, Dm7, and Dm7 are all identical). A seventh chord is a chord or triad which has a note the seventh above the tonic in it. ...

  • dominant seventh chord, consisting of a major triad and a minor seventh, indicated by a 7 after the letter name, of (C7)
  • minor seventh chords, consisting of a minor triad and a minor seventh are indicated by m7. A few books use a minus sign (C-7) for this.
  • major seventh chords, a major triad with a major seventh are indicated by Maj7 or M7 The latter indication is never superscripted.
  • diminished seventh chords, a diminished triad with a diminished seventh are indicated with o7 or dim7.
  • half-dimininished seventh chords, a diminished triad with a minor seventh, can be indicated with ø7, but equally often these are called minor seven(th) flat five chords are indicated as chromatically altered chords; see below.

Three other seventh chords are in occasional use in jazz: C+7, an augmented triad with a minor seventh; C+(Maj7), an augmented triad with a major seventh; and Cm(Maj7), a minor triad with a major seventh. Generally speaking, a major chord is any chord which has a major third above its root, as opposed to a minor chord which has a minor third. ... The musical interval of a minor seventh the first note (the root or tonic) and the seventh in a minor scale. ... Generally speaking, a minor chord is any chord which has a minor third above its root, as opposed to a major chord which has a major third. ... The musical interval of a minor seventh the first note (the root or tonic) and the seventh in a minor scale. ... Generally speaking, a major chord is any chord which has a major third above its root, as opposed to a minor chord which has a minor third. ... The musical interval of a Major seventh the first note (the root or tonic) and the seventh, the leading tone, in a major scale. ... Generally speaking, a diminished chord is a chord which has a diminished fifth in it. ... A seventh chord is a chord or triad which has a note the seventh above the tonic in it. ... In music, an altered chord, an example of alteration, is a chord with one or more diatonic notes replaced by, or altered to, a neighboring pitch in the chromatic scale. ...


Extended chords

The numerals 9, 11, and 13 indicate an extended chord with a major ninth, perfect eleventh, or major thirteenth; other qualities can be indicated with chromatic alterations as described below. Each of these implies the presence of a dominant seventh chord as well, although indications such as CMaj9, C+9, Cm9 can be used to indicate other qualities. To add one of these notes to a simple triad, the equivalent simple intervals are used: C2 is a major triad with no seventh but an added ninth, for example. The thirteenth, or sixth, is very commonly added to triads, either major or minor (Cm6 indicated a major sixth added to a minor triad). If both the thirteenth and ninth are added to a major triad, the notation C6/9 is often used, or a triangle (). Extended chords are tertian chords (built from thirds) or triads with notes extended, or added, beyond the seventh, including all the thirds in between the seventh and the extended note. ...


Chromatic alterations

Although the third and seventh of the chord are always determined by the symbols shown above, the fifth, as well as the extended intervals 9, 11, and 13, may be altered through the use of accidentals along with the corresponding number of the element to be altered. These are most often used in conjunction with dominant seventh chords. For example: An accidental is a musical notation symbol used to raise or lower the pitch of a note from that indicated by the key signature. ...

  • C7#5, a dominant seventh chord with an augmented fifth
  • Cm7b5, a minor seventh chord with a diminished fifth, the same as a half-diminished seventh chord
  • C7b9, a dominant seventh chord with a minor ninth (or flat nine chord)
  • C7#11, a dominant seventh chord with an augmented eleventh (or sharp eleven chord)
  • C7b13, a dominant seventh chord with a flat thirteenth. This is enharmonic with the first example and these symbols are sometimes used interchangeably.
  • C7alt, an "altered" dominant seventh chord, with a flat ninth, a sharp ninth, a diminished fifth and an augmented fifth

When superscripted numerals are used, the different numbers may be listed horizontally (as shown), or vertically. In music, an enharmonic is a note which is the equivalent of some other note, but spelled differently. ...


One chord which does not fit into the categories above is the suspended chord or sus chord, typically indicated with Csus4. This is a triad whose third is replaced with a perfect fourth. In common-practice harmony this usage is called a suspension and is always followed by the equivalent major or minor triad, but in popular music sometimes the chord is used without such a context. In music the common practice period is a long period in western musical history spanning from before the classical era proper to today, dated, on the outside, as 1600-1900. ... A nonchord tone or non-harmony note is a tone in a piece of homophonic music which is not in the chord that is formed by the other tones playing and in most cases quickly resolves to a chord tone. ...


Bass note indicated separately

All pop-music chords are assumed to be in root position, with the root of the chord in the bass. To indicate a different bass note, a slash is used, such as C/E, indicating a C major chord with an E in the bass. If the bass note is a chord member, the result is an inverted chord; otherwise, it is known as a slash chord. This is not to be confused with the similar-looking secondary dominants below. The root (basse fondamentale) of a chord is the note upon which that chord is perceived or labelled as built or centered, the root of a chord in root position or normal form. ... The root (basse fondamentale) of a chord is the note upon which that chord is perceived or labelled as built or centered, the root of a chord in root position or normal form. ... Bass (IPA: [], rhyming with face), when used as an adjective, describes tones of low frequency. ... In music theory, the word inversion has several meanings. ...


Roman numerals

Roman numerals are used in a more restrictive context, and indicate the root of the chord as a scale degree within a particular key as follows: The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... In music or music theory a scale degree is an individual note of a scale, both its pitch and its diatonic function. ... In music theory, the key identifies the tonic triad, the chord, major or minor, which represents the final point of rest for a piece, or the focal point of a section. ...

Roman numeral I II III IV V VI VII
Scale degree tonic supertonic mediant subdominant dominant submediant leading tone/subtonic

Many analysts use lower-case Roman numerals to indicate minor triads and upper-case for major ones, with degree and plus signs (o and +) to indicate diminished and augmented triads, respectively. When they are not used, all the numerals are capital, and the qualities of the chords are inferred from the other scale degrees that chord contains; for example, a chord built on VI in C major would contain the notes A, C, and E, and would therefore be a minor triad. The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... In music or music theory, the supertonic is the second degree of the scale, it is the second note of a diatonic scale. ... For mediant in mathematics, see Mediant (mathematics) In music, the mediant is the third degree of the diatonic scale. ... In music, the subdominant is the technical name for the fourth tonal degree of the diatonic scale. ... The word dominant has several possible meanings: In music theory, the dominant or dominant note (second most important) of a key is that which is a perfect fifth above the tonic; in just intonation the note whose pitch is 1. ... In music, the submediant is the sixth degree of the scale. ... In music theory, a leading-tone (called the leading-note outside the US) is a note or pitch which resolves or leads to a note one semitone higher or lower, being a lower and upper leading-tone, respectively. ... In music, the subtonic is the lowered seventh degree of the scale, as opposed to the leading tone. ...


The scale to whose scale degrees the Roman numerals refer may be indicated to the left (e.g. F#:), but may also be understood from the key signature or other contextual clues.


Figured Roman

The Roman numerals may also be followed by figured bass notation, either a 7 indicating a seventh chord or the indications 6 or 6/4 to indicate inversions - the resulting system is sometimes called figured Roman. For instance, a first inversion chord would have the designation 6/3 since there is a note a sixth (the root) and a third (the fifth) above the bass note (the third). Common practice shortens this to just the 6 since it is the characteristic interval of the inversion and always implies 6/3. Inversions of seventh chords (6/5, 4/3, and 4/2) may also be used. The numbers may be written with slashes as shown, or (more often) vertically. The qualities of seventh chords may inferred from the diatonic scale; for example, I7 would be a major seventh chord (if in a major key) since the seventh of the chord, the seventh scale degree, is a major seventh above the root. However, o7 and ø7 are also used. Extended chords are occasionally indicated with 9 or 13. Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords, and nonchord tones, in relation to a bass note. ... In music theory, the word inversion has several meanings. ... Extended chords are tertian chords (built from thirds) or triads with notes extended, or added, beyond the seventh, including all the thirds in between the seventh and the extended note. ...


If a chord is borrowed from the parallel key, this is usually indicated directly (e.g. IV (minor)) or explained in a footnote or accompanying text. A chord whose root is chromatically altered is sometimes written with an accidental before the Roman numeral, e.g. bII6, indicating that the flattened supertonic, a note a half step above the tonic, is the root of this chord (this particular chord, called the Neapolitan sixth, is sometimes also written N6). A borrowed chord is a chord borrowed from the parallel key. ... In music, the parallel minor of a particular major key (or the parallel major of a minor key) is the key which has the same tonic and a different key signature, as opposed to relative minor (or major, respectively). ... In music theory, a Neapolitan chord is a major chord built on the lowered second (supertonic) scale degree. ...


Unlike pop chord symbols, which are used as a guide to players, Roman numerals are used primarily as analytical tools, and so indications of inversions or added tones are sometimes omitted if they are not relevant to the analysis being performed.


Secondary dominants

When a dominant seventh chord is borrowed from another key, the Roman numeral corresponding with that key is shown after a slash. For example, V/V indicates the dominant of the dominant. In the key of C major, where the dominant (V) chord is G major, this secondary dominant is the chord on the fifth degree of the G major scale, i.e. D major. Note that while the chord built on D (ii) in the key of C major would normally be a minor chord, the V/V chord, also built on D, is major. In music, the dominant is the fifth degree of the scale. ... Secondary dominants are a kind of chord used in musical harmony. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chord symbol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1464 words)
diminished seventh chords, a diminished triad with a diminished seventh are indicated with
Although the third and seventh of the chord are always determined by the symbols shown above, the fifth, as well as the extended intervals 9, 11, and 13, may be altered through the use of accidentals along with the corresponding number of the element to be altered.
All pop-music chords are assumed to be in root position, with the root of the chord in the bass.
Chord symbol - definition of Chord symbol in Encyclopedia (246 words)
While there are consistent systems of applying chord symbols, different systems are used and may be used by the same person.
Letters may be used to indicate the note upon which the chord is built, with some people use a small and large letter to indicate minor and major, respectively.
The chord symbols for seventh chords can be found at that article.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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